Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 28


December 28 Chronology


1919 December 28 - .
  • Birth of Bruce T Lundin - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, at NASA 1943-1977, heading propulsion development efforts at Lewis, notably the Centaur engine..

1920 December 28 - .
1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 radio guidance system set up. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Measurements are made to determine the positioning of the Leitstrahlstellung (V2 radio guidance beam) and Brensslussstellung (engine cut-off beam) of the new radio guidance system. The Leitstrahlstellung station will be situated at Dedemsvaart..

1948 December 28 - . LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: G-1.
  • G-1 and R-2 designs evaluated by Soviet State Commission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. The team defended the G-1 draft project on 28 December 1948. The State Commission found the G-1 to be superior to Korolev's R-2 design in many respects. However the Russian designers managed to convince the government to put the R-2 rather than the G-1 into production by arguing that the manufacturing technology of the G-1 could not be mastered immediately by Soviet Union. Several of the design concepts (integrated propellant tanks, radio-controlled cut-off, forward liquid oxygen tank) were however used by the Russians in their R-2 and R-5 rockets.

1954 December 28 - .
  • Birth of Robert Lee Stewart - . Nation: USA. Summary: American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-J..

1958 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. Launch Vehicle: Burya. LV Configuration: Burya 2-04. FAILURE: Vehicle broke up due to an explosion in the empty propellant tank..
  • Burya flight 9 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi). Cruise stage tanks 1 and 4 empty. The flight continued to T+309 seconds, the longest to date, at which point the vehicle broke up due to an explosion in the empty propellant tank. The boosters operated normally but separation took place normally at Mach 3.3-3.4 (higher than expected).

1959 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Titan 2 first ground test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Titan II, an advanced ICBM and the booster designated for NASA's two-man orbital flights, was successfully captive-fired for the first time at the Martin Co.'s Denver facilities. The test not only tested the flight vehicle but the checkout and launch equipment intended for operational use.

1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C.
  • USAF announces Titan III for Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: With continued weight growth USAF announces Titan III to be developed for Dynasoar orbital missions..

1962 December 28 - .
  • First test firings of the Apollo CM reaction control engines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: North American's Rocketdyne Division completed the first test firings of the CM reaction control engines..

1964 December 28 - .
  • Apollo CM to be modified so that the sight assembly could be used from either docking window - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: MSC directed North American to modify the CM so that the sight assembly could be used from either docking window..

1965 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1. FAILURE: First stage failed.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • DS-K-40 s/n 1 - . Payload: DS-K-40. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-K-40. COSPAR: F651228A. Summary: Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites..

1965 December 28 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3. LV Configuration: Kosmos 65S3 09LP.
  • Cosmos 103 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2. Decay Date: 1990-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1868 . COSPAR: 1965-112A. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Summary: Possible test flight..

1966 December 28 - .
  • Soyuz-VI to fly by end of 1967. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI. Summary: Resolution 'On approval of work on the 7K-VI Zvezda and course of work on Almaz' no. 305 ordered Kozlov's filial 3 of OKB-1 to undertake first flight of the manned military research spacecraft 7K-VI - 11F73 Zvezda by the end of 1967..

1966 December 28 - .
  • Almaz program delays; Soyuz 7K-TK suspended - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TK; Almaz OPS. Summary: Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 104 'On changes in the timeline for the Almaz program and suspension of the 7K-TK' was issued. Due to delays in the Almaz all work on further development of the 7K-TK was suspended..

1967 December 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 2435.
  • GIN BABY V research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 December 28 - .
  • Soviet space cadres stand down after Apollo 8 success - . Nation: USSR. Program: Apollo; Lunar L1. Flight: Apollo 8. Two to three days rest for the demoralised cadres is declared, before renewing anew the assault on the cosmos in January. Kamanin muses that some day Communism will be on all of the planets of the solar system, and men will travel in fully automated spacecraft. But full automation is the wrong approach now.

1968 December 28 - .
1968 December 28 - .
  • Birth of Akihito Hoshide - . Nation: Japan. Summary: Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-124. Underwent cosmonaut training in Russia, then Astronaut training in USA..

1969 December 28 - .
  • Sigurd A Sjoberg named Director of Flight Operations - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Summary: MSC announced the appointment of Sigurd A. Sjoberg as Director of Flight Operations, replacing Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., who had been appointed MSC Deputy Director Nov. 26. Sjoberg had been Deputy Director of Flight Operations since 1963..

1970 December 28 - .
1970 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1970 December 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 December 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1972 December 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 542 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1983-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6328 . COSPAR: 1972-106A. Apogee: 640 km (390 mi). Perigee: 527 km (327 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

1973 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100N.
  • Mod 1 state trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 28 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.30UG.
  • Crab occultation Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

1975 December 28 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1976 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • DP - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 December 28 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-06 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 17. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9635 . COSPAR: 1976-127A. Apogee: 13,594 km (8,446 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 59.5000 deg. Period: 257.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 December 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65072-415.
  • Cosmos 887 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 9637 . COSPAR: 1976-128A. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 947 km (588 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1977 December 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 December 28 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1069 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11173 . COSPAR: 1978-124A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1979 December 28 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 303-01.
  • Gorizont 3 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 13L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11648 . COSPAR: 1979-105A. Apogee: 35,831 km (22,264 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1980-1984; 40 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 30 August 2001 located at 47.84 deg E drifting at 0.163 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.81E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day..

