Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 21


December 21 Chronology


1879 December 21 - .
1906 December 21 - .
  • Birth of Grigoriy Ivanovich Voronin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1939-1985 of OKB-124. Specialised in life support systems for spacecraft..

1932 December 21 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket test stand explosion at Kummersdorf. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: No one was injured and more stringent safety precautions were taken in the future..

1943 December 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-059.
  • V-2 4059 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+33 seconds. Flight duration 104 seconds..

1944 December 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19186.
  • V-2 U1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 2.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.9 km from aim point..

1945 December 21 - .
1950 December 21 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1955 December 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 December 21 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Atlas 1A destroyed in test. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Missile 1A burned on second run at S-l with stand damage.

1957 December 21 - .
  • Implementation of the Dyna-Soar program. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: ARDC headquarters issued System Development Directive 464L, directing the implementation of the Dyna-Soar program..

1959 December 21 - .
  • STL completes study on an anti-satellite systems - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: SAINT; SAINT II. Summary: Space Technologies Laboratory completed a USAF-funded feasibility study on the topic..

1959 December 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 21 - . Launch Site: North Atlantic Drop Zone. LV Family: Hound Dog. Launch Vehicle: Hound Dog. LV Configuration: Hound Dog 031.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1961 December 21 - . LV Family: Nova; Saturn V.
  • Saturn C-5 launch vehicle configuration selected - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Rosen, Milton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing. Rosen Committee studies in November and December indicated that the most flexible choice for Apollo was the Saturn C-4, with two required for the earth orbit rendezvous approach or one for the lunar orbit rendezvous mission, with a smaller landed payload. The panel rejected solid motors again, but Rosen himself still pushed for Nova. An extra F-1 engine was 'slid in' for insurance, resulting in the Saturn C-5 configuration. The Manned Space Flight Management Council decided at its first meeting that the Saturn C-5 launch vehicle would have a first stage configuration of five F-1 engines and a second stage configuration of five J-2 engines. The third stage would be the S-IVB with one J-2 engine. It recommended that the contractor for stage integration of the Saturn C-1 be Chrysler Corporation and that the contractor for stage integration of the Saturn C-5 be The Boeing Company. Contractor work on the Saturn C-5 should proceed immediately to provide a complete design study and a detailed development plan before letting final contracts and assigning large numbers of contractor personnel to Marshall Space Flight Center or Michoud.

1961 December 21 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 6F. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development test / Pod 15, 25 chemical release / ionosphere / meteorite mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1. FAILURE: Second stage failed 354 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-1 s/n 1 - . Payload: DS-1. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-1. COSPAR: F611221A. Second attempted launch of Cosmos 63S1 small launch vehicle 2LK with a DS-1 satgellite. This time the new second stage failed. The oxidiser was exhausted before orbital velocity could be reached due to uncontrolled pumping of liquid oxygen into the combustion chamber. The upper stage and satellite impacted in the Kurile Islands. An Expert Commission headed by Ustinov was convened to review the program.

1961 December 21 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.64GA.
  • Structure Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1962 December 21 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate (BP) 3 delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. Summary: North American delivered CM boilerplate (BP) 3, to Northrop Ventura, for installation of an earth-landing system. BP-3 was scheduled to undergo parachute tests at El Centro, Calif., during early 1963..

1963 December 21 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Bacchus. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Topaze VE111L. LV Configuration: Topaze VE111L L1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1963 December 21 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta B. LV Configuration: Thor Delta B 371/D22.
  • Tiros 8 - . Payload: Tiros H (A-53). Mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 716 . COSPAR: 1963-054A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 667 km (414 mi). Inclination: 58.5000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Returned more than 100,000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 December 21 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2A Agena D 398 / Agena D 1168.
  • KH-4 9062 - . Payload: KH-4 s/n 9062 / Agena D 1168. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1964-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 718 . COSPAR: 1963-055A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: KH-4; deployed ELINT subsatellite. Corona static fogged much of film..
  • P-11 motor - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1964-01-08 . COSPAR: 1963-055xx.
  • Hitch Hiker 3 - . Payload: P-11 s/n A4. Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1964-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 719 . COSPAR: 1963-055B. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Summary: Radar monitoring..

