Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 25


December 25 Chronology


1909 December 25 - .
  • Birth of Gleb Yevgenyevich Lozino-Lozinskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Chief Designer of spaceplanes, headed NPO Molniya 1976-2001. Developed the Buran space shuttle and MAKS spaceplane. Earlier had headed the Spiral spaceplane project at MiG 1965-1976..

1926 December 25 - .
  • Birth of Norman Ryker - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, began working at Rocketdyne. Headed North American's Apollo proposal group. Assistant Chief Engineer for Apollo. President of Rocketdyne, 1976-1983, leading development and flight of the Space Shuttle Main Engine..

1943 December 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Raid against V-1 launchers - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A raid is launched by Allied 1300 aircraft. The tactics have been developed at Eglin AFB, Florida, where a replica 'ski ramp' was built in an effort to understand its purpose and how best to bomb it..

1943 December 25 - .
  • Birth of Ravish Malhotra - . Nation: India. Summary: Indian pilot cosmonaut, 1982-1984. Indian Air Force test pilot, stationed at the Bangalore space test center. Later worked for Dynamatic Technologies. Brigadier General (Air Commodore), Retired..

1944 December 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19650.
  • V-2 U7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 5.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.9 km from aim point..

1958 December 25 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1958 December 25 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: A-1.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1959 December 25 - .
  • Birth of Michael Phillip Anderson - . Nation: USA. Summary: African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-89, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry..

1961 December 25 - .
  • New cosmonauts to be recruited. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. The leadership has approved Kamanin's plan for the selection in the next year of 60 new cosmonaut trainees, including five women. Kamanin expects to see some of the women in orbit by the second half of 1962. DOSAAF has submitted 40 to 50 potential female candidates, selected from their files. Meanwhile, Titov is set to tour Indonesia in January. The Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 group flight is planned for March 1962.

1962 December 25 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,160 km (720 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 December 25 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: M9111. Launch Platform: SHIP-SOV. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1967 December 25 - .
  • 1965 Air Force Group cosmonaut trainees are examined. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belousov; Grishchenko; Skvortsov; Sharafutdinov; Voloshin. Summary: Of the 18, 13 scored a '5', four scored '4', and one '3'. Belousov, Grishchenko, Skvortsov, Sharafutdinov, and Voloshin - the low scorers - are all to be dismissed from the cosmonaut corps..

1968 December 25 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soviets consider lunar landing alternatives - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Pilyugin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: LK; Soyuz 7K-LOK; L3M-1970. A 'small Soviet' of designers was held to review whether to continue pursuing the N1 launch vehicle or not. Although a first manned lunar landing was not achievable, the N1 could still be used to establish a lunar base by the beginning of the 21st Century. Additional Details: Soviets consider lunar landing alternatives.

1968 December 25 - .
  • Launch dates set for Soyuz 4 and 5 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Apollo 8 is on its way back to earth, but re-entry into the earth's atmosphere from lunar distances is risky, as the Soviet experience with the L1 has shown. The State Commission meets at 16:00 and sets the launch dates for Soyuz 4 and 5. Meanwhile Beregovoi and Yurasov are in the Soyuz spacecraft in the assembly building, running communications checks.

1968 December 25 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • L3 lunar lander behind schedule - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Malinovskiy; Smirnov; Ustinov; Brezhnev; Keldysh; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3; Apollo; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Luna Ye-8. The L3 spacecraft still does not even exist in mock-up form. All of the leadership are responsible for this farce - Malinovskiy, Smirnov, Ustinov, Brezhnev. There is no single manager of the space program. The VPK and Central Committee operate on rumours. The Interagency Soviet headed by Keldysh was supposed to coordinate space activities, but in fact has not functioned in the last four to five years. There is no single military space organisation in the Ministry of Defence. Piloted flight tests are being run by former artillery officers in the RSVN. Various organizations of MAP and VVS coordinate ground and flight tests poorly. These are the reasons for the failure of the Soviet Union in space. Today in the Central Committee Ustinov asked - 'how to answer Apollo 8?' Ustinov relies on Keldysh, Keldysh supports Mishin, and Mishin is unfit for his duties. But Mishin is not even there! The program they come up with: In January 1969, 2 Venera probes will be launched, two manned Soyuz missions, and L1 s/n 13 will be sent around the moon. In February the first N1 will be launched. By the end of March the first Ye-8 robot will land on the moon and return lunar soil to the earth. This meeting is followed by a session of the VPK at 16:00. The crews are named for the Soyuz 4 and 5 flights.

1969 December 25 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Intercosmos 2 - . Payload: DS-U1-IK s/n 1. Mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U1-IK. Completed Operations Date: 1970-02-12 . Decay Date: 1970-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 4285 . COSPAR: 1969-110A. Apogee: 1,178 km (731 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: East European instruments carried to determine the characteristics of the earth's ionosphere and the concentrations of electrons and positive ions..

1970 December 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-17 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4829 . COSPAR: 1970-114A. Apogee: 39,881 km (24,780 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 December 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 469 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1972-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5737 . COSPAR: 1971-117B. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 948 km (589 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered. First RORSAT flight confirmed by Russian source to have had BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1972 December 25 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53724-113.
  • Cosmos 540 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 6323 . COSPAR: 1972-104A. Apogee: 790 km (490 mi). Perigee: 763 km (474 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 100.40 min.

1973 December 25 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1973 December 25 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-08 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1984-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7000 . COSPAR: 1973-106A. Apogee: 39,934 km (24,813 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 December 25 - . 16:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 4-2 - . Crew: Carr; Pogue. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carr; Pogue. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 4. Spacecraft: Skylab. Summary: Photographed Comet Kohoutek and replaced solar camera film cartridges..

