Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 23


December 23 Chronology


1672 December 23 - .
  • Giovanni Cassini's Discovery of Saturn Moon Rhea - . Nation: Italy.

1905 December 23 - .
  • Birth of Paver Vladimirovich Tsybin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Chief Designer OKB-256 1945-1959. Designs: LL rocketplanes, RS Mach 3 ramjet aircraft, PKA spaceplane. Bureau closed, worked for Korolev on Vostok, Soyuz, AMS and Molniya satellites. Deputy Designer of Buran space shuttle, 1974-1992..

1925 December 23 - .
1937 December 23 - .
1937 December 23 - .
  • Birth of Roger M Bonnet - . Nation: France. Summary: French astronomer. Built first French space astronomy experiment, launched by Veronique 1967. Director of Stellar and Planetary Lab of CNRS 1969-1983. Director of the ESA Scientif Program, 1983-2001..

1941 December 23 - .
1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19886.
  • V-2 U4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.0 km from aim point..

1948 December 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 103 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 38. Wing and tail loads during supersonic flight at high altitudes. Mach 1.09..

1948 December 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D3 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1949 December 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon.
  • D4 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1952 December 23 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho G-26.
  • Navaho G-26 contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. The USAF released the full-scale development contract for the Navaho G-26, consisting of 10 cruise missiles, 13 boosters, and five N-6 stellar-inertial navigation systems (early flights would be radio-controlled). First delivery was scheduled for 1953 and first launch February 1956.

1953 December 23 - .
  • Death of Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria - . Nation: Georgia; Russia. Related Persons: Beria. Summary: Georgian-Russian officer. Soviet security apparatus chief until toppled after death of Stalin 1953. In charge of Soviet development of nuclear weapons and rocketry, 1944-1953..

1957 December 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun HUGO. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Hurricane photo Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 December 23 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: A-1.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1959 December 23 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-1.
  • R-7A I-1 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 December 23 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 23 - .
  • Motorola contract for subsystems for NASA's Deep Space Network - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Motorola, Inc., received a follow-on contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the manufacture and integration of at least three S-band receiving subsystems for NASA's Deep Space Network and Manned Space Flight Network ground stations. Within the unified S-band system adopted by NASA, receiving equipment of the two networks would be identical except for a slight difference in operating frequency. This enabled all communications between ground stations and spacecraft to be on a single frequency. It also allowed more efficient power transfer between the directive antennas and the spacecraft and would greatly reduce galactic noise encountered with UHF frequencies.

1964 December 23 - .
  • Molds for the one-piece bubble helmets for the Apollo space suits constructed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: A7L. NASA Technical Services constructed the molds that would be used to make the one-piece bubble helmets for the Apollo space suits. These forms would be delivered to General Electric and to Texstar, the two firms that would actually fabricate the helmets, with the first shell expected about mid-January.

    At the same time, Crew Systems Division completed drop tests on the new helmet concept. The division's engineers also began designing and fabrication of support items (neck rings, feed ports, and skull caps), as well as exploring methods of maintaining the helmet's hygiene and habitability.


1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 December 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF24. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 2457.
  • ST Olympic Trials 5 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 December 23 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
1969 December 23 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Canopus. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2. LV Configuration: Canopus 2 No 3.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 December 23 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 316 - . Payload: IS-A Mass Model. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1970-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4282 . COSPAR: 1969-108A. Apogee: 1,638 km (1,017 mi). Perigee: 152 km (94 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 102.80 min. Test of Tsyklon 2 booster; mass model of ASAT. When the satellite decayed over US Midwest on 28 August 1970, teams of the USAF 1127th Special Group were able to recover six pieces from five locations in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. These showed that the necessary operational systems - translation engines, sensors, weapons systems - were dummied by steel weights. However factory markings on the recovered material proved to the Air Force analysts that they were dealing with an ASAT weapon.

1969 December 23 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 317 - . Payload: Zenit-4MK no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4280 . COSPAR: 1969-109A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried charged particle experiments; maneuverable..

1970 December 23 - .
  • DOS launch moved to March. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Salyut. A new DOS schedule is agreed by the Chief Designers. DOS#1 launch is delayed 40 days to 15 March 1971. Kamanin thinks the first half of April is more likely. He is still arguing the Soyuz 10 flight duration with Mishin - Kamanin won't accept more than 20-25 days, Mishin has been ordered to fly 30 days.

1970 December 23 - .
  • Assessment of crew rescue capability for Skylab. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Apollo Rescue CSM. An assessment of the feasibility of providing a crew rescue capability for Skylab was conducted by KSC, MSC, and MSFC during 1970. The study culminated in a NASA Hq decision to provide a limited rescue capability should return capability fail while the CSM were docked to the OWS. The rescue vehicle for the first two manned Skylab missions would be the next CSM in flow at KSC. Should a rescue call occur, the CSM next in flow would be modified so as to permit a five- man carrying capacity. It would be launched with a two-man crew and return with the additional three astronauts.

