Encyclopedia Astronautica
December 30


December 30 Chronology


1925 December 30 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Goddard test of liquid rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Rocket trembled in its support for 8 sec. .

1930 December 30 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard's fifth flight of a liquid fuel rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.61 km (0.38 mi). Summary: The rocket reached an altitude of 2000 ft and a maximum speed of 500 mph. The vehicle was 11 ft long; empty weight 33.5 lb; a gas pressure tank was used to force liquid oxygen and gasoline into combustion chamber..

1931 December 30 - .
1943 December 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-091.
1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20820. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma414 313 X5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.0 km from aim point..

1949 December 30 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 sounding rocket variants authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On work on geophysical variants of the R-1 missile' was issued..

1953 December 30 - .
  • Birth of Dr Daniel Thomas Barry - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-96, STS-105..

1955 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 December 30 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Final R-5 launch as ABM target - . Nation: USSR. Summary: R-5M's launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system..

1957 December 30 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Saturn I first proposed. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Summary: Von Braun produces 'Proposal for a National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Plan'. First mention of 1,500,000 lbf booster (Saturn I).

1958 December 30 - .
  • Space Task Group evaluation of industry proposals for Mercury. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Space Task Group's technical assessment teams completed the evaluation of industry proposals for design and construction of a manned spacecraft and forwarded their findings to the Source Selection Board, NASA Headquarters..

1958 December 30 - .
  • Birth of Steven Lee Smith - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-82, STS-103, STS-110..

1961 December 30 - .
  • Second group of cosmonauts selected. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 10119 'On selection of sixty new cosmonauts. including five women' was issued..

1962 December 30 - .
  • Cosmonaut training plan for 1963 - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Summary: Each cosmonaut is to get 50 flight hours piloting aircraft, of which 25 are to be in fighters. The amount of academic and spacecflight training will be double the load of a normal VVS officer..

1963 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: R-14.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi).

1964 December 30 - .
  • Western reports - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Biryuzov; Komarov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2; Soyuz A-1; Soyuz A-2; Soyuz A-3; Soyuz A-4. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. A corespondent from the APN agency calls Kamanin and wants to know if the official press should react to the claims of a Belgian professor that all of the Soviet cosmonauts have returned from space with serious psychological problems. Kamanin says there is nothing to it, but that the best course is to ignore the report and publish no official response. Kamanin looks forward to the missions planned in the new year: first the Vykhod, the first spacewalk, followed by a 10 to 12 day mission by a single cosmonaut, then later crews of first two, and then five to six in joined Soyuz spacecraft. In 1966 the first space docking is planned, followed by the first lunar flyby. Kamanin feels apprehensive, though. All manned flights have been completed to date without a serious problem, whereas Soviet unmanned spacecraft have been extremely unreliable and failed more often than not. He attributes this to the involvement of the VVS in the manned flights, whereas the RVSN rocket forces were responsible for the others. He worries that, with the ascendancy of Brezhnev and the death of Biryuzkov, that standards will drop in the future. Indeed, the RVSN has asked if Komarov could transfer officially from the VVS to the RVSN, a move that Kamanin vigorously opposes.

    At least progress on improvements at TsPK are underway. One apartment building with 75 apartments for cosmonauts is already finished, and an 11 story building should be finished in 1965, as well as schools, nurseries, stores, and so on. Currently there are 17 active cosmonauts and 13 candidate cosmonauts in training. An additional 40 will have to be recruited in 1965 to support the ambitious space plans recently adopted.


1965 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 December 30 - .
  • NASA Hq officially promulgated mission objectives of the Apollo Applications AAP-l and AAP-2 flights. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop; Apollo LMSS. NASA Hq officially promulgated mission objectives of the AAP-l and AAP-2 flights. They were to conduct a low-altitude, low-inclination Earth-orbital mission with a three-man crew for a maximum of 28 days using a spent S-IVB stage as an OWS; to provide for reactivation and reuse of the OWS for subsequent missions within one year from initial launch; and to perform test operations with the lunar mapping and survey system in Earth orbit.

1968 December 30 - . LV Family: N1; Proton.
  • Meeting of the VPK Military-Industrial Commission to discuss how to beat the Americans to the lunar landing - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Ustinov; Chelomei; Okhapkin; Keldysh; Pilyugin; Babakin. Program: Lunar L3; Lunar L1; Luna. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Luna Ye-8-5; LK-1. Ustinov called the meeting to order. Mishin was 'sick' again -- Okhapkin represented TsKBEM and gave a summary of the programme to that date:

    • The project had only been authorised on 3 August 1964. It consisted of two parts, circumlunar flights using Chelomei's UR-500K booster and LK-1 spacecraft, and a lunar landing using Korolev's N1 booster and L3 spacecraft.
    • On 25 October 1965 the programme was redirected. Military support was ordered and the decision was made to cancel Chelomei's LK-1 spacecraft and instead use the L1 version of Korolev's Soyuz for the circumlunar flights. This was ordered by the resolution 'On organisation of construction units for support of rocket-space systems for the lunar flyby'. That resolution ordered a manned L1 flight by the end of 1967 or early 1968.
    • The program actually took three years to implement rather than the two planned. Nine launches of he L1 had been made since March 1967, but it had not been possible to man-rate the UR-500K/L1 booster/spacecraft combination due to failures in both the launch vehicle and spacecraft. Flight trials of the N1 booster had not even begun yet.

