Encyclopedia Astronautica
January 16


January 16 Chronology


1907 January 16 - .
  • Birth of Paul H Nitze - . Nation: USA. Summary: American manager, director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-1946, senior defense department positions 1961-1969..

1945 January 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20850. FAILURE: Failed 30 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma380 V6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1946 January 16 - .
1946 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 flight tests in US initiated. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. U.S. upper atmosphere research program initiated with captured German V-2 rockets. A V-2 panel of representatives of various interested agencies was created, and a total of more than 60 V-2's were fired before the supply ran out. The Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University then undertook to develop a medium-altitude rocket, the Aerobee, while the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) directed its efforts to the development of a large high-altitude rocket, first called the Neptune, later the Viking.

1948 January 16 - .
  • Birth of Anatoliy Yakovlevich Solovyov - . Nation: Latvia; Russia. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-24. Record number of spacewalks and time spent on space walks. 651 cumulative days in space..

1948 January 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 65 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 17. Airspeed calibration. Mach 0.9..

1951 January 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas A.
  • Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas) begins. - . Nation: USA. Air Force established Project MX-1593 (Project Atlas), study phase for an intercontinental missile. Requirements included 8000-pound warhead, 5000 nautical mile range, to hit within 1500 ft. CEP. $1.5 million study contract was awarded to Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft on January 23. This was the follow-on to Project MX-774 terminated in 1947. Several test vehicles had been fired using residual funds in 1948 and 1949, after which the Convair MX-774 (Atlas) missile project had been shelved. The company, however, had continued to fund a research program.

1951 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E. LV Configuration: Corporal E 7R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1952 January 16 - .
1953 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 6E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 January 16 - .
1958 January 16 - .
  • US national space program to be a cooperative effort - . Nation: USA. NACA adopted a resolution recommending that the national space program be a cooperative effort by DOD, NACA, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science Foundation, together with the universities, research institutions, and industrial companies. NACA viewed the development and operation of military space vehicles as the responsibility of DOD, while NACA's primary interest lay in the scientific exploration of space.

1958 January 16 - . LV Family: Little Joe. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe.
  • Little Joe launch vehicle conceived. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Paul E. Purser and Maxime A. Faget conceived of a solid-fuel launch vehicle design for the research and development phase of a manned satellite vehicle project. This launch vehicle was later designated Little Joe. When Project Mecury began in October 1958, the purposeof the Little Joe phase was to propel a full-scale, full-weight developmental version of the manned spacecraft to some of the flight conditions that would be encountered during exit from the atmosphere on an orbital mission. Also, Little Joe tests were used to perfect the escape maneuver in the event of an aborted mission.

1958 January 16 - .
  • X-1B Flight 26 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1B. Summary: NACA flight 16. Low-altitude, low-mach reaction-control investigation..

1959 January 16 - . LV Family: Jupiter; Redstone.
  • Eight Redstone and two Jupiter launch vehicles for Mercury - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Mercury. Summary: NASA requested the Army Ordnance Missile Command, Huntsville, Alabama, to construct and launch eight Redstone launch vehicles and two Jupiter launch vehicles in support of Project Mercury manned and unmanned flights..

1959 January 16 - .
  • OKB-2 becomes independent design bureau. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On separation of OKB-2 from NII-88' was issued..

1959 January 16 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas B. LV Configuration: Atlas B 13B. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 January 16 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 2.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi).

1961 January 16 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury MR-1A postlaunch system evaluation tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Summary: The Mercury-Redstone 1A (MR-1A) postlaunch system evaluation tests were completed at Cape Canaveral. Data disclosed that the instrumentation system, communication system, and other components had operated satisfactorily during the flight mission..

1962 January 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury spacecraft 16 delivered to Cape Canaveral - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Spacecraft 16 was delivered to Cape Canaveral for the third manned (Schirra) orbital flight, Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8)..

1962 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Mon / X-ray counter Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 January 16 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 363 / Agena B 2313.
  • OPS 0180 - . Payload: Ferret 3 / Agena B 2313. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1969-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 527 . COSPAR: 1963-003A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 81.9000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1964 January 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 870.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 January 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 438.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 January 16 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Kura state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi).

1964 January 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.125CA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1964 January 16 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.126CA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 January 16 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: 36.1 N x 116.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-25-42.
  • X-15A Sharp Upper Vert test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 21 km (13 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5216 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21641 m..

