Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 27


December 27 Chronology


1571 December 27 - .
  • Birth of Johannes Kepler - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German scientist. Astronomer who derived the laws of planetary motion..

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20853. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma421 309 X1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.1 km from aim point..

1947 December 27 - .
  • Death of Johannes Winkler - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler. Summary: German engineer. Rocket enthusiast, launched first liquid rocket in Europe on 1931.02.21..

1949 December 27 - .
  • Decree for thermonuclear bomb development. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 5744-2162 'On creation of Second Chief Directorate of Council of Ministers to manage uranium mining' was issued..

1955 December 27 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Asp. LV Configuration: Asp 1.
  • Redwing prototype test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Summary: First prototype of Asp (atmospheric sounding projectile) sounding rocket, capable of payloads up to 80 pounds, launched successfully at NAMTC at Point Mugu, Calif..

1958 December 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100 (A-1).
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1959 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar PL1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • MP-1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi).

1962 December 27 - .
  • Absurd situations! - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popovich. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 4. A decree ordering the training of sixty cosmonauts has been laying around, and suddenly the leadership wants to enforce it. 15 new trainee male cosmonauts, and 15 women are to be recruited - an overall total of 20 by the end of 1962 and 40 by the end of 1963 And crews are to be formed and trained, even though there are no spacecraft being built for the missions. And the decision that Popovich is to go on his Cuba tour is handed down only 2.5 hours before he is supposed to depart.

1963 December 27 - .
  • Dyna-Soar termination plan. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar; Asset. Summary: The program office again revised its termination plan..

1965 December 27 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-01.
  • Cosmos 102 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 1867 . COSPAR: 1965-111A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor..

1966 December 27 - . 20:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: M9196. Launch Platform: SHIP-SOV. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1967 December 27 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Mishin to remain in charge until first L3 launches. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Feoktistov; Afanasyev, Sergei; Mishin; Ustinov. Program: Lunar L3. Afanasyev holds meetings on the L3 lunar expedition program. Kamanin recites Mishin's failings. Afanasyev replies that he has talked to Ustinov about it, but Ustinov will leave the current management in charge until N1 flight tests begin. If they are unsuccessful, then Mishin alone will have to answer for it. Afansyev also assures Kamanin that although Feoktistov should be allowed to train for a space flight, he and Ustinov will make sure he never flies.

1967 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 December 27 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 198 - . Payload: US-A no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1968-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3082 . COSPAR: 1967-127B. Apogee: 927 km (576 mi). Perigee: 907 km (563 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 103.40 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor. First satellite to be boosted to 900 km storage orbit..

1968 December 27 - .
  • Apollo 8 and L1 plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. A State Commission investigating the crash of Zond 6 determined that the coronal discharge effect which caused the parachute to jettison would only occur at the 25 mm capsule pressure. If the capsule had been completely depressurised to a high vacuum, the accident would not have occurred. A discussion was conducted on when to conduct the next L1 test. The next capsule in line was s/n 13 - an unlucky omen. It was even proposed not to fly the capsule with such an unlucky number. That evening, the Soviet engineers could watch live video from the moon from aboard Apollo 8 via Eurovision from Western Europe. They had in any case lost the race to fly a man around the moon. The flight of further L1's, and sending a Soviet man on a lunar flyby, seemed a moot point.

1968 December 27 - .
  • Americans win the race to be first around the moon - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Vershinin; Mishin; Tyulin; Bushuyev. Program: Apollo; Lunar L1. Flight: Apollo 8; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3. The General Staff considers the impending Soyuz 4 and 5 flights. Vershinin asks - what is the likelihood of Apollo 8 being successful? Kamanin tells him it is very good now; the final midcourse correction was made successfully. A State Commission convenes to consider the Zond 6 failure. Mishin and Tyulin do not attend - they send Bushuyev to represent them. It has been found that 70 km from the cosmodrome, as the spacecraft deployed its parachute, the parachute lines were pyrotechnically severed at 3 km altitude and the capsule crashed into the plain. This in turn was found to be due to an ONA landing antenna failure; and this in turn caused by the SUS going down to temperatures of -5 deg C during the flight and the depressurisation of the cabin. The hydrogen peroxide, due to the low temperature, put the spcecraft at a 45 degree attitude instead of the 18 degree maximum (?). There are five L1's left. Number 13 is at Tyuratam begin prepared for an unmanned flight due for launch on 20 or 21 January, number 11 is being readied for a March 1969 manned launch, to be followed by numbers 14, 15, and 16 in April, May, June. At 19:15 the successful splashdown of Apollo 8 is reported. The race to be first around the moon is over.