1964 December 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C. LV Configuration: Thor Delta C 393/D27.
  • Explorer 26 - . Payload: EPE D - 661A Flight 21-3. Mass: 46 kg (101 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: EPE. Decay Date: 1978-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 963 . COSPAR: 1964-086A. Apogee: 10,043 km (6,240 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 19.8000 deg. Period: 205.70 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1964 December 21 - . 19:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2A Agena D 425 / Agena D SS-01A 2355.
  • OPS 3762/Agena D 2355 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Program: ELINT. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1965-01-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 964 . COSPAR: 1964-087A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 238 km (147 mi). Inclination: 70.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Unknown mission. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1965 December 21 - .
  • Robert C Seamans, Jr becomes Deputy Administrator of NASA - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans; Webb. Program: Apollo. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., was sworn in as Deputy Administrator of NASA, succeeding Hugh L. Dryden who died December 2. Seamans would also retain his present position as Associate Administrator for an indefinite period of time.

    NASA Administrator James E. Webb administered the oath of office. He had announced in Austin, Tex., on December 10, that President Lyndon B. Johnson had accepted his recommendation that Seamans be named to the number two NASA post.


1965 December 21 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1965 December 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 3C-8.
  • Transtage 8 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Spacecraft: OV2. Decay Date: 1975-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1863 . COSPAR: 1965-108xx. Apogee: 22,114 km (13,740 mi). Perigee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 26.9000 deg. Period: 387.40 min.

1965 December 21 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1.
  • Cosmos 101 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 4. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1966-03-11 . Decay Date: 1966-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 1846 . COSPAR: 1965-107A. Apogee: 533 km (331 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 48.8000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1965 December 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 3C-8.
  • OV2-03 - . Mass: 193 kg (425 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV2. Decay Date: 1975-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1863 . COSPAR: 1965-108A. Apogee: 22,846 km (14,195 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 26.8000 deg. Period: 399.30 min. Summary: Upper stage separation failed. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Oscar 4 - . Mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: OSCAR. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. Decay Date: 1976-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 1902 . COSPAR: 1965-108C. Apogee: 33,549 km (20,846 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 26.8000 deg. Period: 587.50 min. OSCAR IV was launched piggyback with three United States Air Force satellites. The launch vehicle had a partial failure and placed the spacecraft in a low orbit preventing widespread amateur use. Orbit 29120 x 168 km. Inclination 26.8 degrees. Period 587.5 minutes. Weight 18.1 kg. Four monopole antennas. OSCAR IV was built by the TRW Radio Club of Redondo Beach, California. It had a 3 Watt 10 kHz wide linear transponder (144 MHz uplink and 432 MHz downlink). In operation until March 16, 1966. Re-entry April 12, 1976. Total operation 85 days. OSCAR IV provided the first US-Soviet amateur link.
  • LES 4 - . Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: LES. Decay Date: 1977-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1870 . COSPAR: 1965-108B. Apogee: 33,632 km (20,897 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 26.6000 deg. Period: 589.20 min. Summary: Lincoln Experimental Satellite; experimental commsat; transmitted in X-band. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • LES 3 - . Mass: 16 kg (35 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: LES. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1941 . COSPAR: 1965-108D. Apogee: 4,829 km (3,000 mi). Perigee: 267 km (165 mi). Inclination: 26.5000 deg. Period: 139.90 min. Summary: Radio signal source for commsat tests. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1966 December 21 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-45.
  • Luna 13 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 205. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6M. Decay Date: 1966-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2626 . COSPAR: 1966-116A. Soft landed on Moon 24 December 1966 at 18:01:00 GMT, Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The petal encasement of the spacecraft was opened, antennas were erected, and radio transmissions to Earth began four minutes after the landing. On December 25 and 26, 1966, the spacecraft television system transmitted panoramas of the nearby lunar landscape at different sun angles. Each panorama required approximately 100 minutes to transmit. The spacecraft was equipped with a mechanical soil-measuring penetrometer, a dynamograph, and a radiation densitometer for obtaining data on the mechanical and physical properties and the cosmic-ray reflectivity of the lunar surface. It is believed that transmissions from the spacecraft ceased before the end of December 1966.

