Encyclopedia Astronautica
February 23


February 23 Chronology


1924 February 23 - .
  • Birth of Ruben F Mettler - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, at TRW 1955-1988, president and COO, 1969-1977; chairman of the board and CEO, 1977-1988..

1928 February 23 - .
  • Birth of Vasili Grigoryevich Lazarev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch..

1936 February 23 - . Launch Vehicle: ARS.
  • US rocket mail test. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ley. Apogee: 0.20 km (0.12 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: F. W. Kessler, W. Ley, and N. Carver launched two mail-carrying "rocket airplanes" at Greenwood Lake, N.Y., which traveled about 1,000 feet..

1944 February 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17071. FAILURE: Early cut-off.
1945 February 23 - . 03:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Esbeek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted near Esbeek, Netherlands..

1949 February 23 - .
1950 February 23 - .
  • Birth of Jerry Jerome Rij - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Served at Onizuka AFB, California. Retired from the Air Force in 1995. Thereafter worked in private industry in Virginia..

1950 February 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 39R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 February 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 429ST.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 February 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1709T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 February 23 - .
  • Birth of Clayton Conrad Anderson - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-15-1, STS-131..

1960 February 23 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique. LV Configuration: Veronique AGI23. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CASDN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 February 23 - .
  • Studies on the separation of the Mercury spacecraft during an emergency - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury; Mercury Escape Tower. As of this date, the Space Task Group, Convair-Astronautics, Space Technology Laboratories, McDonnell, and the Marshall Space Flight Center had completed a number of extensive studies on the subject of the safe separation of the Mercury spacecraft from the launch vehicle during an emergency. The following papers include a report of these studies: NASA Project Mercury Working Paper No. 111, 'Mercury-Redstone Separation Distance ...'; NASA Project Mercury Working Paper No. 141, 'Dispersion Study of Separation Distance ...for Mercury-Redstone'; and NASA Working Paper No. 152, 'Determination of Mercury Escape Rocket Thrust Eccentricity ...from Mercury-Atlas Booster.'

1962 February 23 - .
  • Dyna-Soar limited to an orbital research system. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara, officially limited the objective of the Dyna-Soar program to the development of an orbital, research system. Now it is only a research and development program to demonstrate re-entry and landing of a spaceplane..

1962 February 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 1. LV Configuration: Titan I SM-18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Research and development Cat II / operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1963 February 23 - .
  • Checkout of Mercury spacecraft 20 scheduled for completion - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Manned Spacecraft Center checkout and special hardware installation at Cape Canaveral on spacecraft 20 were scheduled for completion as of this date. However, work tasks were extended for a 2-week period because of the deletion of certain experimental hardware - zero g experiment and new astronaut couch. In addition, some difficulties were experienced while testing the space reaction control system and environmental control system.

1965 February 23 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2G. LV Configuration: Thor DSV-2G 248.
  • ASSET 6 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi). Suborbital test of small scale spaceplane model to test materials for the X-20 Dynasoar. Reached 6,000 m/s and 4,350 km range. Tested twelve different kinds of refractory metals and covered with 2000 dots of heat-sensitive paint to characterize thermal profile on reentry. Telemetry indicated that the spacecraft survived reentry, but it evidently sank upon impacting the ocean and could not be recovered as planned.

1965 February 23 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Javelin. LV Configuration: Nike Javelin Sphere 14.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 February 23 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: HAD. LV Configuration: HAD 186.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 February 23 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-14.
  • ESRO C14 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1967 February 23 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena D037.
  • USN D037 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1968 February 23 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.35UE.
  • Aurora Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi).

1968 February 23 - . 06:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.67UA.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C37/1.
  • ESRO C37 / 1 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 February 23 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Berenice. Launch Vehicle: Tibere.
  • ELECTRE Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 February 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-28 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 February 23 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1F.
  • MOK technical proposal authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: MKBS. Summary: Decree 'On work on the technical proposal for the creation of the MOK' was issued..

1972 February 23 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo. LV Configuration: Cockatoo 1024.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1973 February 23 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-42.
  • Cesium Release Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi).

1973 February 23 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P113H.
  • Electrons / La Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1974 February 23 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 February 23 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1977 February 23 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-1 Delta. LV Configuration: N-1 N-3(F).
  • Kiku 2 - . Payload: ETS 2. Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9852 . COSPAR: 1977-014A. Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,439.70 min. Engineering test satellite. Engineering Test Satellite Type II (ETS II), Kiku 2. Launch by N launch vehicle no 3. Geographical longitude of the geostationary orbit: 130 deg E. Preliminary experiments to acquire technologies to launch,track, and control geostationary satellites. P ropagation experiment of millimetre and quasi-millimetre waves. Characteristics: Weight at launch 245 kg. Configuration: cylindrical. Height 191 cm including antenna. Diameter 141 cm. Attitude control: spin stabilization. Expected life at least 6 months. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 130 deg E in 1977-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 16.93 deg E drifting at 0.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.65W drifting at 0.986W degrees per day.

1977 February 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.53DH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1978 February 23 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 February 23 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1980 February 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT140M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1980 February 23 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Southend. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB ADD-VB-52.
  • Pulsating aurora Aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1981 February 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1982 February 23 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1983 February 23 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-0488.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1984 February 23 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.38GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1984 February 23 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB NASA 21.86UE.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1986 February 23 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1987 February 23 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 February 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1989 February 23 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1990 February 23 - . 07:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10CM1. LV Configuration: Black Brant 10CM1 NASA 35.20UE.
  • ARCS 4 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 586 km (364 mi).