1974 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 December 25 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-23 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 23. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8519 . COSPAR: 1975-124A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1976 December 25 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 December 25 - .
1980 December 25 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 8 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 508. Mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1984-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12116 . COSPAR: 1980-103A. Apogee: 197,364 km (122,636 mi). Perigee: 978 km (607 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 5,687.80 min. Examined solar wind interaction with magnetosphere. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific apparatus produced in the USSR, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Polish People's Republic, and Sweden.

1981 December 25 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1985 December 25 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1986 December 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Summary: Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 120 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1987 December 25 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1905 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 18711 . COSPAR: 1987-107A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1988 December 25 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 39 - . Payload: Progress s/n 147. Mass: 7,015 kg (15,465 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir LD-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.40 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . Decay Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19728 . COSPAR: 1988-114A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Made second test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 187 X 237 km, 51.63 deg; 236 X 338 km; 325 X 353 km at Mir. Delivered 1,300 kg cargo. Docked with Mir on 27 Dec 1988 05:35:10 GMT. Undocked on 7 Feb 1989 06:45:34 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1989 13:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 42.05 days.

1990 December 25 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 25 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 December 25 - .
  • Soviet Union breaks up - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Soviet Union breaks up after President Gorbachev's resignation; constituent republics form Commonwealth of Independent States .

1991 December 25 - .
  • Death of Igor Fedrov. Forced to attempt manual return to earth in December 1991 when left stranded in space by fall of the Soviet Union. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fedrov. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. 1998 urban legend held that during the fall of Soviet Union, their cosmonauts were stranded on the Mir space station. Embodied on film by character Fedrov in short Norwegian film 'Kosmonaut'..

1992 December 25 - . 05:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2227 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 14. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22284 . COSPAR: 1992-093A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1992 December 25 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2228 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 72. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 22286 . COSPAR: 1992-094A. Apogee: 666 km (413 mi). Perigee: 628 km (390 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Investigation of outer space. .

1996 December 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1999 December 25 - .
  • Chinese Military Space Research Center Formed - . Nation: China. China formed a military space research center at the People Liberation Army's Arms and Command Technologies College. The center would study military space technologies including space launch operations and space war. It was equipped with various space simulation facilities.

1999 December 25 - . 19:17 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-103-3 - . Crew: Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.33 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Smith, Steven; Grunsfeld. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-103. Spacecraft: Discovery; HST. Summary: Completed part of the installation of new insulation to the Hubble space telescope. The rest was deferred to the next servicing mission..

2002 December 25 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 409-02.
  • Cosmos 2394 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27617 . COSPAR: 2002-060A. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the third end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2396 - . Payload: Glonass-M. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27619 . COSPAR: 2002-060C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 18,915 km (11,753 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 671.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2395 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27618 . COSPAR: 2002-060B. Apogee: 19,335 km (12,014 mi). Perigee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 679.80 min.

2003 December 25 - .
  • Mars Express, Mars Orbit Insertion, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Mars Express.

2003 December 25 - .
2004 December 25 - .
  • Huygens separates from the Cassini orbiter and heads toward Titan - . Nation: USA. Summary: The European Titan lander probe, Huygens, separated from the Cassini Saturn orbiter at 02:00 GMT. Huygens will enter the atmosphere of Titan on January 14..

2004 December 25 - .
  • Death of Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov at Moscow, Russia. Cancer. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Strekalov. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Salyut 7 EP-3, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-18. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB..

2005 December 25 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-11.
  • Cosmos 2417 - . Payload: Glonass 798. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28915 . COSPAR: 2005-050A. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. The Block D upper stage delivered three GLONASS navigation satellites into their planned orbits at 08:39 GMT. These satellites were placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. The satellites had an extended seven-year service life compared to earlier models. This was the sixth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000. When operational they brought the total of operational GLONASS SVs in orbit to 16. The launch was part of a Russian government-funded program to replenish and expand the Glonass constellation to at least 18 operating satellites satellites by 2007 (compared to 14 satellites at the end of 2005). In 2006 launch of a new Glonass satellite design with a ten-year service was planned.
  • Cosmos 2418 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 713. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28916 . COSPAR: 2005-050B. Apogee: 19,172 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2419 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 714. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28917 . COSPAR: 2005-050C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2007 December 25 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2435 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 21. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32394 . COSPAR: 2007-065B. Apogee: 19,179 km (11,917 mi). Perigee: 19,081 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2436 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 22. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32395 . COSPAR: 2007-065C. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2437 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 23. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32393 . COSPAR: 2007-065A. Apogee: 19,137 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Three GLONASS-M satellites lofted in a single launch - inserted in GLONASS orbit plane 2. This was the second launch to populate this plane..

2008 December 25 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2447 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 727. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33466 . COSPAR: 2008-067A. Apogee: 19,139 km (11,892 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Three Glonass satellites launched as part of a continuing effort to reconstitute the full Russian navigation satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2449 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 729. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33467 . COSPAR: 2008-067B. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2448 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 728. Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33468 . COSPAR: 2008-067C. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2010 December 25 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV s/n F06. FAILURE: Destroyed at T+60 seconds after guidance commands from on-board computer to steering system of strapon boosters were cut off.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Gsat 5P - . Payload: I-2K. Mass: 2,310 kg (5,090 lb). Nation: India. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: 2010-F04. Summary: Vehicle reached only 15 km. First use of stretched cryogenic third state. Gsat-5P communications satellite destroyed..

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