Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 07


July 07 Chronology


1907 July 7 - .
  • Birth of Robert A Heinlein - . Nation: USA. Summary: Leading American writer of technical science fiction, inspired many engineers that would later make space travel a reality. Major corporations, the military, and nuclear power were key aspects of the colonization of space in his stories..

1914 July 7 - .
  • Goddard patents multi-stage rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Goddard receives US Patent 1,102,653, covering the concept of using multiple rocket stages to achieve high velocities..

1943 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende given highest priority - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler; Speer; Steinhoff, Ernst. Dornberger, Von Braun, and Steinhoff (at the controls) fly aboard a He-111 to the Fuehrer bunker in East Prussia. There they give Hitler a review of the V-2 program, the first since his visit to Kummersdorf in March 1939. The appointment was for 11:30, but then delayed to 17:00.

    When they were finally ushered into his presence, Dornberger was shocked at the terrible and changed appearance of the Fuehrer. The team begins their briefing, in the presence of Hitler, Keitel, Jodl, Butale, and Speer. The presentation began with a film of preparations and launch of an A4 on the 3 October 1942. Von Braun narrated the film, which had proven a real crowd-pleaser in the past. It showed the A4 in production at the vast assembly hall at Peenemuende, the vertical roll-out, the huge launch complex, and finally launch. Von Braun then presented a model and plans for the hardened production/launch bunker that was being built on the English Channel.

    Hitler loved the bunker model, and declared he wanted to build not one, but three such facilities. Dornberger argued that mobile launchers would be militarily less vulnerable and less costly, but Hitler was unconvinced. The 7 m thick bunker walls, he declared, would 'draw every allied bomber like flies to honey. Every bomb they drop there will be one that does not fall on Germany'. Hitler asks if the payload can be increased to 10 tonnes (in order to accommodate a nuclear warhead) or if a 2,000 per month production rate was possible (in order to make mass attacks on Britain with conventional explosive or chemical payloads). Dornberger replies that it would take four to five years to develop a missile with greater payload, and that production was limited by the German industrial capacity for alcohol (used as fuel in the missile).

    Dornberger noted that they did not dream of the possibility of short-term availability of nuclear energy in 1936, when the specifications for the missile were set. In any case, after the loss of the heavy water plant in Norway, it would take years to develop nuclear weapons. Hitler was visibly upset that the V-2 would not turn out to be a war-deciding weapon. But Dornberger pointed out it was a great psychological weapon - unstoppable, something against their which there was no defence.

    Hitler stated that 'I have only had to excuse myself to two men in my life - and one of them was von Brauchtisch, who always championed the importance of your work, and the other is you. If we had this weapon in 1939, Britain would have conceded, and there would have been no war.

    Hitler finally ordered that the V-1 and V-2 missile programs be given the highest priority in the defence ministry. Immediately needed staff and material began flowing into the program. Saur immediately ordered a production goal of 2,000 missiles per month, despite the fact that there was no prospect of producing enough alcohol fuel or training enough launch crews to actual fire the missiles at such a rate. However, there was no disagreement, since any industry leader who did not commit to meeting this production goal was threatened with immediate replacement. German alcohol production would mean the maximum number that could ever be fired was 900 per month.


1943 July 7 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 given top priority. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Hitler. Summary: Adolf Hitler gave the German V-2 program highest military priority..

1944 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-214.
1946 July 7 - .
  • Birth of Paul Andrew Sefchek - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985..

1948 July 7 - .
  • Zagorsk rocket engine test site founded. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 256 'On establishment of NII Branch No 7 to ground test rocket engines' was issued..

1952 July 7 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. LV Configuration: Lark 592.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1953 July 7 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal. LV Configuration: Corporal 1267E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1954 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1D. LV Configuration: R-1D 3.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Payload recovered; left animal container, smoke container..

1958 July 7 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun OB6.09.
  • Horizon imaging Aeronomy / imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1958 July 7 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp NN8.52F.
  • Test / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 July 7 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin JV-1.
  • Test / particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSWC. Apogee: 1,045 km (649 mi). Summary: Four-stage Argo D4 rocket with an ARDC Javelin payload fired from Wallops Island to an altitude of 750 miles, first in a series of USAF-NASA launchings to measure natural radiation surrounding the earth..

1960 July 7 - .
1960 July 7 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A1. LV Configuration: Polaris A1X-39. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 July 7 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 July 7 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur LV-3C.
  • McDonnell studies of the redesigned Mercury spacecraft. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Ejection; Gemini Parachute. Walter F. Burke of McDonnell summarized the company's studies of the redesigned Mercury spacecraft for Space Task Group's senior staff. McDonnell had considered three configurations: (1) the minimum-change capsule, modified only to improve accessibility and handling, with an adapter added to carry such items as extra batteries; (2) a reconfigured capsule with an ejection seat installed and most of the equipment exterior to the pressure vessel on highly accessible pallets; and (3) a two-man capsule, similar to the reconfigured capsule except for the modification required for two rather than one-man operation. The capsule would be brought down on two Mercury-type main parachutes, the ejection seat serving as a redundant system. In evaluating the trajectory of the two-man capsule, McDonnell used Atlas Centaur booster performance data.

