Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 06


December 06 Chronology


1925 December 6 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • First net thrust by a Goddard liquid fuel rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Returning to the simple pressure feeding of the liquid propellants, to reduce weight, Goddard obtained in the Clark University Physical Laboratories a 24-sec test in which the lift was great enough to raise the rocket the last half of the run..

1937 December 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: Second launch of an A3. Same result as the first - the rocket made a quarter turn after launch, then reached only 100 m before the parachute jettisoned and the missile crashed into the sea a short distance from the launch stand..

1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19913.
  • V-2 Ma338 282 S4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.11 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 83.0 km from aim point..

1946 December 6 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wac. Launch Vehicle: WAC B. LV Configuration: WAC B 23.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1949 December 6 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1. LV Configuration: Aerobee XASR-SC-1 SC 3.
  • Air Sampling Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi). Summary: Composition research. Launched at 1132 local time. Reached 64.9 km..

1951 December 6 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal. LV Configuration: Corporal 12-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1954 December 6 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 784PO.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 December 6 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. LV Configuration: Jupiter A RS-12.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). RS-12 was launched from AMR at 1946 hours EST. The flight was successful. The actual range was 144.79 nm; .31 nm over; and 200 meters right of the intended impact point, The primary test objective was to test the complete guidance system. This was the first successful flight with the inertial guidance system. Missed aimpoint by 228,800 m.

1957 December 6 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • R-2 licensed for production in China. - . Nation: USSR. On 6 December 1957 an agreement was signed to license production of the R-2 to China. A huge team of Russian rocket engineers and technicians went to Beijing to set up the production line. This rocket provided the technological base for the subsequent Chinese rocket programs.

1957 December 6 - .
  • Death of Robert Albert Charles Esnault-Peltrie - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Esnault-Peltrie. Summary: French engineer. Pioneering spaceflight theoretician. French rocketry and spaceflight pioneer. A leading advocate of space travel, his speeches and writings created only limited enthusiasm for rocketry in France prior to WW2..

1957 December 6 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Vanguard. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard. LV Configuration: Vanguard TV-3. FAILURE: Vehicle lost thrust and exploded after 2 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Vanguard 1A - . Payload: Vanguard Test Satellite. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Vanguard. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Vanguard 1. Decay Date: 1957-12-06 . COSPAR: F571206A. Summary: First US orbital attempt. IGY Vanguard (TV-3), the first with three live stages, failed to launch a test satellite..

1958 December 6 - .
  • Soviet space industry downsized. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 1550-659 'On reorganisation of the missile and space industry' was issued..

1958 December 6 - .
1958 December 6 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18B. Launch Pad: LC18B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 145.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1958 December 6 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Juno II. LV Configuration: Juno II AM-11. FAILURE: First Stage shut down too early. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Pioneer 3 - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Pioneer. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Pioneer 3-4. Decay Date: 1958-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 111 . COSPAR: 1958-Theta-1. Failed to reach moon; provided radiation data. Pioneer III, the third U.S.-IGY intended lunar probe under the direction of NASA with the Army acting as executive agent, was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range by a Juno II rocket. The primary objective, to place the 12.95 pound scientific payload in the vicinity of the moon, failed. Pioneer III reached an altitude of approximately 70,000 miles and revealed that the earth's radiation belt comprised at least two distinct bands.

1959 December 6 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Plan for transferring the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and Saturn to NASA - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan; von Braun; Eisenhower. Program: Apollo. The initial plan for transferring the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and Saturn to NASA was drafted. It was submitted to President Dwight D. Eisenhower on December 1 1 and was signed by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker and Secretary of the Air Force James H. Douglas on December 16 and by NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan on December 17.

1960 December 6 - . 18:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-B. LV Family: Hopi. Launch Vehicle: Kiva/Hopi.
  • PHOENIX I Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi).

1960 December 6 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Rosamund Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 34.7 N x 118.1 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 2-12-23.
  • X-15A XLR-99, BCS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 16 km (9 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 3027 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16268 m..