1965 January 16 - .
  • Simulated off-the-pad ejection (SOPE) qualification testing resumed. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Ejection. After a long delay because pyrotechnics were not available, simulated off-the-pad ejection (SOPE) qualification testing resumed with SOPE No. 12. Performance of the left seat was completely satisfactory, but the right seat rocket catapult fired prematurely because the right hatch actuator malfunctioned. The seat collided with the hatch and failed to leave the test vehicle. All hatch actuators were modified to preclude repetition of this failure. After being tested, the redesigned hatch actuators were used in SOPE No. 13 on February 12. The test was successful, and all systems functioned properly. This portion of the qualification test program came to a successful conclusion with SOPE No. 14 on March 6. The complete ejection system functioned as designed, and all equipment was recovered in excellent condition.

1966 January 16 - .
  • National Academy of Sciences report outlining research objectives in lunar and planetary exploration for the 1970s and early 1980s. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Viking. The Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences issued a report outlining research objectives in lunar and planetary exploration for the 1970s and early 1980s. The report affirmed earlier recommendations by the Space Science Board to NASA that unmanned exploration of Mars should have first priority in the post- Apollo space era. Secondary importance was assigned to detailed investigation of the lunar surface and to unmanned Venus probes. Clearly, the report reflected a predominant mood within the scientific community that scientific research in space take predominance over manned programs whose chief objectives, said the report, were 'other than scientific.' Additional Details: National Academy of Sciences report outlining research objectives in lunar and planetary exploration for the 1970s and early 1980s..

1967 January 16 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AF07.654.
  • IRIS (TMA) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).

1967 January 16 - . 22:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AF07.503.
  • Release Ba Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1967 January 16 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AF07.653.
  • JILL (TMA) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 January 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B (64-011).
  • ST - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 199 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 59. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3099 . COSPAR: 1968-003C. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft failed to separate from Block I stage. Attempt was made to conduct mission without orientation system. APO self destruct system destroyed spacecraft on 126th revolution over Sea of Okhotsk. First generation, low resolution photo surveillance; recovery probably failed.

1968 January 16 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.273GI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1968 January 16 - . 19:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.275GI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1969 January 16 - .
  • 10 Soyuz for military proposed - . Nation: USSR. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The space leadership board planes to depart Tyuratam. During the flight to Moscow, Kamanin discusses with Mishin the possibility of purchase of 10 to 15 Soyuz spacecraft by the Ministry of Defence for military experiments. Mishin is very interested in the possibility.

1969 January 16 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H. LV Configuration: Lambda 3H L-3H-4.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1969 January 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A3. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas/Trident F. LV Configuration: Atlas F/Trident 70F.
  • RMP-B-11 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1969 January 16 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena V140D.
  • USAF V140D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 January 16 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena V145D. FAILURE: Failure.
  • USAF V145D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1969 January 16 - . 12:43 GMT - .
  • EVA Soyuz 4/5-1 - . Crew: Khrunov; Yeliseyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0257 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4/5; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. A day after the launch of Soyuz 5, Soyuz 4 docked with it. The Soyuz 4 active spacecraft was equipped with a long docking probe, designated 'Shtir'. The Soyuz 5 target spacecraft was equipped with the 'Konus' receptacle. The symbology lead Volynov to joke that he 'was being raped' when the hard docking was accomplished. Khrunov and Yeliseyev transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4, the feat they had hoped to accomplish in the cancelled Soyuz 2 flight almost two years earlier. The external crew transfer was also a test of the technique needed for the Soviet lunar landing.

1970 January 16 - .
  • Apollo 16-19 lunar orbital science experiments revised - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 16. An MSC meeting to realign the Apollo 16-19 lunar orbital science experiments recommended that the Sounding Radar Experiment, S-167, be deleted and the Lunar Electromagnetic Sounder, S-168, should be developed and flown. Scientific-value for the experiments was ranked in the following descending priorities for the various scientific disciplines: geochemistry, particles and fields, imagery and geodesy, surface and subsurface profiles, and atmospheres.