    Keldysh proposed that further work on the L1 be abandoned, and Proton boosters instead be used to launch the Ye-8-5 lunar soil return robot spacecraft being developed by Babakin. Babakin had been accelerating this programme since the beginning of 1968 with the support of Keldysh, even though it would only return around 100 g of lunar soil, versus the tens of kilograms the Apollo manned flights would return. However it now offered an interesting possibility - he proposed obtaining lunar soil and returning it to earth before an American manned landing. The government's organs of mass communication would say that the Soviet Union's lunar program only consisted of robot probes, emphasising that his was much safer and that Russia would never risk it's citizen's lives for mere political sensation. Additional Details: Meeting of the VPK Military-Industrial Commission to discuss how to beat the Americans to the lunar landing.


1969 December 30 - .
  • Soyuz 9 planned - Belyayev seriously ill. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Kolodin; Grechko; Mishin; Shatalov; Belyayev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The leadership suddenly announces that a solo Soyuz mission of 17 to 20 days is to be flown for Lenin's 100th birthday (April 22). This will seize the space endurance record from the Americans and provide biomedical information for the DOS station, to be flown by the end of the year. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov are being pushed for the job. Kamanin objects, he would prefer Kolodin or Grechko, but Mishin won't hear of it. During December Kamanin, the Shatalov Soyuz 7 crew, Sevastyanov, and their wives vacation at Sochi on the Black Sea. Meanwhile Belyayev becomes serious ill. Surgeons operate to remove 2/3 of his stomach, part of his long intestine, and his appendix.

1970 December 30 - .
  • Spacecraft simulator review. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Darevskiy. Program: Almaz; Salyut; Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Salyut 1; Almaz OPS; Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK. Trainer review with S G Darevskiy. It is estimated that the trainers only meet 25% to 30% of the total training needs of the cosmonauts. In the next year Kamanin wants Darevskiy to exert 75% of his effort on the Almaz simulator, 20% on the DOS-7K, and only 5% on the L3. Mishin wants zero effort on Almaz, 70% on DOS-7K, and 30% on the L3.

1970 December 30 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Agency: SUPARCO. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1971 December 30 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1972 December 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1973 December 30 - .
1974 December 30 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1975 December 30 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1976 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1977 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 December 30 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1981 December 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1982 December 30 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1983 December 30 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 39 km (24 mi).

1985 December 30 - .
  • Stephen Synnott's Discovery of Uranus Moon Puck - . Nation: USA.

1985 December 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart LOKI /PWN-.
  • Final US MET Loki Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1987 December 30 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1994 December 30 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 11E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 14 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 23455 . COSPAR: 1994-089A. Apogee: 861 km (534 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.8800 deg. Period: 102.02 min.

1995 December 30 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-X. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10 D230.
  • XTE - . Payload: Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: XTE. USAF Sat Cat: 23757 . COSPAR: 1995-074A. Apogee: 583 km (362 mi). Perigee: 565 km (351 mi). Inclination: 23.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Summary: X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy..

1998 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 385-02.
  • Cosmos 2362 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25593 . COSPAR: 1998-077A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,082 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2364 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25595 . COSPAR: 1998-077C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2363 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25594 . COSPAR: 1998-077B. Apogee: 19,163 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2000 December 30 - .
  • Cassini, Jupiter Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2004 December 30 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #04-70 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Chiao; Sharipov. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-10. Summary: The Expedition 10 crew wrapped up its last week of 2004 unloading contents from the newly arrived Russian Progress cargo vehicle and making plans to ring in the new year Space Station style.. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #04-70.

2005 December 30 - .
2007 December 30 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 12/30/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16. Sunday -- off-duty day for CDR Whitson, FE-1 Malenchenko and FE-2 Tani.

    New Year's Eve's Eve! Ahead: Week 11 of Increment 16.

    Peggy Whitson and Dan Tani began the day with the daily reading of SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight) experiment data accumulated during the night, for logging and filling in questionnaire entries in the experiment's session file on the HRF-1 laptop for downlink. (To monitor the crewmembers' sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, Dan and Peggy wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him as well as his patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days, as part of the crew's discretionary 'job jar' task list.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 12/30/07.


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