Encyclopedia Astronautica
February 27


February 27 Chronology


1910 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Clarence L 'Kelly' Johnson - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, at Lockheed 1933-1975, headed 'Skunk Works' design shop, responsible for F-80, F-104, Suntan, U-2,, and SR-71 designs among many others..

1912 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Helmut Hoelzer - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from 1939 on V-2 guidance system and Messina telemetry system. Led similar efforts for von Braun's later missiles, becoming Director, Computation Division, at Huntsville..

1937 February 27 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.46 km (0.29 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with new parachute release operated by gyro; altitude 1500 ft; duration 20 sec; speed very high; landed 3000 ft from tower, softened ground for considerable distance..

1945 February 27 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, (failure). Exploded at high altitude..

1952 February 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 25.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 February 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 347.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Robert Buck Crombie - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988..

1956 February 27 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-1; R-2; R-5; R-7.
  • Soviet Leadership tours Korolev's design bureau - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Bulganin; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev, Molotov, Bulganin, and other leaders are given a tour of Korolev’s OKB-1 in Kaliningrad. They are shown the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles as well as a mock-up of the R-7 and are awed. Ustinov reports that only five warheads would be needed to destroy Britain, and seven to nine for France. The need for the R-12 was discussed - the longer range was essential so that the missiles could be based farther from NATO’s borders (the experience of the German invasion and quick destruction of forward-based units and equipment was on everyone’s minds).

1957 February 27 - . LV Family: Navaho. Launch Vehicle: Navaho.
  • Navaho - the beginning of the end. - . Nation: USA. Program: Navaho. With the Navaho stuck on the pad, and the Atlas ICBM nearing first flight, the Air Force began cutting back funds to the Navaho. Advertising for construction of G-38 production missile support facilities at the Cape was pulled, and the program was rescheduled to accommodate a 32% funding cutback in 1958, with construction limited to 16 G-26 missiles and the first G-38 flight delayed from June 1958 to February 1959.

1958 February 27 - .
  • NACA estimated weights for manned reentry vehicle too low. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mercury; X-15A. Experience with the X-15 design indicated that many of the weight figures advanced by the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory for the drag or lift configurations of the reentry vehicle (later to become the Mercury spacecraft) were too low, according to Walter C. Williams, Chief of the NACA High-Speed Flight Station. Weights of auxiliary-power fuel, research instrumentation, and cockpit equipment as set by Langley were too low in terms of X-15 experience. Williams stated the total weight should be 2,300 pounds for the drag configuration and 2,500 pounds for the lifting configuration.

1958 February 27 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-43.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Successfully fired at 1459 hours EST from the AMR. The flight was successful in that all missions were accomplished. Impact was 461 meters over end 64 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, a radial miss distance of 466 meters. Missed aimpoint by 245 m.

1959 February 27 - . 15:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1959 February 27 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26B. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. LV Configuration: Jupiter IRBM CM-22.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF; NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Fired from AMR at 1850 hours EST. The primary mission of impacting the nose cone in a pre-calculated target (MILS Network) was successfully accomplished, The nose cone impacted in the 1,302 nm target area, 2.8 nm over, with no lateral deviations. Again, the vernier engine ran to cut-off rather than the commanded 14 seconds -- a near perfect flight. For the first rime, missile roll was controlled by a turbine exhaust nozzle designed to eliminate problems experienced on previous flights.

1960 February 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island.
  • Third Echo balloon test. - . Nation: USA. Summary: 100-foot-diameter inflatable sphere successfully launched on third suborbital test to an altitude of 225 miles, from NASA Wallops Station, Va. Radio transmissions were reflected via the sphere from Holmdel, N.J., to Round Hill, Mass..

1960 February 27 - . 06:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi. LV Configuration: Aerobee Hi AA4.360C.
  • JHU Aurora 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1960 February 27 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 3.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1961 February 27 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 L2-1.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1962 February 27 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 241 / Agena B 1123.
  • Discoverer 38 - . Payload: KH-4 s/n 9031 / Agena B 1123. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1962-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 247 . COSPAR: 1962-Epsilon-1. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: First mission of the KH-4 series. Much of film slightly out of focus.. Capsule recovered 4.1 days later..

