Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 18


December 18 Chronology


1900 December 18 - .
  • Birth of Benjamin Chidlaw - . Nation: USA. Summary: American officer. Deputy, Material Command, 1945-1949; commanded several USAF research and development organizations 1949-1955..

1919 December 18 - .
  • Birth of Kenneth P Timmons - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer. Headed the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter and External Tank projects..

1932 December 18 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Magdeburg Project - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. Mengering, an engineer working for the city of Magdeburg, is entranced by the theories of Peter Bender, who proposes that the people of the earth are in fact living on the inside surface of a hollow sphere. He believes that this can be proven. A rocket fired vertically from Magdeburg should impact south of New Zealand. Mengering convinces the city authorities to fund experiments leading to this objective. Nebel, now a member of the Nazi Party, obtains a contract of 25,000 Marks for the first step. He will build a rocket that will carry a man to an altitude of one kilometre, from where the pilot will bail out and return to earth by parachute. The rocket is to be fired on 11 June 1933 in a huge event publicizing the city. The Pilot Rocket would be in the form of the VfR Repulsors, with the passenger in a bullet-shaped fairing over the engine compartment, and the propellants being stored in two long cylindrical tanks trailing the engine. It was to be 7.6 m tall and powered by an engine of 600 kgf. A prototype was to be built first, 4.6 m tall, powered by a 200 kgf motor. This would not be capable of carrying a pilot, but would have a parachute for recovery.

1934 December 18 - .
1936 December 18 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0010 km (0.0006 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with a pressure storage tank; rocket turned sharply to the right soon after it emerged from the tower, and proceeded at 150 angle above the horizontal until it landed 2000 ft from tower; noise heard at ranch house, 8 miles away..

1944 December 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1946 December 18 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17.
  • CR / Grenades Chemical release / meteor test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Summary: Launched 22:18 local time. Reached 183.9 km. Carried cosmic radiation, meteorites; biological (National Institute of Health) experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1951 December 18 - .
1951 December 18 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 73R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1952 December 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • D18 F100 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 December 18 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 422N.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 December 18 - .
1958 December 18 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas B. LV Configuration: Atlas B 10B.
  • Score - . Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Score. Decay Date: 1959-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10 . COSPAR: 1958-Zeta-1. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.3000 deg. Period: 101.50 min. Summary: Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment; first commsat; transmitted taped messages for 13 days..

1959 December 18 - . Launch Site: North Atlantic Drop Zone. LV Family: Hound Dog. Launch Vehicle: Hound Dog. LV Configuration: Hound Dog 007.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1961 December 18 - .
  • OKB-10 made an independent design bureau. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: State Committee for Defence Technology (GKOT) Decree 'On establishment of the independent OKB-10 at Krasnoyarsk-26 on the basis of OKB-1's Branch No. 2' was issued..

1961 December 18 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 406.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 December 18 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8. LV Configuration: Kappa 8 K-8-11.
  • Cosmic rays mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1962 December 18 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg OSTF1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 64E. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • NTMP K-4 ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1962 December 18 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AC3.139.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Mon / RPA Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1963 December 18 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 233D.
  • ABRES LORV-8 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1963 December 18 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 227D / Agena D S01A 4802.
  • KH 7-04 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 4. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1963-12-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 711 . COSPAR: 1963-051A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 122 km (75 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1963 December 18 - . 22:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg OSTF2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 109F.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1964 December 18 - .
  • North American delivered Apollo CM 001 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: North American delivered spacecraft 001's CM to White Sands. The SM was shipped several days later, and would be used for propulsion engine development. Aerojet-General shipped the service propulsion engine to the facility on January 6, 1965..

1964 December 18 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Martin-Baltimore removed the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 from storage. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 6. Cleaning the tanks and purging them with nitrogen was completed February 5, 1965. Aerojet-General delivered the flight engines for GLV-6 February 1. Tank splicing was completed February 23, engine installation, February 25. GLV-6 horizontal testing was completed April 3.