1971 December 23 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1972 December 23 - .
1973 December 23 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1974 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 December 23 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1976 December 23 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1977 December 23 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53716-322.
  • Cosmos 971 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 10536 . COSPAR: 1977-122A. Apogee: 1,004 km (623 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1978 December 23 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1066 - . Payload: Astrofizika s/n 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astrofizika. USAF Sat Cat: 11165 . COSPAR: 1978-121A. Apogee: 890 km (550 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Probable failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1980 December 23 - . 22:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47198-318.
  • Cosmos 1228 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 201. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12107 . COSPAR: 1980-102A. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,394 km (866 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.40 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1234 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 207. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12113 . COSPAR: 1980-102G. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1233 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 206. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12112 . COSPAR: 1980-102F. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.
  • Cosmos 1231 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 204. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12110 . COSPAR: 1980-102D. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,406 km (873 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1232 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 205. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12111 . COSPAR: 1980-102E. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1235 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 208. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12114 . COSPAR: 1980-102H. Apogee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1229 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 202. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12108 . COSPAR: 1980-102B. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.
  • Cosmos 1230 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 203. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12109 . COSPAR: 1980-102C. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,400 km (800 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min.

1981 December 23 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-52 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 13012 . COSPAR: 1981-123A. Apogee: 38,267 km (23,777 mi). Perigee: 2,097 km (1,303 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Replaced Molniya 1-45. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.

1982 December 23 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1425 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13739 . COSPAR: 1982-119A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1985 December 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 December 23 - . 20:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53711-281.
  • Cosmos 1904 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 18709 . COSPAR: 1987-106A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 967 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1988 December 23 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1985 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-3. Decay Date: 1992-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 19720 . COSPAR: 1988-113A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 73.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission. Believed to be a modernised version of the Taifun-1 satellite. Released 36 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1991 December 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1992 December 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R839.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1997 December 23 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: 37.0 N x 72.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL/HAPS. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL/HAPS F19.
  • Orbcomm A1 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM5. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25112 . COSPAR: 1997-084A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0300 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 297.7 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A7 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM11. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25118 . COSPAR: 1997-084G. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 301.2 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A2 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM6. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25113 . COSPAR: 1997-084B. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0300 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 300.7 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A4 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM8. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25115 . COSPAR: 1997-084D. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 300.5 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A3 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM7. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25114 . COSPAR: 1997-084C. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0300 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 301 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A6 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM10. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25117 . COSPAR: 1997-084F. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 301.2 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A5 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM9. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25116 . COSPAR: 1997-084E. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 814 km (505 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 301 degrees..
  • Orbcomm A8 - . Payload: Orbcomm s/n FM12. Nation: USA. Agency: Orbcomm. Manufacturer: Germantown. Program: Orbcomm. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. USAF Sat Cat: 25119 . COSPAR: 1997-084H. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 812 km (504 mi). Inclination: 45.0200 deg. Period: 101.26 min. Summary: Plane A. Ascending node 301.2 degrees..

1998 December 23 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Newman; Ross. Program: ISS. International Space Station flight controllers successfully completed two test firings of the Zarya module's two large thrusters this week, checking out the software and systems required for an automated rendezvous and docking with the third station module, scheduled to be launched from Russia in mid-1999. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS12.

1999 December 23 - . 18:54 GMT - .
2004 December 23 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz-U Zh15000-092 / ISS-16P.
  • Progress M-51 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 251. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-10. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 76.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 28503 . COSPAR: 2004-051A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Launch delayed from November 24, December 22 . Progress M-51 docked with the Zvezda module of the International Space Station on December 25 at 23:58 GMT, bringing critical food supplies to the EO-10 crew. Press hype during the delays prior to the launch had portrayed the situation as one where failure of the Progress to dock would have required the crew to either return to earth or starve.

    Undocked from at 16:06 GMT on February 27, 2005, in order to clear the port for Progress M-52, which would launch the next day. Progress M-51 lowered its perigee at around 18:30 GMT and remained in orbit for several days. FInally an engine firing was commanded, bringing it down in a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean on March 9.


2005 December 23 - .
2007 December 23 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: ISS-27P.
  • Progress M-62 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 362. Mass: 7,130 kg (15,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 54.11 days. Decay Date: 2008-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 32391 . COSPAR: 2007-064B. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Resupply spacecraft that docked with the Pirs port of the International Space Station at 08:14 GMT on 26 December. Undocked on 4 February 2008 at 10:32 GMT and then carried out Earth observations for ten days before being deorbited on 15 February at 09:44 GMT.

2008 December 23 - .
  • EVA ISS EO-18-1 - . Crew: Lonchakov; Fincke. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lonchakov; Fincke. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-18. Summary: The crew installed a Langmuir probe on the Pirs module and returned the Biorisk cannister from the Zvezda module. An Expose-R experiment failed to activate and was removed and returned to the airlock.

2008 December 23 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3A.
  • FY-2E - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FY-2. USAF Sat Cat: 33463 . COSPAR: 2008-066A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Member of China's geosynchronous weather satellite constellation..

2008 December 23 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Bulava. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV-1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

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