1966 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1966 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1966 December 21 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1.
  • Cosmos 137 - . Payload: DS-U2-D s/n 1. Mass: 295 kg (650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-D. Completed Operations Date: 1969-05-12 . Decay Date: 1967-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2627 . COSPAR: 1966-117A. Apogee: 1,718 km (1,067 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 48.8000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. Summary: Studied charged particle flows..

1966 December 21 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3. LV Configuration: Atlas SLV-3 7001.
  • Prime 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi). The first test of the X-23A SV-5D lifting body re-entry shape. It was a zero cross-range suborbital flight, with recovery 6935 km downrange. The ballute deployed at 30.440 m, followed by the main parachute at 13,700 m, and the vehicle was descending within 275 m of the target point. Nevertheless the air-snatch was unsuccessful, and the vehicle sank. However 90% of the planned telemetry was successfully transmitted by radio.

1967 December 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas/Trident F. LV Configuration: Atlas F/Trident 117F.
  • RMP-B-4 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1968 December 21 - .
  • Soviets sure to lose moon race - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Summary: Kamanin meets with Kuznetsov. The reasons for the Soviet Union lagging in the space race are rehashed - use of automated instead of piloted systems, etc..

1968 December 21 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02. LV Configuration: SSBS S02 V1.
  • S02V-1 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 December 21 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.178UG.
  • Cornell FIR tel Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1968 December 21 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-503.
  • Apollo 8 - . Call Sign: Apollo 8. Crew: Anders; Borman; Lovell. Backup Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Payload: Apollo CSM 103 / LTA-B / S-IVB-503N. Mass: 28,833 kg (63,565 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anders; Borman; Lovell; Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 6.13 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 3626 . COSPAR: 1968-118A. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Apollo 8 (AS-503) was launched from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, at 7:51 a.m. EST Dec. 21 on a Saturn V booster. The spacecraft crew was made up of Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders. Apollo 8 was the first spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn V with a crew on board, and that crew became the first men to fly around the moon.

    All launch and boost phases were normal and the spacecraft with the S-IVB stage was inserted into an earth-parking orbit of 190.6 by 183.2 kilometers above the earth. After post-insertion checkout of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB stage was reignited and burned 5 minutes 9 seconds to place the spacecraft and stage in a trajectory toward the moon - and the Apollo 8 crew became the first men to leave the earth's gravitational field.

    The spacecraft separated from the S-IVB 3 hours 20 minutes after launch and made two separation maneuvers using the SM's reaction control system. Eleven hours after liftoff, the first midcourse correction increased velocity by 26.4 kilometers per hour. The coast phase was devoted to navigation sightings, two television transmissions, and system checks. The second midcourse correction, about 61 hours into the flight, changed velocity by 1.5 kilometers per hour.

    The 4-minute 15-second lunar-orbit-insertion maneuver was made 69 hours after launch, placing the spacecraft in an initial lunar orbit of 310.6 by 111.2 kilometers from the moon's surface - later circularized to 112.4 by 110.6 kilometers. During the lunar coast phase the crew made numerous landing-site and landmark sightings, took lunar photos, and prepared for the later maneuver to enter the trajectory back to the earth.

    On the fourth day, Christmas Eve, communications were interrupted as Apollo 8 passed behind the moon, and the astronauts became the first men to see the moon's far side. Later that day , during the evening hours in the United States, the crew read the first 10 verses of Genesis on television to earth and wished viewers "goodnight, good luck, a Merry Christmas and God bless all of you - all of you on the good earth."

    Subsequently, TV Guide for May 10-16, 1969, claimed that one out of every four persons on earth - nearly 1 billion people in 64 countries - heard the astronauts' reading and greeting, either on radio or on TV; and delayed broadcasts that same day reached 30 additional countries.