1968 December 27 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 8 - . Return Crew: Anders; Borman; Lovell. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anders; Borman; Lovell. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. On the sixth day, the crew prepared for reentry and the SM separated from the CM on schedule. Parachute deployment and other re-entry events were normal. The Apollo 8 CM splashed down in the Pacific, apex down, at 15:51 GMT - 147 hours and 42 seconds after liftoff. As planned, helicopters and aircraft hovered over the spacecraft and pararescue personnel were not deployed until local sunrise, 50 minutes after splashdown. The crew was picked up and reached the recovery ship U.S.S. Yorktown at 17:20 GMT. All mission objectives and detailed test objectives were achieved, as well as five that were not originally planned.

    The crew was in excellent condition, and another major step toward the first lunar landing had been accomplished.


1969 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Ionosfernaya? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Ionosfernaya. COSPAR: F691227A.

1970 December 27 - .
  • Birth of Naoko Yamazaki - . Nation: Japan. Summary: Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1999-on. Underwent cosmonaut training in Russia, then Astronaut training in USA. NASDA.

1970 December 27 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKMR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1971 December 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 24.0 N x 53.0 W. Launch Platform: ZUB. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1971 December 27 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 470 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5727 . COSPAR: 1971-118A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1971 December 27 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65014-103.
  • Oreol - . Payload: DS-U2-GKA s/n 1. Mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Nation: France. Agency: MO. Program: Aureole. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-GKA. Completed Operations Date: 1972-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5729 . COSPAR: 1971-119A. Apogee: 1,779 km (1,105 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 106.90 min. Summary: Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. .

1972 December 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 541 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6326 . COSPAR: 1972-105A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1973 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 27 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 626 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1974-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 7115 . COSPAR: 1973-108D. Apogee: 982 km (610 mi). Perigee: 907 km (563 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 103.90 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered. First test of modernised design by KB Arsenal..

1974 December 27 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 701 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7596 . COSPAR: 1974-106A. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 December 27 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-04 - . Payload: Molniya-3 no. s/n 15. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1986-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8521 . COSPAR: 1975-125A. Apogee: 40,708 km (25,294 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 733.80 min. Decay date suspect Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 December 27 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 886 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1976-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 9634 . COSPAR: 1976-126A. Apogee: 2,291 km (1,423 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 880 target..

1977 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 972 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model. Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 10539 . COSPAR: 1977-123A. Apogee: 1,157 km (718 mi). Perigee: 712 km (442 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Summary: Launch vehicle test. Dummy payload. Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 December 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 973 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10540 . COSPAR: 1977-124A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 973 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10558 . COSPAR: 1977-124D. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.61 min.

1978 December 27 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1979 December 27 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1982 December 27 - .
  • Astronaut John Leonard (Jack) Swigert Jr dies at age of 51 -- Natural causes - Complications from cancer. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Swigert. Summary: American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 13. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record..

1983 December 27 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1516 - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 3. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 14583 . COSPAR: 1983-124A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Military topographic / cartographic satellite..

1983 December 27 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1517 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0500 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 14585 . COSPAR: 1983-125A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Subscale Spiral spaceplane. In a new mission profile, braked out of orbit over the South Atlantic and was recovered in the Black Sea after one orbit of the Earth..

1984 December 27 - .
  • Discovery of ALH 84001 (Mars Meteorite) - . Nation: USA.

1985 December 27 - . 17:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1713 - . Payload: Efir s/n 2. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Efir. Duration: 26.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 16429 . COSPAR: 1985-120A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

1987 December 27 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 345-01.
  • Ekran 17 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1993-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 18715 . COSPAR: 1987-109A. Apogee: 37,239 km (23,139 mi). Perigee: 36,890 km (22,920 mi). Inclination: 3.6000 deg. Period: 1,501.90 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmitting USSR Central Television programmes to a network of communal receivers. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 125.85 deg W drifting at 15.807 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 124.58E drifting at 15.805W degrees per day.

1988 December 27 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1989 December 27 - .
1989 December 27 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2053 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-3. Decay Date: 1997-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 20389 . COSPAR: 1989-100A. Apogee: 410 km (250 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 73.5000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Believed to be a modernised version of the Taifun-1 satellite, built by NPO Yuzhnoe. The satellite carried 36 small Calibration Spherical Object subsatellites to test Russian radars. These were released between December 27, 1989 and November 1, 1991. While Cosmos 2053 re-entered in 1997, by May 1999 the S5M upper stage was still in a 471 km x 485 km x 73.5 deg orbit. An on-board explosion blew it into 25 new objects.