1970 January 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC161. Launch Pad: LC161/ShPU-2. LV Family: RT-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-2P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 January 16 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.79GM.
  • Auroral extreme ultraviolet Aurora / aeronomy / chemica mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 January 16 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 320 - . Payload: DS-MO s/n 3. Mass: 375 kg (826 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-MO. Completed Operations Date: 1970-02-10 . Decay Date: 1970-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4301 . COSPAR: 1970-005A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilisation and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments..

1970 January 16 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Bullpup Cajun. LV Configuration: Bullpup Cajun NASA 20.01GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 41 km (25 mi).

1971 January 16 - .
  • Lunokhod 1 has completed its lunar activities. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh. Spacecraft: Lunokhod. Summary: Kamanin's son, also a VVS pilot, is being sent to Hanoi for service. Kamanin writes a letter to Keldysh on the naming of lunar craters for deceased cosmonauts..

1971 January 16 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk MUMP-9.
  • MUMP 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-210. LV Configuration: S-210-4.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-30.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi).

1971 January 16 - . 23:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois SECEDE R12.
  • NUTMEG Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1972 January 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1973 January 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.510UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1973 January 16 - . 20:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.57IE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1974 January 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.14CS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1974 January 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-45.
  • Ionosphere-solar mission Ionosphere-solar mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi).

1974 January 16 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.511UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi).

1974 January 16 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.105UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1975 January 16 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 January 16 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 January 16 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-54.
  • Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi).

1977 January 16 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-58.
  • Near infrared Galactic Plane Infrared astronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi).

1978 January 16 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 8 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Brandenstein; Buchli; Coats; Covey; Creighton; Fabian; Fisher; Gardner; Gibson; Gregory; Griggs; Hart; Hauck; Hawley; Hoffman; Lucid; McBride; McNair; Mullane; Nagel; Nelson; Onizuka; Resnik; Ride; Scobee; Seddon; Shaw; Shriver; Stewart; Sullivan. The group was selected to provide pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Recruit women and minorities to introduce diversity into the astronaut corps. Qualifications: Pilots: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics. Advanced degree desirable. At least 1,000 flight-hours of pilot-in-command time. Flight test experience desirable. Excellent health. Vision minimum 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision; maximum sitting blood pressure 140/90. Height between 163 and 193 cm.

    Mission Specialists: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics and minimum three years of related experience or an advanced degree. Vision minimum 20/150 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Maximum sitting blood pressure of 140/90. Height between 150 and 193 cm.. 8,079 applicants, of which half met the basic qualifications. 208 invited for physical tests and interviews. Of the 35 selected, six were women, three were male African-Americans, and one was a male Asian-American.


1978 January 16 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima T. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: TT-500. LV Configuration: TT-500 TT-500-3F.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1978 January 16 - .
1979 January 16 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47182-437.
  • Cosmos 1072 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 11238 . COSPAR: 1979-003A. Apogee: 1,012 km (628 mi). Perigee: 960 km (590 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1979 January 16 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-65.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi).

1980 January 16 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-69.
  • TPE-1 Ionosphere / tether mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi).

1981 January 16 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53798-319.
  • Cosmos 1238 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. USAF Sat Cat: 12138 . COSPAR: 1981-003A. Apogee: 1,706 km (1,060 mi). Perigee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 106.20 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..

1981 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12140 . COSPAR: 1981-004A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy..

1982 January 16 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 643/D159.
  • RCA Satcom 4 - . Payload: Satcom 4. Mass: 1,082 kg (2,385 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13035 . COSPAR: 1982-004A. Apogee: 35,994 km (22,365 mi). Perigee: 35,964 km (22,346 mi). Inclination: 1.9000 deg. Period: 1,446.00 min. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg W in 1982-1987; 82 deg W in 1987-1991 As of 2 September 2001 located at 171.96 deg E drifting at 2.443 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 101.04W drifting at 2.479W degrees per day..

1984 January 16 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.36UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1985 January 16 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 3-23 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 36. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1994-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15476 . COSPAR: 1985-004A. Apogee: 39,732 km (24,688 mi). Perigee: 626 km (388 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Replaced Molniya 3-19. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.

1985 January 16 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1623 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 15479 . COSPAR: 1985-005A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1986 January 16 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53744-152.
  • Cosmos 1725 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 16493 . COSPAR: 1986-005A. Apogee: 1,002 km (622 mi). Perigee: 967 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1577..