1964 December 18 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Bacchus. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Rubis. LV Configuration: Rubis R4. FAILURE: Failure.
  • A-1 capsule test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1964 December 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1057.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • K OT? operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 18 - .
  • VPK Emergency Meeting - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Pashkov; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Smirnov calls the Military Industrial Commission and the Chief Designers together to consider Pashkov's letter and how to respond to the American Gemini successes. Korolev is ill and unable to attend. His deputies are unable to provide any firm schedule for completion and fight of Voskhod or Soyuz spacecraft. Soviet projections are that over the next year the Americans will fly manned missions of 20 to 30 days duration and conduct many military experiments from manned spacecraft. It is decided that a crash effort needs to be applied to Soyuz development. However no further Voskhods will be built beyond the five already being assembled, but those Voskhods will be dedicated to setting record duration flights of 15 to 30 days and conducting military experiments.

1965 December 18 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.69II.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1965 December 18 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-17.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi).

1965 December 18 - .
  • Landing of Gemini 7 - . Return Crew: Borman; Lovell. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Borman; Lovell. Program: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 7. Summary: Gemini 7 landed at 14:05 GMT only 11.8 km from the target point after a record 14 day mission...

1966 December 18 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Beatrice. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Cora. LV Configuration: Cora G2.
  • - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi). Summary: Only completely successful test..

1967 December 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1114.
  • FOT GT01B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 December 18 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique 61M. LV Configuration: Veronique 61M 61M/83.
  • FU-159 PERSEE? Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi). Summary: No recovery. FU159 UV astronomy / Stab mission..

1968 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • RGCh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 December 18 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB AKD-VB-21.
  • Calgary auroral Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi).

1969 December 18 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1969 December 18 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT58M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1970 December 18 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 388 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 43. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1971-05-12 . Decay Date: 1971-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4811 . COSPAR: 1970-112A. Apogee: 505 km (313 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 December 18 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 389 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2003-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4813 . COSPAR: 1970-113A. Apogee: 568 km (352 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1972 December 18 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1973 December 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 13 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33A. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Lebedev; Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 13. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.87 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6982 . COSPAR: 1973-103A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems.

1974 December 18 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT121M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1974 December 18 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DLR G-BB4-65 PolCusp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 December 18 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P166G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 December 18 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P167G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 December 18 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-256.
  • Cosmos 698 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7576 . COSPAR: 1974-100A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 515 km (320 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 549. Possible ELINT satellite..

1975 December 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • ISRO 8.227? - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 December 18 - . LV Family: Energia. Launch Vehicle: Energia.
  • Soviet Presidium directs co-operation on Buran - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tsybin. Spacecraft: Buran. Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On course of work on Energia-Buran' was issued. The declaration of the Presidium directed co-operation between all concerned user, research, and factory organisations in realising the project. Chief Constructor within NPO Energia was I N Sadovskiy. Chief Designer for the launch vehicle was Y P Kolyako and for the orbiter P V Tsybin. NPO Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine would build the booster rockets.

1977 December 18 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1978 December 18 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1979 December 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.15UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1980 December 18 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1981 December 18 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1984 December 18 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1985 December 18 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki PWN-12A /SUPE.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1986 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1809 - . Payload: AUOS-Z Ionozond-E s/n 501. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 17241 . COSPAR: 1986-101A. Apogee: 961 km (597 mi). Perigee: 941 km (584 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. Summary: Development of research apparatus and methods of remote sensing and monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere, and also study of the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere. .

1988 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1989 December 18 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1990 December 18 - . 03:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Super Chief. Launch Vehicle: Starbird.
  • LACE UVPI Target Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 25 - . Payload: AUOS-Z APEKS-IK s/n 301. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 21819 . COSPAR: 1991-086A. Apogee: 2,969 km (1,844 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.50 min. Solar activity monitoring; hosted experiments from Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary. Comprehensive study of the effects of artificial impact of modulated electron flows and plasma beams on the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (forming part of the Apex international scientific project, conducted jointly with Bulgaria, Czechoslovak ia, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania.) Launched with the Czechoslovak satellite Magion-3, separated from the space object Intercosmos-25 on 28 Dec 1991, in accordance with the scientific programme of the Apex project.
  • Magion 3 - . Payload: S2-AP. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 21835 . COSPAR: 1991-086E. Apogee: 2,943 km (1,828 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.20 min. Separated from Intercosmos 25 on 12/28/91; geophysical. Research of magnetosphere nad the ionosphere of the Earth by passive and active methods. Launched on 18 Dec 1991. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 3 forms, together with the spacecraft Intercosmos 25, part of the Apex scientific project. Magion 3 was sep arated into an autonomous orbit on 28 Dec 1991. Magion 3 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 25.