    On Christmas Day, while the spacecraft was completing its 10th revolution of the moon, the service propulsion system engine was fired for three minutes 24 seconds, increasing the velocity by 3,875 km per hr and propelling Apollo 8 back toward the earth, after 20 hours 11 minutes in lunar orbit. More television was sent to earth on the way back.


1970 December 21 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, AN/DMQ-9 - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1971 December 21 - .
  • Meteor-Priroda satellite authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Summary: Decree 'On expansion of Work on Research of the Earth's Natural Resources by Space Systems' was issued..

1972 December 21 - .
  • Zenit-4MKT authorised - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Summary: Decree of 21 December 1972 started work on this replacement to the Meteor-Priroda system. The spacecraft was an adaptation of the recoverable Zenit/Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing..

1972 December 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Last M2-F3 flight, also highest. Maximum Speed - 1377 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21790 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1972 December 21 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M Yu149-43.
  • Cosmos 539 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 6319 . COSPAR: 1972-102A. Apogee: 1,379 km (856 mi). Perigee: 1,342 km (833 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 112.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 December 21 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 24B. LV Configuration: Titan 24B 24B-6 (3B-40).
  • OPS 3978 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 37 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1973-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6321 . COSPAR: 1972-103A. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 139 km (86 mi). Inclination: 110.5000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1973 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 625 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6995 . COSPAR: 1973-105A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 December 21 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-11 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1988-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7583 . COSPAR: 1974-102A. Apogee: 40,065 km (24,895 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1974 December 21 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 December 21 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, AN/DMQ-9- - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1976 December 21 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1977 December 21 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 970 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1977-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10531 . COSPAR: 1977-121A. Apogee: 1,138 km (707 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 105.90 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 970 target. Ordered to self-destruct following interception..

1978 December 21 - .
1979 December 21 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 December 21 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1982 December 21 - . 02:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 60E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • AMS 5 - . Payload: DMSP S-6 / OPS 9845. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. USAF Sat Cat: 13736 . COSPAR: 1982-118A. Apogee: 810 km (500 mi). Perigee: 797 km (495 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.90 min. Summary: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1983 December 21 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 3-22 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 35. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1993-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 14570 . COSPAR: 1983-123A. Apogee: 39,819 km (24,742 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 710.50 min. Replaced Molniya 3-16. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.

1984 December 21 - . 09:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-1 325-02.
  • Vega 2 - . Payload: 5VK s/n 902. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Vega 5VK. USAF Sat Cat: 15449 . COSPAR: 1984-128A. Investigations of the planet Venus and Halley's Comet. The APV-V plasma antenna did not deploy until the first mid-course correction burn. Deployed lander and balloon at Venus on June 14, 1985. The surface experiments of the lander failed to send back data because they were inadvertently switched on at an altitude of 20 km. Apparently high winds activated a G-force sensor that was to automatically switch on the surface package after the jolt of touchdown. The bus continued in heliocentric orbit and rendezvoused with comet Halley on March 9, 1986. The images of the comet were nearly lost when a television sensor failed shortly before the flyby. A back-up sensor was activated just in time. Fitted with scientific apparatus and equipment built in the USSR, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, France, Federal Republic of Germany and C zechoslovakia.

1987 December 21 - . 11:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
1987 December 21 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1903 - . Payload: Oko #55. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 18701 . COSPAR: 1987-105A. Apogee: 33,733 km (20,960 mi). Perigee: 6,634 km (4,122 mi). Inclination: 67.7000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 196 degree longitude of ascending node. It was reported that prior to this, on 8 November 1987 a Molniya booster was prepared for launch in a record four days at Plesetsk..