1987 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 January 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 27 - . Payload: Progress s/n 135. Mass: 7,230 kg (15,930 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 40.42 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . Decay Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 17299 . COSPAR: 1987-005A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir; raised Mir's orbit. Transported sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 18 Jan 1987 07:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 23 Feb 1987 11:29:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 25 Feb 1987 16:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.25 days. Total docked time 36.17 days.

1988 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1989 January 16 - . 15:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1990 January 16 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • PEM-6 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 January 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1996 January 16 - . 15:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2327 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 23773 . COSPAR: 1996-004A. Apogee: 1,020 km (630 mi). Perigee: 950 km (590 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 1 of constellation..

1998 January 16 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 MSLS IFT-2.
  • MSLS IFT-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi). Summary: The same decoy set used in IFT-1A was also used in IFT-2. The target cluster consisted of 10 objects: one mock warhead, the bus (the stage of the missile which releases the warhead and decoys), and eight decoys..

1998 January 16 - . 03:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Payload Launch Vehicle. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 PLV PLV.
  • IFT-2 EKV ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SSDC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Non-intercept fly-by to assess the performance of the Raytheon-built EKV seeker, collect target phenomenological data, and evaluate (post-test) target-modeling and discrimination algorithms. Raytheon was chosen as the NMD EKV contractor, partly as a result of its system's performance on this test.

2002 January 16 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401B. LV Configuration: Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-38/TC-19.
  • USA 164 - . Payload: Milstar 2-F3 / Milstar FLT-5 / DFS-5. Mass: 4,550 kg (10,030 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Milstar. USAF Sat Cat: 27168 . COSPAR: 2002-001A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 1.4600 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Military Communications satellite. Launch delayed from December 2001. The Titan core stage shut down 9 min after launch on a suborbital trajectory, and separated from the upper stage, Centaur TC-19. TC-19 made three burns to parking orbit, geostationary transfer orbit, and finally geostationary orbit. It then released Milstar Flt-5. Milstar provided secure communications in the EHF, SHF and UHF bands and would be stationed over European longitudes. As of 2007 Feb 16 located at 29.98E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2003 January 16 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • SAGE-3 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

2003 January 16 - . 15:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-107.
  • STS-107 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Payload: Columbia F28 / Spacehab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Husband; McCool; Anderson; Chawla; Brown, David; Clark; Ramon. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-107. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.94 days. Decay Date: 2003-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27647 . COSPAR: 2003-003A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 263 km (163 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: The last solo shuttle earth orbit mission ended in tragedy when the shuttle Columbia disintegrated during re-entry at an altitude of 63.15 km and a speed of Mach 18. Launch delayed from May 23, June 27, July 11 and 19, November 29, 2002..

2004 January 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.210UL.
  • BDPR / VULCAM Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

2006 January 16 - .
  • Death of Anatoli Petrovich Kuklin at Zvyozdny Gorodok, Russia. Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kuklin. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1975. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons (heart problems) in July 1975 . Worked on the General Staff of the Soviet Air Force until retirement in 1987..

2007 January 16 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. Launch Pad: K. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-310. LV Configuration: S-310-37.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2008 January 16 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 01/16/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson; Williams, Dave. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16. CDR Whitson and FE-2 Tani started out with the daily reading of SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure during Spaceflight) experiment data accumulated during the night, for logging and filling in questionnaire entries in the SLEEP session file on the HRF-1 laptop for downlink.

    (To monitor the crewmembers' sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, Dan and Peggy wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by him as well as his patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days, as part of the crew's discretionary 'job jar' task list.)

    FE-1 Malenchenko serviced the Russian BMP (Harmful Impurities Removal System), starting the "bake-out" cycle to vacuum on absorbent bed #2 of the regenerable dual-channel filtration system. The regen process was terminated at ~2:00 EST. (Regeneration of each of the two cartridges takes about 12 hours and is conducted only during crew awake periods. Filter bed 1 was regenerated yesterday.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 01/16/08.


2010 January 16 - . 16:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3C. LV Configuration: CZ-3C s/n CZ3C3.
  • Beidou G3 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Spacecraft: Beidou. USAF Sat Cat: 36287 . COSPAR: 2010-001A. Apogee: 35,972 km (22,351 mi). Perigee: 35,600 km (22,100 mi). Inclination: 1.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

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