1979 December 28 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1148 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11649 . COSPAR: 1979-106A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1982 December 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1426 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 69.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 13745 . COSPAR: 1982-120A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1983 December 28 - . 03:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1518 - . Payload: Oko #31. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1998-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14587 . COSPAR: 1983-126A. Apogee: 38,145 km (23,702 mi). Perigee: 2,019 km (1,254 mi). Inclination: 66.9000 deg. Period: 713.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1341. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 72 degree longitude of ascending node..

1985 December 28 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. Launch Pad: LC45/pad?. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Cosmos 1714 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. Decay Date: 1986-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 16434 . COSPAR: 1985-121A. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Summary: Tselina-2 ELINT satellite placed in unusable orbit due to second stage failure..

1988 December 28 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 1-74 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1998-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19730 . COSPAR: 1988-115A. Apogee: 39,002 km (24,234 mi). Perigee: 1,358 km (843 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1989 December 28 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 December 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-8 (26). FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Zhongxing-4 - . Payload: STTW 5. Mass: 1,025 kg (2,259 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21833 . COSPAR: 1991-088A. Apogee: 34,041 km (21,152 mi). Perigee: 2,023 km (1,257 mi). Inclination: 32.3000 deg. Period: 632.60 min. Summary: Third stage failure; unusable orbit. DFH-2 operational communications satellite..

1994 December 28 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 366-01.
  • Raduga 32 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 43L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 23448 . COSPAR: 1994-087A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.4100 deg. Period: 1,436.22 min. Raduga 32 joined Raduga 25 and Raduga 1-1 at 70 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1995-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.00 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 73.08E drifting at 0.033E degrees per day.

1995 December 28 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • IRS-1C - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23751 . COSPAR: 1995-072A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Indian Remote Sensing Satellite..
  • Skipper - . Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: BMDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Skipper. USAF Sat Cat: 23752 . COSPAR: 1995-072B. Apogee: 813 km (505 mi). Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Summary: Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission..

1995 December 28 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-7 (39).
  • Echostar 1 - . Mass: 3,288 kg (7,248 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: TCI. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Echostar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. USAF Sat Cat: 23754 . COSPAR: 1995-073A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 16 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 119 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 119 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 147.96 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 148.10W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

1996 December 28 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-21.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 December 28 - .
2000 December 28 - .
  • Galileo, Ganymede 29 Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Galileo.

2001 December 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2384 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27055 . COSPAR: 2001-058A. Apogee: 1,432 km (889 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. The Tsiklon put six military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites into a medium earth orbit. Due to a launch failure in 2000 this was the first replenishment of the Strela satellite constellation since 1998. The Tsiklon second stage burn was complete at 0329:02 UTC. The S5M stage separated and ignited at 0330 and shut down at 0332:00, placing the stage and satellite dispenser in a suborbital -550 x 1400 km orbit. A second burn at apogee at 0406:15 UTC put the stage in a 1400 km circular orbit. The three Gonets satellites separated first, beginning at 0407:28 UTC; the last of the three Kosmos/Strela satellites was ejected at 0408:33, with a perigee about 15 km higher than the first of the deployments.
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27058 . COSPAR: 2001-058D. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2386 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27057 . COSPAR: 2001-058C. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27059 . COSPAR: 2001-058E. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27060 . COSPAR: 2001-058F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2385 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27056 . COSPAR: 2001-058B. Apogee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..

2003 December 28 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-04.
  • Ekspress AM-22 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28134 . COSPAR: 2003-060A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0400 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min. Summary: The Ekspress AM-22 communications satellite was built by NPO PM and Alcatel Space for GPKS, the Russian Space Communications Company. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 52.99E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..

2005 December 28 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat Zh15000-015.
  • Giove-A - . Payload: GSTB-V2/A / Heavily modified Surrey MiniSat-400. Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: MiniSat-400. USAF Sat Cat: 28922 . COSPAR: 2005-051A. Apogee: 23,360 km (14,510 mi). Perigee: 23,314 km (14,486 mi). Inclination: 56.2000 deg. Period: 849.60 min. Summary: Delayed from September, October, December 26. Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element, a prototype for the Galileo European navigation satellite network. Giove carried carried two rubidium atomic clocks and a large L-band phased array antenna..

2007 December 28 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 12/28/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1; STS-122. CDR Whitson and FE-2 Tani began the day with the daily reading of SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure during Spaceflight) experiment data accumulated during the night, for logging and filling in questionnaire entries in the experiment's session file on the HRF-1 laptop for downlink.

    (To monitor the crewmembers' sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, Dan and Peggy wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him as well as his patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days, as part of the crew's discretionary 'job jar' task list.)

    Upon wakeup, FE-1 Yuri Malenchenko terminated his fifth MBI-12 SONOKARD experiment session, started last night, by taking the recording device from his SONOKARD sports shirt pocket and later copying the measurements to the RSE-MED laptop for subsequent downlink to the ground. (SONOKARD objectives are stated to (1) study the feasibility of obtaining the maximum of data through computer processing of records obtained overnight, (2) systematically record the crewmember's physiological functions during sleep, (3) study the feasibility of obtaining real-time crew health data. Investigators believe that contactless acquisition of cardiorespiratory data over the night period could serve as a basis for developing efficient criteria for evaluating and predicting adaptive capability of human body in long-duration space flight.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 12/28/07.


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