1989 December 27 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 347-02.
  • Cosmos 2054 - . Payload: Luch s/n 14L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1997-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20391 . COSPAR: 1989-101A. Apogee: 35,822 km (22,258 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 7.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Stationed at 346 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. The third Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Combined with Cosmos 1897, it permitted Mir to maintain contact with Mission Control in Moscow 70% of the time. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg W in 1990-1997 As of 30 August 2001 located at 21.03 deg W drifting at 0.023 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 68.57W drifting at 0.338W degrees per day.

1990 December 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 342-01.
  • Raduga 1-2 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 12. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21038 . COSPAR: 1990-116A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 49 deg E; second launch of alternate Raduga design. Further expansion of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the territory of the USSR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1991-1996 As of 27 August 2001 located at 93.45 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.16E drifting at 0.090W degrees per day.

1995 December 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R948.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1998 December 27 - .
  • Mir News 449: Orbit correction - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-26; Mir EO-26/-27. On 24.12.1998 at 0409 UTC the engines of the freighter Progress-M40 raised Mir's orbit. With the

    2-line elements determined after the orbit correction it was possible to calculate accurate passes of the complex again.

    On 25.12.1998 the cosmonauts asked for the new Apogee and Perigee of Mir. TsUP said that these values were 372 and

    361 KM. Possibly the last 2-lines will only be valid for a short period for there might follow a 2nd correction on 26 or 28.12.1998. Radio traffic and radio observations did not confirm that there was a correction on 26.12 so let us wait and hear if this will take place on 28.12.1998.

    A high ranking official in Korolyov assured me that the reboost of the Mir-complex has nothing to do with an eventual

    prolongation of the exploitation after June 1999, but was executed for ballistic reasons. The rumours about plans to extend

    Mir's operational life are unfounded and the plan to bring Mir back in the earth's atmosphere after June 1999

    is still fully in force.

    Progress-M40:

    The undocking of this freighter from Mir is scheduled for 4.02.1999. After some autonomous orbits Progress-M40 will jettison and deploy a solar reflector for the execution of the Znamya 2.5 experiment.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 December 27 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2368 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 26042 . COSPAR: 1999-073A. Apogee: 38,751 km (24,078 mi). Perigee: 1,603 km (996 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Early warning satellite, carrying a large telescope to monitor missile launches. The payload and fourth stage were placed in an initial 229 km x 523 km x 62.8 deg orbit; the fourth stage (Block-2BL) fired over South America on the first orbit and delivered the payload to its 12-hour final orbit.

2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The S5M third stage steering unit failed and the vehicle crashed a few thousand km downrange near Wrangel Island.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227A. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..

2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-407. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The S5M third stage failed and the vehicle crashed a few thousand km downrange near Wrangel Island..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227D. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227F. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227C. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Strela-3 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. COSPAR: F001227E. Summary: Military Communications. Failed to orbit..
  • Gonets-D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. COSPAR: F001227B. Summary: Civilian communications. Failed to orbit..

2002 December 27 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #02-55 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Budarin; Pettit. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-6. International Space Station Expedition 6 crewmembers, Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit, began their second month aboard the orbiting laboratory on Christmas Day. While they had some duties to attend to - checking the environmental control system and the status of payloads aboard the U.S. laboratory Destiny - it was basically a day off. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #02-55.

2003 December 27 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat D15000-008 084/ST12.
  • Amos-2 - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Starsem. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amos. USAF Sat Cat: 28132 . COSPAR: 2003-059A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.14 min. Summary: Intermediate orbit shown. Fregat stage later placed Amos-2 in geostationary orbit. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 4.00W drifting at 0.003W degrees per day..

2006 December 27 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B. LV Configuration: Soyuz-2-1B/Fregat 001/ST17.
  • Corot - . Mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Corot. USAF Sat Cat: 29678 . COSPAR: 2006-063A. Apogee: 902 km (560 mi). Perigee: 898 km (557 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. European COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits satellite, designed to detect transits of planets down to earth size as they pass in front of their stars, and convection currents on stellar surfaces. The satellite was to use its 27-cm-diameter telescope to scan 120,000 stars during its 30-month mission. This was the first flight of the Soyuz-2 booster with the improved RD-0124 third stage engine.

2007 December 27 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 12/27/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1; STS-122. Before breakfast and first exercise, Whitson, Malenchenko and Tani completed a full session with the Russian crew health monitoring program's medical assessment MO-9/Biochemical Urinalysis.

    After wakeup and before breakfast, FE-2 Dan Tani again accessed the SLEEP experiment (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight) software for data logging and completing questionnaire entries in the experiment's laptop session file on the HRF-1 laptop for later downlink. (To monitor the crewmembers' sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, Dan and Peggy wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him as well as his patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days, as part of the crew's discretionary 'job jar' task list.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 12/27/07.


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