1992 December 18 - . LV Family: VKS. Launch Vehicle: VKS-DM.
  • First flight of Molniya-1 triplane. - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Subscale proof-of-concept vehicle for Gerakl / Molniya-1000 catamaran subsonic 900 tonne aircraft design that would be used for VKS-DM spaceplane..

1992 December 18 - . 22:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D217.
  • USA 87 - . Payload: GPS 2A-17 / GPS SVN 29. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22275 . COSPAR: 1992-089A. Apogee: 20,324 km (12,628 mi). Perigee: 20,038 km (12,451 mi). Inclination: 54.7000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane F Slot 5..

1993 December 18 - . 01:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L+ V62.
  • DBS 1 - . Mass: 2,860 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DirecTV. Program: DirecTV. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22930 . COSPAR: 1993-078A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 101.2 deg W. DirecTV, Inc. is a subsidiary of Hughes Communications and offers commercial satellite television service to the US. The orbital part of the system consists of 3 Hughes-built geosynchronous satellites. Broadcast services began in mid-1994. Competitors include the similar Primestar and USSB services, as well as older C-band satellite services and cable TV companies. Spacecraft: DirecTV uses the Hughes HS-601 spacecraft design.3-Axis stabilised, zero momentum biased control system. Two solar arrays (4 panels each side) span 31 meters and generate 4.3 kW power. Payload: The 2.5 m diameter graphite transmit reflector performs beam shaping.16 x 120 watt Ka-Band (12.2 - 12.7 GHz) transponders with 48-53 dBw EIRP and 24 MHz bandwidth. Power is higher in areas with heavy rain. The high power combined with Reed Solomon error correction coding allow the use of small 18 inch antennas by customers.
    Financial/Operational:
    FCC approved Direct Broadcast Satellites in 1986. By 1997 DirecTV had 2.6 million of 5.0 million US direct broadcast television subscribers. Direct Broadcast Satellites cost $ 175 million each and have 150 video channels. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1994-1999; 110 deg W in 1999-2000 As of 6 September 2001 located at 109.78 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 72.51W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.
  • Thaicom - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 22931 . COSPAR: 1993-078B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1994-1997; 120 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 120.00 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.92E drifting at 0.025W degrees per day..

1995 December 18 - . 14:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 647.
  • Progress M-30 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 230. Mass: 7,068 kg (15,582 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 65.85 days. Decay Date: 1996-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 23744 . COSPAR: 1995-070A. Apogee: 409 km (254 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 20 Dec 1995 16:10:15 GMT. Undocked on 22 Feb 1996 07:30:02 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 22 Feb 1996 11:02:36 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 63.64 days..

1996 December 18 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-129.
  • Inmarsat 3 F3 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24674 . COSPAR: 1996-070A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 157.6E. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with RAAN Cntl trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 178 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.02 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 178.19E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1997 December 18 - . Launch Vehicle: Beal BA-2.
  • Beal signs agreement for use of Sombrero Island as launch site - . Nation: USA. Summary: The island was 56 km north-west of Anguilla, well located for due-east, north and north-east launches for all orbit inclinations of commercial interest. The agreement provided for exclusive use of Sombrero Island for up to 98 years..

1997 December 18 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 743. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 DASO-16.
  • 77ss - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 December 18 - .
  • Cosmonaut Lev Stepanovich Demin dies at age of 72 -- Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Demin. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 15..

1999 December 18 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-141.
  • Terra - . Payload: EOS-AM1. Mass: 4,854 kg (10,701 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Terra. USAF Sat Cat: 25994 . COSPAR: 1999-068A. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: First launch in NASA's Earth Observing System program. Terra carried multispectral imagers, a radiation budget instrument, a detector to measure CO and methane pollution, and an instrument to study cloud top and vegetation properties..