1991 February 23 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 23 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Pad: IRAQ-S. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: Al Hussein.
  • Dhahran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1992 February 23 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D207.
  • USA 79 - . Payload: GPS 2A-12 / GPS SVN 25. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 21890 . COSPAR: 1992-009A. Apogee: 20,332 km (12,633 mi). Perigee: 20,032 km (12,447 mi). Inclination: 54.2000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane A Slot 2..

1996 February 23 - . 19:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.143UE.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1996 February 23 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.145NP.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 February 23 - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Prithvi. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi. LV Configuration: Prithvi 2-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1997 February 23 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Super Chief. Launch Vehicle: LCLV. LV Configuration: LCLV MSX CEP 2.
  • MDT III Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1997 February 23 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B/IUS 4B-24 (K-24, 45D-4).
  • USA 130 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F18. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 24737 . COSPAR: 1997-008A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Summary: DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1999. Still in service as of March 2007..

1998 February 23 - .
  • Mir News 409: Progress-M37 redocked at Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. The docking took place on 23.02.1998 at 09.42.27 UTC (in my Progress-M37 message I wrote 09.43.27, sorry, slip of the finger!). Approach and docking were executed in the automatic mode with the system Kurs. During the final phase of the operation Musabayev was ready to take over the control manually with the system TORU. The window for traffic via Altair-2 was in use from 0857 UTC until the docking. Musabayev reported about what they did in relation to the approach operation. At 0858 UTC Musabayev reported that he could see the lights of the Progress-M37. Later on he reported what he could see via monitors of the Kurs and TORU systems. At 0859 UTC M. started a test of TORU. The system worked well and reacted faultlessly on all commands. When he switched off TORU at 0905 UTC he reported that the test results were positive. Hereafter he continued to follow the movements of Progress-M37 and he reported the distances and approach speeds.

    At 0910 UTC audio communications via Altair-2 stopped and from that moment Altair-2 transmitted images of the Mir-complex seen via a camera in the Progress. At that moment the distance was 220 meters and the approach speed 0.8 M/sec. At 0930 UTC, Mir still could be seen via Altair-2, communications continued via VHF. Also the transmitters of Progress-M37 on 922.755 and in the 166 and 165 mc bands could be heard. TCA for my position was 09.30.40 UTC. During this VHF-window the crew got permission for the docking and at LOS at 0937 UTC the distance between Mir and Progress-M37 was 162 meters with an approach speed of 0.94 M/sec. Fortunately it was reported that the docking had been successful.

    During the next window of Altair-2 the transponders were switched on at 1023 UTC and Musabayev tried to get in touch with TsUP. He repeatedly called TsUP, but did not get any reaction. Just before Altair-2 switched off there was a short link at 1047 UTC.

    Smell: After the opening of the hatch of Progress-M37 some orbits later a strong terrible smell came out the freighter. Possibly a bag or container with garbage had gone open. The crew decided to set the hatch to the Progress ajar.

    . Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 February 23 - . 10:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-X. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10 D267.
  • ARGOS - . Payload: P91-1. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SM. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft: ARGOS. USAF Sat Cat: 25634 . COSPAR: 1999-008A. Apogee: 836 km (519 mi). Perigee: 821 km (510 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 101.50 min. Summary: ARGOS was a USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite, equipped with an ion engine, ionosphere, x-ray, and dust detectors. Much delayed, it finally was placed into orbit on the eleventh (!) launch attempt..
  • Orsted - . Mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Nation: Denmark. Agency: DMI. Manufacturer: CRI. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Orsted. USAF Sat Cat: 25635 . COSPAR: 1999-008B. Apogee: 839 km (521 mi). Perigee: 638 km (396 mi). Inclination: 96.5000 deg. Period: 99.60 min. Summary: Denmark's Orsted gravity gradient stabilised satellite was to map the Earth's magnetic field. It was managed and operated by the Danish Meteorological Institute in Copenhagen. The satellite's prime contractor was CRI , Copenhagen..
  • Sunsat - . Nation: South Africa. Agency: Boeing. Manufacturer: Stellenbosch. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sunsat. USAF Sat Cat: 25636 . COSPAR: 1999-008C. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 641 km (398 mi). Inclination: 96.5000 deg. Period: 99.80 min. Summary: Sunsat was built by students at Stellenbosch University, South Africa and carried a small imager and a message relay payload..

2000 February 23 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Atmospheric Waves Aeronomy mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

2002 February 23 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V148.
  • Intelsat 904 - . Mass: 4,680 kg (10,310 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 27380 . COSPAR: 2002-007A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Launch delayed from February 14 and 20. The Ariane 44L placed the Loral FS-1300HL-class Intelsat 904 satellite in a 176 x 35812 km x 7.0 deg geostationary transfer orbit. The spacecraft was to be used for Indian Ocean region communications. Intelsat 904 had a dry mass of 2350 kg and carried 2330 kg of fuel. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 59.96E drifting at 0.000E degrees per day.

2006 February 23 - . 16:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kodiak. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS. LV Configuration: STARS M-7 FT04-1.
  • GMD FT04-1 Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SMDC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 February 23 - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: DF-15. Launch Vehicle: Shaheen 2.
  • - . Nation: Pakistan. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2008 February 23 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-IIA 2024. LV Configuration: H-IIA 2024 s/n F14.
  • Kizuna - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: Mitsubishi. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Kizuna. USAF Sat Cat: 32500 . COSPAR: 2008-007A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. WINDS, the Wide-band Internetworking Engineering Test and Demonstration Satellite, was designed to demonstrate delivery of high bandwidth Ka-band Internet service to remote areas of Japan and Southeast Asia from geostationary orbit at 143 deg E. Users with a small 45 cm in diameter antenna could receive data at up to 155 Mbps and transmit data at up to 6 Mbps.

2011 February 23 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion Sounding Rocket.
  • REXUS 10 - . Nation: Sweden. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi). Summary: Microgravity experiments..

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