1988 December 21 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 December 21 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-6 - . Return Crew: Chretien; Manarov; Titov, Vladimir. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chretien; Manarov; Titov, Vladimir. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir Aragatz; Mir LD-2; Mir EO-3. Soyuz TM-6 landed at 09:57 GMT with the crew of Chretien, Manarov and Titov Vladimir aboard. Undocked from Mir 21 December 1989 at 03:33 GMTwith the crew of Chretien, Manarov and Titov Vladimir aboard. Revised software installed as a result of TM-5 abort overloaded computer. Landing planned for 06:48 aborted. Backup program used. Orbital Module retained through retrofire. Landed December 21, 1988 09:57 GMT, 180 km SE of Dzhezkazgan.

1989 December 21 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus. LV Configuration: Taurus-S NASA 12.43WT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1990 December 21 - .
  • Death of James H Wakelin at Washington, District Of Columbia, DC. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wakelin. Summary: American manager, assistant secretary of the Navy (research and development) 1959-1964..

1990 December 21 - .
  • Death of Clarence L 'Kelly' Johnson - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Kelly. Summary: American engineer, at Lockheed 1933-1975, headed 'Skunk Works' design shop, responsible for F-80, F-104, Suntan, U-2,, and SR-71 designs among many others..

1990 December 21 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1990 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU 15A35P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 21 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2113 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 172.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21026 . COSPAR: 1990-113A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 225 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1991 December 21 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1992 December 21 - . 11:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-3 (30). FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of horizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse 45 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Aussat B2 / Optus B2 - . Payload: Optus B2 / Star 63F. Mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Hughes. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Decay Date: 1995-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 22278 . COSPAR: 1992-090A. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.1000 deg. Period: 94.90 min. Summary: Despite collapse of the nose fairing and near-desctruction of the payload, the launch vehicle continued on to place the wreckage of Optus-B2, and the Star-63F Kick-Motor into low earth orbit..

1998 December 21 - .
  • Mir News 448: Orbit correction - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-26; Mir EO-26/-27. The natural drag caused a considerable decrease of Mir's altitude. On 16.12.1998 the apogee was 355.6 KM, the perigee 345.3 KM. Even if the Russians stick to their obligations in the ISS field and dump the Mir complex in July 1999, some orbit corrections will be necessary to reduce the decay rate. There have been plans to increase the altitude of the orbit on 22.12.1998 and to do the same in March 1999. On 21.12.1998 I could not yet get confirmation that the correction is still scheduled for 22.12. So it might be possible and if this will happen, the predictions based on Kepler elements older than 22.12 will become more and more inaccurate.

    Sun orbit:

    These days the Mir-space station is flying on a sun orbit. So Mir remains in sunlight continuously and does not fly in eclipses at all. This means an extra burden for the thermoregulation of the complex. It is very warm on board, but the cosmonauts have not complained about this inconvenience thus far.

    Elektron (oxygen generator):

    For some weeks during communication sessions the crew reported on the internal pressure of one of the Elektrons. The values they reported were between 1.1 an 1.3. This value should remain not much higher than 1.1. After replacement of a unit or part of that Elektron, they no longer reported these values.

    Mir-routine:

    The crew executed a lot of experiments and most of their working hours were used for these activities. Less time was spent on maintenance and repair work of the life systems, for instance they refuelled the hydraulic thermoregulation system of the Kvant-2 module. They also had to repair electronic parts of experimental equipment (power units, interfaces, cables a.s.o.).

    Among the executed experiments were the study of plant growth in the greenhouse Svet, the determination of optical characteristics of the earth's atmosphere with the photometer EFO-2, and with the magnetic spectrometer Mariya the study of high energetic particles in space and in the radiation belts of the earth.

    Regularly the furnaces Krater, Gallar and Optizon passed in review. And the cosmonauts spoke about Ionozond, Dakon, Doze, Sigma and Alisa.

    The cosmonauts also had to undergo medical checks while training on the home trainer (velo-ergometer) and the treadmill. A few times the electro cardio cassette sounds were transmitted via the VHF phone channel.