1961 December 6 - .
  • Preliminary project plan for the Mercury Mark II program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holmes, Brainard; Seamans. Program: Gemini. Spacecraft: Gemini LOR. D. Brainerd Holmes, NASA Director of Manned Space Flight, outlined the preliminary project development plan for the Mercury Mark II program in a memorandum to NASA Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr. The primary objective of the program was to develop rendezvous techniques; important secondary objectives were long-duration flights, controlled land recovery, and astronaut training. The development of rendezvous capability, Holmes stated, was essential:

    • It offered the possibility of accomplishing a manned lunar landing earlier than by direct ascent.
    • The lunar landing maneuver would require the development of rendezvous techniques regardless of the operational mode selected for the lunar mission.
    • Rendezvous and docking would be necessary to the Apollo orbiting laboratory missions planned for the 1965-1970 period.
    The plan was approved by Seamans on December 7. The Mercury Mark II program was renamed "Gemini" on January 3, 1962.

1961 December 6 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Bacchus. Launch Pad: Bacchus?. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1961 December 6 - . Launch Site: Reggane. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C02.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1961 December 6 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LE-8. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 214.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: RAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1961 December 6 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. LV Configuration: Jupiter IRBM CM-115.
  • CTL - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). The third NATO operational control Combat Training Launch was fired from AMR at 1737 hours and 24 seconds EST to a prescribed range of 1,516 nm. The missile was well constrained to the intended flight path and within accuracy requirements of the Jupiter system. The missile impacted in the target area and all missions assigned to this test were successfully accomplished.

1962 December 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3X-6. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1962 December 6 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.109CI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1962 December 6 - . 05:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.47GA.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1962 December 6 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.66GA.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1962 December 6 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II N-11. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Titan II flight N-11, the eighth in a series being conducted by the Air Force to develop the weapon system, was launched from Cape Canaveral. It carried a design change intended to reduce the amplitude of longitudinal oscillations which had appeared during first stage operation on all seven previous Titan II flights. This phenomenon, which subsequently became known as POGO, generated g-forces as high as nine in the first stage and over three at the position on the missile corresponding to the location of the spacecraft on the Gemini launch vehicle. Fearing the potentially adverse effect on astronaut performance of such superimposed g-forces, NASA established 0.25g at 11 cycles per second as the maximum level tolerable for Gemini flights. As a first try at solving the POGO problem, Titan II N-11 carried standpipes in each leg of the stage I oxidizer feed lines to interrupt the coupling between the missile's structure and its propulsion system. This coupling was presumed to be the cause of the instability. Postflight analysis, however, revealed that the POGO fix was unsuccessful; longitudinal oscillation had actually been multiplied by a factor of two.

1963 December 6 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: HAD. LV Configuration: HAD 301.
  • Ultraviolet absorption Solar extreme ultraviolet / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1965 December 6 - .
  • Space race - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Malinovskiy; Smirnov; Ustinov. Flight: Gemini 7. Kamanin notes the Luna 8 mission, which will attempt the first soft landing on the moon the next day, and the launch of Gemini 7, which is to set a new space endurance record and make the first rendezvous in space. The Americans are clearly pulling well ahead of the Soviet Union, but Kamanin vows not to capitulate. He recaps the opposition of Malinovskiy, Smirnov, and Ustinov to manned spaceflight over the last five years. Korolev and Kamanin already wanted to build a second series of ten Vostok spacecraft in 1961, which could have been used to keep the lead in the race with America. Instead this was blocked year after year. The cosmonauts have been trained and ready for the fights aboard Vostok or Voskhod that would have kept the Soviet Union ahead in the space race; what has been lacking is the spacecraft to make the flights.

1965 December 6 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena C017.
  • USAF C017 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 December 6 - . 10:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: HAD. LV Configuration: HAD 151.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1965 December 6 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 640. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3P-42.
  • OT/GT7 target - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 6 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S139R.
  • FRANCE 1 - . Payload: FR 1. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: FRANCE. USAF Sat Cat: 1814 . COSPAR: 1965-101A. Apogee: 707 km (439 mi). Perigee: 696 km (432 mi). Inclination: 75.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. VLF wave propagation studies. Investigation of the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of the properties of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere. First registered by the United States in A/AC.105/INF.125. Orbit given there was 99 .9 min, 749 x 753 km x 75.9 deg, with note: France provided the payload for 1965-101A.

1966 December 6 - .
  • Apollo LM-to-CSM crew rescue said to be impossible - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea; Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Hatch; LM Hatch. MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations Donald K. Slayton pointed out to ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea that LM-to-CSM crew rescue was impossible. Slayton said

    1. there was no way for the portable life support system and crewman to traverse from the LM front hatch to the CSM side hatch in zero-g docked operations, because there was no restraint system or tether attach points in the vicinity of the CSM hatch to permit the crewman to stabilize himself and work to open the hatch; and
    2. there was no way to control the Apollo inner hatch (35-43 kilograms) to ensure that it would not inadvertently damage its seals, the spacecraft wiring, or the pressure bulkhead.
    Additional Details: Apollo LM-to-CSM crew rescue said to be impossible.