2001 December 18 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 FCET-53.
  • OT-III (223) operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 December 18 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 FCET-53.
  • OT-III Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 December 18 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 FCET-53.
  • OT-III (225) operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 December 18 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 726. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 FCET-53.
  • OT-III (224) operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 December 18 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: HYSR.
  • SOAREX-2 Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi). First test flight of a large hybrid propulsion system. The Suborbital Aerodynamic Reentry Experiment payload, a joint project between Ames and Wallops, included a 'wave rider' flying wedge, a linear aerobrake (or hypersonic parachute), and a Slotted Compression Ramp Probe (SCRAMP), a super stable planetary reentry probe. The wedge was 127 centimeters long and was to free fly like a glider after deployment.

2003 December 18 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas 3B SEC. LV Configuration: Atlas 3B-SEC AC-203.
  • USA 174 - . Payload: UFO F/O F11. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 28117 . COSPAR: 2003-057A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 4.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: The last UHF Follow-On communications satellite for the US Navy. The satellite provided fleet communications from geostationary orbit..

2004 December 18 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5Gp. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G+ V165 (520).
  • Helios 2A - . Mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Program: Helios. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Helios 2. USAF Sat Cat: 28492 . COSPAR: 2004-049A. Apogee: 690 km (420 mi). Perigee: 688 km (427 mi). Inclination: 98.0770 deg. Period: 98.39 min. Summary: First of two new-generation French military surveillance satellites. Last flight of Ariane 5G model. Launch delayed from December 10..
  • Parasol - . Mass: 125 kg (275 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 28498 . COSPAR: 2004-049G. Apogee: 673 km (418 mi). Perigee: 659 km (409 mi). Inclination: 98.0780 deg. Period: 97.91 min. Parasol carried a wide-field imaging radiometer/polarimeter called POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances), designed in partnership with the LOA atmospheric optics laboratory in Lille (CNRS-USTL). POLDER was designed to improve the knowledge of the radiative and microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols by measuring the directionality and polarization of light reflected by the Earth-atmosphere system.
  • Essaim 1 - . Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 28494 . COSPAR: 2004-049C. Apogee: 673 km (418 mi). Perigee: 663 km (411 mi). Inclination: 98.0760 deg. Period: 97.96 min. The Essaim demonstrator was a system of several micro-satellites (Essaim means 'swarm' in French) for 'analysis of the electro-magnetic environment of the Earth's surface' (electronic intelligence). DGA, the French Ministry of Defence's procurement agency, developed the project. The system also comprised a ground control segment and a ground station for data processing. It was called a 'demonstrator' since the mission's objective was to assess the operational capability of such a system, paving the way for the next generation. The Essaim satellites were based on EADS Astrium's Myriade multipurpose micro-satellite. In early 2000, the DGA awarded the contract for the development, manufacturing of this turnkey system of micro-satellites and associated ground segment. Under the contract, EADS Astrium was also responsible for personnel training and system operations during the three-year life duration of the programme.
  • Essaim 2 - . Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 28495 . COSPAR: 2004-049D. Apogee: 664 km (412 mi). Perigee: 657 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.
  • Essaim 3 - . Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 28496 . COSPAR: 2004-049E. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 654 km (406 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.
  • Essaim 4 - . Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 28497 . COSPAR: 2004-049F. Apogee: 670 km (410 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.
  • Nanosat 01 - . Mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Arianespace. Manufacturer: INTA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Nanosat 01. USAF Sat Cat: 28493 . COSPAR: 2004-049B. Apogee: 666 km (413 mi). Perigee: 658 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: Experimental nanosat built by the Spanish space agency (INTA)..

2006 December 18 - .
2007 December 18 - . 09:50 GMT - .
  • EVA ISS EO-16-4 - . Crew: Whitson; Tani. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Whitson; Tani. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16. Summary: The astronauts inspected the malfunctioning solar array rotation joint and beta gimbal assembly..

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use