    Mood on board:

    Almost no complaining or dissatisfaction could be derived from radio traffic, but there also was neither exuberance nor cheerfulness. With TsUP, Padalka settles his matters in an efficient, clear and in a business-like way. Rarely Avdeyev gets the opportunity to use his nice Russian to bring up something, but even then Padalka quickly reconquers the microphone. During passes within my range, I did not hear reactions from the cosmonauts on the beginning of the ISS-assembly. Without comments they listened to the news about the ISS, relayed to them by TsUP .

    Znamya 2.5:

    The experiment with this solar reflector after the undocking of Progress-M40 will, if nothing changes, take place a few days before the launch of the Soyuz-TM29 with the 27th Main Expedition to Mir on 22.02.1999.

    Spacewalks (EVA-s):

    No more EVA's are planned for the present (26th M.E.) crew.

    Communications:

    Now and then the Luch-1/Gelios satellite over 77 degrees East is in use for Mir-TsUP communications. And just like during the use of the old Altairs, this does not always go smoothly. For instance on 20.12.1998 family and friends gathered at TsUP for an Television session with Mir, but after 20 or 30 seconds the communications stopped.

    And to conclude: For you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 December 21 - . 07:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2110. LV Configuration: Taurus 2110 T4.
  • Kompsat - . Payload: Arirang. Mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Manufacturer: KAIST. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: KOMPSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 26032 . COSPAR: 1999-070A. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 670 km (410 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 98.20 min. Korean Multipurpose Satellite; carried an ocean color sensor developed by TRW and particle detectors. KOMPSAT was built by the Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) based on a test model built by TRW; it used the TRW STEP Lightsat bus and had a mass of around 500 kg, with 73 kg of hydrazine fuel.
  • Celestis-03 - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft: Celestis. Decay Date: 1971-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 26034 . COSPAR: 1999-070C. Apogee: 723 km (449 mi). Perigee: 683 km (424 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Summary: Burial satellite containing cremated human remains..
  • ACRIMSAT - . Mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Manufacturer: Germantown. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: ACRIMSAT . USAF Sat Cat: 26033 . COSPAR: 1999-070B. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 671 km (416 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Summary: Measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. Carried instrument deleted from Terra spacecraft..

2001 December 21 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2383 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 11. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: Arsenal. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 2004-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 27053 . COSPAR: 2001-057A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Signal Intelligence Satellite. Launch delayed December 19. The booster put the satellite into an initial orbit of 145 x 405 km x 65.0 deg. At apogee the satellite ignited its own propulsion system to increase velocity by about 70-80 m/s and circularize the orbit.

2003 December 21 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925-9.5 D302.
  • USA 175 - . Payload: GPS 2R-10 / Navstar 53 / GPS SVN 47. Mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2R. USAF Sat Cat: 28129 . COSPAR: 2003-058A. Apogee: 20,328 km (12,631 mi). Perigee: 19,963 km (12,404 mi). Inclination: 55.1000 deg. Period: 716.50 min. Summary: Tenth Navstar Block IIR (R = replenishment) launch..

2004 December 21 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Heavy. LV Configuration: Delta 4H D4-4 (310) 4050H.
  • USA 181 - . Payload: Demosat / HLVOLSDP. Mass: 5,993 kg (13,212 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. USAF Sat Cat: 28500 . COSPAR: 2004-050A. Apogee: 36,413 km (22,625 mi). Perigee: 19,035 km (11,827 mi). Inclination: 13.4790 deg. Period: 1,044.23 min. Mass model payload. First launch of a heavy EELV. The demonstration satellite was supposed to have been inserted into a sub-geosynchronous 36,350 km circular orbit but was instead deployed in a 19,035 km x 36,413 km orbit following a 5-hour and 50-minute flight. A shorter than expected first burn of the Centaur upper stage led to an orbit well below that planned. The Air Force EELV program office claimed that the primary flight objectives were accomplished. These included the heavy boost phase, flight of the new five-meter diameter Centaur upper stage and five-meter payload fairing, extended coast, upper stage third burn and payload separation, and activation and usage of Space Launch Complex 37B. Delayed from September 2003, July 3, September 10, November 18, December 10, 11 and 12.
  • 3CSat 1 Sparkie - . Payload: Nanosat 2. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: New Mexico. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: 3CSat. COSPAR: 2004-050x. One of a pair of student-built nanosats for stero cloud imagery. The satellites did not contact the ground after separation from the booster in a lower-than-planned orbit and their fate was unclear. It was believed that they separated but re-entered rapidly from the 105 km perigee orbit.
  • 3CSat 2 Ralphie - . Payload: Nanosat 2. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Colorado. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: 3CSat. COSPAR: 2004-050x.