1966 December 6 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 CRL AE3.724.
  • Infrared technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1966 December 6 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1967 December 6 - .
  • 7K-VI cancelled. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Ustinov; Smirnov; Pashkov; Serbin; Stroganov; Keldysh. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI. Kamanin is dumbfounded. The leadership has decided to accept Mishin's recommendations, scrap the 7K-VI project, and replace it with a Soyuz variant! Mishin is an egotist, but he is supported by highly-placed leaders - Ustinov, Smirnov, Pashkov, Serbin, Stroganov, Keldysh, and others. So everyone in the space program has to dance in the service of this 'engineer-performer', who is not a credible chief designer.

1967 December 6 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.219GG.
  • Ultraviolet stellar spectra Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Tonopah. Launch Complex: Tonopah HAD4. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-110.
  • LRL BOX-13 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 16:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5A. LV Configuration: Black Brant VA CRL AF17.750D.
  • Particles Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AF07.388.
  • D / E ions Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-2.
  • ESRO C31 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1968 December 6 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena V136D.
  • USAF V136D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 December 6 - .
  • The DOS Conspiracy in the open - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Afanasyev, Sergei; Pilyugin; Ryazanskiy; Kuznetsov, Viktor; Chelomei; Ustinov. Program: Almaz; Salyut. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Almaz OPS; Salyut 1; Soyuz 7KT-OK. Afanasyev met with the Chief Designers - Pilyugin, Ryazanskiy, V Kuznetsov, and Chelomei's Deputy, Eydis. Mishin was 'sick' and Chelomei had sent his deputy, as usual, to avoid having to meet Mishin. Afanasyev started with the demand that an Almaz flight take place within less than two years, before the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan. He asked Eydis to install an Igla passive docking system to permit docking with the station of the existing Soyuz 7K-OK as opposed to the planned 7K-S. If Chelomei's bureau could not meet this requirement, then the 'conspirator's' DOS project could be authorised in its place. Additional Details: The DOS Conspiracy in the open.

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S69.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.495UM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 03:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.384GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.496UM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.497UM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.498UM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.385GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 463 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5661 . COSPAR: 1971-107A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 6 - . 10:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.392GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.394GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P83H.
  • D-region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 6 - . 17:47 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 634. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1972 December 6 - .
  • M2 Flight 41 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20820 m. Flight Time - 332 sec..

1973 December 6 - . 07:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P96A.
  • High Latitude / Barium release Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1973 December 6 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P71A.
  • High Latitude / ELF-VLF Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1973 December 6 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Trailblazer. Launch Vehicle: Trailblazer 2. LV Configuration: Trailblazer 2 CRL A21.220-1.
  • AFCRL TB2-5 Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1974 December 6 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.167UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi).

1974 December 6 - . 23:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB AMF-VB-41.
  • Cusp Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1975 December 6 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout F. LV Configuration: Scout F-1 S196C. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Explorer (56) - . Payload: DAD-A. Mass: 71 kg (156 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DAD. Decay Date: 1975-12-05 . COSPAR: F751206A. Summary: Dual Air Density; air density experiments..
  • DAD-B - . Payload: DAD-B. Nation: USA. Agency: AFSC. Program: Explorer. Spacecraft: DAD. COSPAR: F751206B.

1975 December 6 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 350. LV Configuration: Aerobee 350 NASA 17.16UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1975 December 6 - . 07:42 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. LV Configuration: Aerobee 170 NASA 13.118DG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1976 December 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1977 December 6 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT36GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 December 6 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8B AAF-NVB-03.
  • Dayside Cusp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1978 December 6 - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 HRV. LV Family: Stonechat. Launch Vehicle: Falstaff. LV Configuration: Falstaff F.3.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RAE. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1979 December 6 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 December 6 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Complex: Eglin A-15. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Tomahawk.
  • PLACES HOPE Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia; DNA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1980 December 6 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur SLV-3D. LV Configuration: SLV-3D Centaur AC-54 / Centaur D-1AR 5034.
  • Intelsat 5 F-2 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5. Completed Operations Date: 1998-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12089 . COSPAR: 1980-098A. Apogee: 36,242 km (22,519 mi). Perigee: 36,118 km (22,442 mi). Inclination: 9.7000 deg. Period: 1,456.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 21 deg W in 1981; 27 deg W in 1981-1983; 34 deg W in 1983-1985; 27 deg W in 1985; 1 deg W in 1985-1989; 21 deg W in 1989-1994; 40 deg W in 1994-1998 As of 2 September 2001 located at 103.82 deg W drifting at 5.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 81.84W drifting at 5.000W degrees per day.