1963 February 27 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.86CI.
  • Eclipse inst test Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1964 February 27 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate (BP) 19 drop tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Boilerplate (BP) 19 was drop tested at El Centro, Calif., simulating flight conditions and recovery of BP-12. A second BP-19 drop, on April 8, removed all constraints on the BP-12 configuration and earth landing system. Another aim, to obtain information on vehicle dynamics, was not accomplished because of the early firing of a backup drogue parachute.

1964 February 27 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 February 27 - . 13:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1.
  • Cosmos 25 - . Payload: DS-P1 s/n 4. Mass: 355 kg (782 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1. Completed Operations Date: 1964-11-21 . Decay Date: 1964-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 757 . COSPAR: 1964-010A. Apogee: 495 km (307 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 49.1000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems..

1965 February 27 - .
  • State Commission on Cosmos 57 - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The final conclusion is as before, that simultaneous transmission of the air release command from IP-6 and IP-7 started the chain of events leading to the self-destruction of the spacecraft. It is decided that a Zenit planned for 4-8 March will fly with the Vykhod airlock ring, followed by the E-6 launch on 12 March, and the Voskhod-2 launch with a crew aboard for 15-20 March.

1965 February 27 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 February 27 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 211D.
  • ABRES LORV-4 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1965 February 27 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache AE5.556.
  • Neutral / Ion / Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1965 February 27 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache AE5.486.
  • Neutral / Ion / Sphere Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1966 February 27 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.251UM.
  • UM Pitot 20 / AS-201 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1967 February 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 143 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 45. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2693 . COSPAR: 1967-017A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Placed into orbit with 22.8 second period different from that planned. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1968 February 27 - .
1968 February 27 - .
  • Soviet on plan through 1975 for automated probes to the moon and planets. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Barmin; Tereshkova. Spacecraft: DLB Lunar Base; Luna Ye-8; Luna Ye-8-5. Keldysh heads a Soviet on plans through 1975 for automated probes and space research of the moon and planets. Barmin attends, his interest being the relation of this work to his lunar base. Kamanin finds the plan not well thought out... Tereshkova sees Kamanin and tells him she cannot handle the stress of both political demands on her time and cosmonaut training. She wants Kamanin's assistance to get her out of political tasks.

1968 February 27 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.350CA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1968 February 27 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1969 February 27 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.321UE.
  • Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1970 February 27 - .
  • DOS schedules, Soyuz Kontakt flights still in play - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Bogomolov. Program: Soyuz; Salyut; Lunar L3; Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz n 17; Soyuz n 18; Soyuz n 19; Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt; Almaz OPS; Soyuz OB-VI; Soyuz VI. A meeting is held on the DOS project. The Central Committee and Soviet Ministers have directed that two DOS space stations be completed by the end of 1970. TsNIIMASH thinks this is impossible - the task can be accomplished in no less than 18 to 24 months. Mishin insists it can be done in ten months, as directed. Kamanin believes he won't even have it ready by the second half of 1971. It took five to seven years to just bring the Almaz, Soyuz VI, and L1 to flight status. This DOS will stop work on all other projects. Mishin still wants to fly two Soyuz spacecraft to test Bogomolov's Kontakt docking system for the L3.

1970 February 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Summary: Maximum altitude. Maximum Speed - 1400 kph. Maximum Altitude - 27524 m. Flight Time - 416 sec..

1970 February 27 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2. LV Configuration: Skua 2 SM-7022.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1970 February 27 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 324 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 32. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-05-23 . Decay Date: 1970-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4338 . COSPAR: 1970-014A. Apogee: 465 km (288 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 February 27 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2. LV Configuration: Skua 2 SM-7029.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1971 February 27 - .
  • Mishin plans to get Almaz cancelled. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kutakhov; Karas; Mishin; Chelomei. Program: Almaz; Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1; Almaz OPS; Spiral OS. Kamanin has a meeting scheduled with Chelomei, but this is cancelled and he is called to another meeting with Mishin -- all to advance Mishin's agenda. Mishin complains that he doesn't know what the Almaz project is about. He claims Chelomei has spent half a billion roubles so far, and has nothing to show for it. Mishin, on the other hand, has two DOS stations ready to fly, done at a cost of only 80 million roubles. But Kamanin knows very well who has really wasted hundreds of millions of roubles - Mishin. Mishin produces his plans for DOS#3 and DOS#4 follow-on stations. These are to be copies of Almaz, delivered in 18 months. Mishin says he is building ten 7K-S for the spacecraft, despite the fact that Karas at GUKOS is not interested in manned spaceflight. Afterwards Kamanin tells Kutakhov to warn Chelomei that he must support the VVS' 7K-S and Spiral projects, if he wants VVS support for Almaz.