2005 December 21 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: First submerged launch of the Bulava SLBM. Hit the designated impact area at Kura in the Kamchatka Peninsula..

2005 December 21 - . 18:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz-U F15000-080 / ISS-20P.
  • Progress M-55 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 355. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-12. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 179.96 days. Decay Date: 2006-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 28906 . COSPAR: 2005-047A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: The resupply spacecraft docked with the ISS Pirs module at 19:46 GMT on 23 December. It undocked at 14:06 GMT on June 19, 2006; fired its engines at 17:06 GMT to lower its orbit into the atmosphere; and burned up over the Pacific Ocean at 17:41 GMT..

2005 December 21 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-232.
  • Gonets D1M 1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 28908 . COSPAR: 2005-048A. Apogee: 1,447 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,437 km (892 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Summary: Delayed from December 15. Civilian version of Strela-3 store-dump survivable military satellite..
  • Cosmos 2416 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 28909 . COSPAR: 2005-048B. Apogee: 1,448 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,438 km (893 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Summary: Russian military satellite dubbed Rodnik, possibly a new design to replace the Strela-3 in the store-dump survivable communications satellite constellation..

2005 December 21 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V169 (525).
  • Insat 4A - . Mass: 3,081 kg (6,792 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 28911 . COSPAR: 2005-049A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Delayed from late July 2005. Launch delayed from August 23, October, November 14 and 30, December 8, 16 and 20. Dry mass 1385 kg. The satellite was equipped with Ku-band and C-band transponders and would join other Insats in providing telecommunications and television services to the Indian subcontinent. After three engine burns the satellite reached geostationary altitude over the Indian Ocean at 04:30 GMT on 26 December, then deployed its solar arrays. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 83.00E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.
  • MSG 2 - . Mass: 2,034 kg (4,484 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: MSG. USAF Sat Cat: 28912 . COSPAR: 2005-049B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from mid-February, March 15, June 2005. Meteosat Second Generation spin-stabilized weather satellite. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 0.11W drifting at 0.024W degrees per day..

2006 December 21 - .
2007 December 21 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V180 (530).
  • Rascom-QAF-1 - . Payload: Spacebus 4000B3. Mass: 4,579 kg (10,094 lb). Nation: Mauritius. Agency: RascomStarQAF. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: Rascom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 32387 . COSPAR: 2007-063A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. African communications satellite with a hybrid Ku/C-band payload. Nominal owner RascomStarQAF of Port Louis, Mauritius, a subsidiary of the Regional African Satellite Communications Organization (RASCOM) based in Cote d'Ivoire. The mission and satellite control centers were located in Cameroun and Libya. The satellite was to provide voice, data and internet services throughout Africa. Ahelium leak in the propulsion system prevented use of the primary apogee motor. Reaction control motors were used instead to slowly move the satellite into geosynchronous orbit. The satellite was expected to reach its operating location, but with a shorter-than-planned operational lifetime.
  • Horizons 2 - . Payload: Star-2. Mass: 2,350 kg (5,180 lb). Nation: Bermuda. Agency: Intelsat; JSAT. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Horizons. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 32388 . COSPAR: 2007-063D. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.50 min. Launched by Horizons Satellite Holdings LLC, a joint venture of Intelsat and the Japanese JSAT company. To be placed at 74 deg W to serve United States, eastern Canada, and the Caribbean with communication services using its 16-transmitter Ku-band communications payload.

2008 December 21 - .
  • Death of Craig Anton Puz at Golden, Colorado - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Puz. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1990..

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