1981 December 6 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVB AAF-4B-38.
  • CENTAUR Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi).

1982 December 6 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: BUGAEV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1983 December 6 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1984 December 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35S. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1985 December 6 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1988 December 6 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1988 December 6 - .
1989 December 6 - . 08:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 DLR K-GR-171.
  • TEXUS 24 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1991 December 6 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.19UE.
  • RED AIR 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi).

1991 December 6 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.20UE.
  • RED AIR 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi).

1992 December 6 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.94UU.
  • CWAS 27 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1993 December 6 - . 03:29 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-61-2 - . Crew: Thornton; Akers. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thornton; Akers. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61. Spacecraft: Endeavour; HST. Summary: Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array replacement..

1995 December 6 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V81.
  • Telecom 2C - . Mass: 2,283 kg (5,033 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23730 . COSPAR: 1995-067A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 1.1 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 3 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 5.05 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 3.02E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day..
  • Insat 2C - . Payload: Insat 2C. Mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 23731 . COSPAR: 1995-067B. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 transponders. Stationed at 92.5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.60 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 165.25W drifting at 1.757W degrees per day..

1998 December 6 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. LV Configuration: Ariane 42L-3 V114.
  • Satmex 5 - . Mass: 4,135 kg (9,116 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Satmex. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25558 . COSPAR: 1998-070A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The Ariane placed the Satmex 5 satellite into a 211km x 21516 km x 7.0 degree orbit from which the satellite was to use its on-board engine to reach geostationary orbit. Satmex 5 was operated by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V, which took over the Morelos constellation from Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Satmex 5 replaced Morelos 2 and carried the XIPS ion engine station-keeping system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 116.79 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 116.81W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

1998 December 6 - . 00:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F25.
  • SWAS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SWAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25560 . COSPAR: 1998-071A. Apogee: 611 km (379 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 96.80 min. On December 3 the Orbital Sciences L-1011 Stargazer took off from Vandenberg AFB Runway 30/12 carrying a Pegasus XL launch vehicle with the SWAS satellite aboard. It reached the drop box at 36.0N 123.0W over the Pacific, but due to a software-related problem the range ordered the launch scrubbed and the L-1011 returned to base. After a further delay due to weather, the L-1011 took off at 23:58 GMT on December 5 and SWAS reached orbit and separated from the third stage at 01:09 GMT. SWAS, the Sub-millimetre Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz sub-millimetre receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. SWAS was used to study the cooling of molecular cloud cores, the sites of star formation in our galaxy, by measuring lines from molecular oxygen and water.

1999 December 6 - .
  • Mir News 471: Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. ESHCHO V ZHIVYKH:

    Though I have no longer a direct 'entry' on board of the Mir-space station, there is still a lot to report. Every day the orbit of the complex looses a few hundred meters and the station is loosing a little bit of air. Confirmation that Mir is still alive can be derived from the fact that during some passes every day the telemetry can be monitored via the 638, 166 and 165 mc bands. I did not yet find the key to decipher those rattles. Regretfully the famous World War-2 Enigma-code crackers of Bletchley Park near London cannot help any more. Good sources, which have insight in that what the telemetry has to report, told me that all is going reasonable well. The complex is still flying in free drift and slowly spinning around the X- and Y-axes with an angular speed of 0.15 degrees/sec. If needed the B.U.P.O. can be activated to control the movements of the complex with the use of steering rockets and the external thruster VDU. It is also possible to use the steering devices of the freighter Progress-M42 for that purpose. This freighter can also be used to correct the orbit of the complex. This might take place one of these days, even already today. At about 1.12.1999 the per/apogee were respectively 322.3 and 325.9KM. The data TsUP derived from telemetry about the thermoregulation, the humidity, the power supply (accumulator batteries loaded by some solar panels) and about the already mentioned attitude show no anomalies. The slow but gradual loss of air pressure still gives concern. On high level especially the head of RAKA, Koptev, uses this problem as an argument against the eventual prolongation of the Mir-exploitation.