1971 February 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT80M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1973 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1974 February 27 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 633 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 71. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1974-10-04 . Decay Date: 1974-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 7187 . COSPAR: 1974-010A. Apogee: 491 km (305 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1975 February 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 February 27 - .
  • Military space plan through 1990 approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On long-range military use of space up to 1990' was issued..

1976 February 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • ABRES ANT-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1977 February 27 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1978 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Thomas Pesquet - . Nation: France. Summary: French engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on..

1978 February 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 27 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVB AAF-4B-35.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi).

1978 February 27 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.1017UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1979 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1079 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 15. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11283 . COSPAR: 1979-019A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft depressurization led to malfunction of spacecraft. Deorbited after 12 days..

1979 February 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47155-107.
  • Intercosmos 19 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-I-IK. Mass: 1,015 kg (2,237 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-04-27 . Decay Date: 2002-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11285 . COSPAR: 1979-020A. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Comprehensive investigations of the structure of the earth's ionosphere, the characteristics of wave processes and the propagation of radio waves in the ionospheric plasma. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Peopl e's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Polish People's Republic. Additional Details: Intercosmos 19.

1980 February 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT73GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1981 February 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1982 February 27 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart T 1-0109.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1983 February 27 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Punta Lobos. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.28UE.
  • Project Condor Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1984 February 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.43UU.
  • CWAS 8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1985 February 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-23. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh61. LV Configuration: RT-23U 15Zh61 15Zh61.
  • rail - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 February 27 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1630 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 55.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 15582 . COSPAR: 1985-017A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1985 February 27 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47134-139.
  • Cosmos 1631 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1990-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 15584 . COSPAR: 1985-018A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..

1986 February 27 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1735 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 16620 . COSPAR: 1986-021A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 419 km (260 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1987 February 27 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 February 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 634. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 February 27 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1990 February 27 - . 20:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53711-228.
  • Nadezhda 2 - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 20508 . COSPAR: 1990-017A. Apogee: 1,018 km (632 mi). Perigee: 953 km (592 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 14 of constellation. Maritime navigation. Signals at 150,00 MHz and 400.00 MHz. Carried COSPAR/SARSAT search and rescue package. Location of vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet; work within the international space search and rescue system for locating vessels and aircraft in distress (COSPAS-SARSAT).

1991 February 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1992 February 27 - .
  • Mir News 123: Russian Space Agency created - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir LD-3. YELSTIN SIGNED DECREE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE R.K.A.:

    R.K.A. stands for Rossiyskoe Kosmicheskoye Agentsvo, so Russian Space Agency. For a long time the Russian parliament discussed about the need to establish such an organisation. Its tasks and possibilities, but also the relation to parliament and government, are almost equal to that of the American NASA. Projects for space-operations have to be submitted to that R.K.A. The R.K.A. investigates the project and evaluates the need, necessity, costs and eventual contribution from state-funds. Projects aimed to achieve political- or chauvinistic prestige will not have any chance. After analysing a project this will be send to the parliament for consent about eventual funding. The president can put his veto on it. After consent the project will be send back to R.K.A. R.K.A. asks for offers of firms, scientific institutes, enterprises, national as well as international ones, on the basis of free enterprise and free market and selects those who will get the order(-s). After that R.K.A. has to keep control on the execution of the orders. It will take some time before such an organisation is operational and in fact it is already a little bit late.

    RIDICULOUS AND EXAGGERATED INFORMATION ABOUT BAD HEALTH AND MOOD OF Mir CREW:

    For a long time, more or less caused by 'glasnost' and the bad economic situation in the CIS-states, the (ex-) Soviet press critically and even with denigration reported about their national space exploration. For a few weeks that same press gradually seem to be inclined to change this policy a little bit due to a moderate positive attitude towards 'space' of Yeltsin. A lot of Russian journalists still entertain grievances about the fact, that not a Russian, but a Japanese journalist flew in a Russian space-station. Average reports about space-station Mir are still below zero and a lot these reports find their way to the West. Regretfully the spokesmen and public relations officers of space-organisations in the CIS are still very passive and miss the skill and willingness of their western colleagues to fight for their cause. Negative reports, for instance articles in Komsomolskaye Pravda, Izvestiya and others, are extra exaggerated while proceeding along western press-channels. The cosmonauts hear a lot from western news-agencies and from radio-amateurs around the world and sometimes do not believe their ears. On Febr. 17th Moscow-TV relayed a direct TV-session with Mir and the viewers could see how healthy and active the cosmonauts were. I myself know by day to day observations that the crew has a very good health and a high morale. Of course they meet problems, technical failures, even serious ones, but they always keep good hearth and in co-operation with experts on TsUP they resolve problems by repairing or replacing equipment or systems. Radio-amateurs, who have the possibility to communicate with the crew or to exchange information via Packet Radio, certainly will share my opinion. I will advise you all: take all press-reports about Mir, not with a pinch, but with some pounds of salt.

    C.M. van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1993 February 27 - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion Sounding Rocket. LV Configuration: Orion DLR K-O-200.
  • Strafam 3 / 21 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1994 February 27 - .
  • Death of Laurence C Craigie at Riverside, CA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Craigie. Summary: American test pilot. First American to fly a jet aircraft, the XP-59. After WW2 he directed Air Force research and development programs. USAF deputy chief of staff for development, 1951-1954. Retired 1955 after a heart attack..

1997 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1998 February 27 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V106.
  • Hot Bird 4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25237 . COSPAR: 1998-013A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Geostationary at 13.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 2 June 2001 located at 14.35 deg E drifting at 0.065 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 7.18W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

2000 February 27 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

2001 February 27 - . 21:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401B. LV Configuration: Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-41/TC-22 (K-30).
  • USA 157 - . Payload: Milstar-2 DFS 4. Mass: 4,670 kg (10,290 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Milstar. USAF Sat Cat: 26715 . COSPAR: 2001-009A. Apogee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.05 min. Military Communications satellite. Launch delayed from October 30, December 14, 2000, and February 2 and February 24, 2001. The Milstar DFS 4 satellite (the second Milstar Block 2) provided secure communications for the US Department of Defense, with UHF, EHF and SHF band transmitters. Titan 4B-41 with core stage K-30 took off from Cape Canaveral and placed Milstar and the Centaur TC-22 upper stage in a suborbital trajectory. TC-22 then ignited to enter a 200 km parking orbit, and after two more burns delivered Milstar to geosynchronous drift orbit. Small engines on board the Milstar placed it at its targeted geostationary position. USA 157, a 4.5 tonne spacecraft, was the first in the Milstar 2 series which was capable of higher data rates and was more secure against disabling efforts.

2004 February 27 - . 21:17 GMT - .
  • EVA ISS EO-8-1 - . Crew: Foale; Kaleri. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Foale; Kaleri. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-8. The astronauts retrieved and replaced and replaced science instruments on the ISS Pirs and Zvezda modules. These included sample materials that had been exposed to space for two years and a radiation phantom that measured doses a human would have received. The spacewalk, planned for 5 hours 45 minutes duration, was cut short when the cooling circuit in Kaleri's suit malfunctioned and he reported seeing drops of water on his helmet visor. This was the first time NASA had dared to send the entire crew of the station out on an EVA in the ISS program (though common Russian practice during their Mir project).

2006 February 27 - .
  • Cassini, Titan Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2008 February 27 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 02/27/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Behnken; Doi; Eyharts; Foreman; Gorie; Johnson, Gregory H; Linnehan; Love; Malenchenko; Reisman; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-2; ISS EO-16-3; STS-122; STS-123. Upon wakeup, FE--2 Eyharts performed the last sampling of his first session with the NASA/JSC experiment NUTRITION w/Repository, collecting a final urine sample for storage in the MELFI (Minus-Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS).

    The sampling kit was then stowed away. Leo's next NUTRITION/Repository activity will be his Flight Day 30 (FD30) session. (The current NUTRITION project is the most comprehensive in-flight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight. It includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes, expanding the previous Clinical Nutritional Assessment profile (MR016L) testing in three ways: Addition of in-flight blood & urine collection (made possible by MELFI), normative markers of nutritional assessment, and a return session plus 30-day (R+30) session to allow evaluation of post-flight nutrition and implications for rehabilitation.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 02/27/08.


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