    Mir's fate in 2000 still unsure: In the field of the policy makers for Mir's future 2 huge organisations have totally opposite points of view. These organisations are the RAKA (so: the Russian NASA) and Mir's owner RKK Energiya. Recently RKK Energiya got support from the Duma. The Duma gave permission to use money earned from spaceflight activities and for which Russia is the rightful claimant, so no money from the public treasury. RKK Energiya is hoping for the American project to use an electrodynamic tether as a counter action to suppress the natural drag. To make this possible the project has to be realised by attaching the 7 KM long tether at the Kristall module during an EVA by cosmonauts.

    Koptev, however, has another opinion. He states that every rouble which can be used for Russian spaceflight has to be invested in the Russian obligations for the International Space Station. He is responsible that Russia fulfils her promises in international co-operation. Russia's contribution to the ISS is the only way to survive as one of the greatest spaceflight nations in the world. In his opinion it is not realistic to exploit Mir for 1 or 2 years more and thus loosing influence in the development of ISS. He also warns for the dangers which an uncontrolled Mir-complex might mean for humanity. He emphasises that the mysterious leakage of air makes further exploitation irresponsible.

    Reasonable reliable assessments based on information from good sources:

    There is still hope, but the promised funding by the Duma is far from sure. In this respect there has not been a single officially confirmed action in that respect.

    There are still tentative plans for the beginning of 2000, which would make it necessary to raise Mir's orbit by a Progress. Towards the end of January 2000 (perhaps on 24.01.2000) the tanker Progress-M1 will be launched to Mir. This tanker can be used to put the complex on the final destruction course into the atmosphere for decay over the designated area East of New Zealand.

    The Russians hope to send Main Expedition 28 (Zalyotin and Kaleri) to Mir in April 2000. Definitely without the movie actor Steklov. This mission will last 2 months.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


2000 December 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-157 MLV-11.
  • USA 155 - . Payload: Capricorn 2? / MLV-11 'Great Bear'. Mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: SDS-3. USAF Sat Cat: 26635 . COSPAR: 2000-080A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Classified satellite. Launch delayed 24 hours by RL10 engine problem in upper stage. USA 155 was a classified National Reconnaissance Office satellite. The Centaur placed the payload in a 176 x 831 km parking orbit and then in a 270 x 37490 km x 26.5 deg geostationary transfer orbit. The spacecraft was probably either a data relay satellite (to relay spy satellite imagery and data to the ground) and/or a signals intelligence satellite.

2001 December 6 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.188UL.
  • WISP 5 comet study Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2002 December 6 - .
2007 December 6 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 12/06/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1; STS-122. Today's launch of STS-122/Atlantis on Mission ISS-1E was postponed due to failure indications of two (of four) engine cut-off sensors in the Liquid Hydrogen tank during early-morning tanking operations.

    The next liftoff opportunity is tomorrow, Friday, at 4:09pm EST.

    Aboard the space station, FE-2 Dan Tani again accessed the SLEEP experiment (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight) software after wakeup and before breakfast, for data logging, completing questionnaire entries in the experiment's laptop session file on the HRF-1 laptop for later downlink. (To monitor the crewmember's sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, Dan wears a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him as well as his patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days, as part of the crew's discretionary 'job jar' task list.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 12/06/07.


2009 December 6 - . 01:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Medium+ (5.4).
  • USA 211 - . Payload: WGS 3. Mass: 5,990 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 702. USAF Sat Cat: 36108 . COSPAR: 2009-068A. Apogee: 64,827 km (40,281 mi). Perigee: 31,268 km (19,428 mi). Inclination: 0.6000 deg. Period: 2,106.00 min. Summary: US Army Wideband Global Satcom, carried X-band and Ka-band communications payloads..

2010 December 6 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-3. FAILURE: Block DM-3 upper stage was loaded with 1500 kg excess liquid oxygen in error. This caused a 100 m/s shortfall in the third stage burn into parking orbit. The upper stages and payload reentered over the Pacific.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Glonass-M - . Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 2010-F03A. Summary: The launch was to have allowed the Glonass communications network to receive full operational status after a multi-year replenishment effort. The failure led to several high-level sackings..
  • Glonass-M - . Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 2010-F03B.
  • Glonass-M - . Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 2010-F03C.

2010 December 6 - . 17:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion. LV Configuration: Improved Orion s/n V03.
  • Maracati 2 - . Nation: Brazil. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi). Summary: Range test prior to Microg 1A launch..
  • NASA 41.087NT - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Summary: JPL technology mission to refine methods for planetary lander terrain recognition..

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