1961 July 7 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • NASA and DoD to study development of large launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. The NASA Administrator and the Secretary of Defense concluded an agreement to study development of large launch vehicles for the national space program. For this purpose, the DOD-NASA Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group was created, reporting to the Associate Administrator of NASA and to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering).

1961 July 7 - . 04:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 22E.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi). Summary: Successful Atlas E flight, 9054 miles, from AMR to Indian Ocean (with GE Mark 3 nose cone).

1961 July 7 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 308 / Agena B 1109.
  • Discoverer 26 - . Payload: KH-2 9019 / Agena B 1109. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-2. Decay Date: 1961-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 160 . COSPAR: 1961-Pi-1. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 94.90 min. Summary: KH-2; film capsule recovered 2.1 days later. Main camera malfunctioned on pass 22..

1963 July 7 - .
  • Kamanin presses for specialised cosmonaut training - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Bykovsky; Rudenko. Flight: Vostok 6; Vostok 5. In a two hour meeting with Rudenko, Kamanin attempts to convince him of the need for specialised cosmonaut training (qualifying as spacecraft commander, pilot, navigator, engineer, etc.) for future multi-crew spacecraft. Kamanin points out that in five to seven years they will be routinely flying 2 or 3 place spacecraft and need to start differentiating training now in order to be ready in time. However Rudenko remains unconvinced. Meanwhile Bykovskiy and Tereshkova are at the cosmonaut training centre, completing their flight reports. Kamanin faces difficulties in booking a hotel for the entire cosmonaut group in the Crimea in August --- he can't find any place with fifty vacancies, and concludes he'll have to split the group up. Pressure is coming from the Foreign Ministry for Tereshkova to make an early trip to Brazil, but she is already booked for two or three tours of friendly socialist countries beginning on 30 August and any additional trips can only be made after those are completed.

1964 July 7 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1007.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 July 7 - . 22:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NB3.164.
  • Crab nebula lunar occulation X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi).

1965 July 7 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 and spacecraft No. 5 were mechanically mated at complex 19. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 5. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test began immediately and was completed July 9. The spacecraft/GLV Joint Combined Systems Test followed on July 12. The Flight Configuration Mode Test completed systems testing on July 16.

1965 July 7 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AE3.117/VFT65-S-1.
  • Noctilucent clouds Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1965 July 7 - . 08:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: HAD. LV Configuration: HAD 174.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1966 July 7 - .
  • Three separate study efforts within NASA evaluating the S-IVB stage as a manned laboratory. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop; Skylab. In a memorandum to Headquarters staff members, Advanced Manned Missions Program Director Edward Z. Gray summarized the three separate study efforts underway within NASA directed toward evaluating the S-IVB stage as a manned laboratory: (1) The spent-stage experiment support module (SSESM) study, a joint effort by MSC and MSFC. (2) A spent S-IVB-stage utilization study at MSFC. (3) A Saturn V single-launch space station. Additional Details: Three separate study efforts within NASA evaluating the S-IVB stage as a manned laboratory..

1966 July 7 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.59IE.
  • ISRO 20.05 / TERLS-44 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1969 July 7 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Sherman. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1970 July 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts (ASSC) - . Nation: USA. NASA Huntsville, dissatisfied with the shuttle concepts being pursued by NASA Houston, let contracts to Chrysler and Lockheed for alternate technical approaches to the configuration dictated to Phase B contractors by NASA Houston. Later a further contract was let to a Grumman/Boeing team. In all, 29 configurations of partially reusable to fully-reusable vehicles were explored. The baseline engine for these studies had a thrust of 250,000 kgf and a two-position bell nozzle.

1970 July 7 - .
  • Cosmonaut jet flight training. - . Nation: USSR. On this typical training day 16 cosmonauts are flying, four in the morning aboard a MiG-21, 12 in the afternoon aboard L-29's. It is difficult to schedule these training flights, since the cosmonaut training unit is co-located with an aviation transport brigade and repair centre.

1970 July 7 - .
  • Birth of Robert Louis Behnken - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-130..

1970 July 7 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1970 July 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 352 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4446 . COSPAR: 1970-052A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1971 July 7 - .
  • Kamanin's last diary entry in service. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Ustinov; Smirnov; Mishin; Afanasyev; Bushuyev; Serbin; Khrushchev; Brezhnev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Kamanin is furious. Of 25 cosmonauts that have flown, five are buried in the Kremlin Wall, one in Novdevich cemetery, and 19 are still in service. These deaths are due to the incompetent management of Ustinov, Serbin, Smirnov, Mishin, Afanasyev, Bushuyev, and Serbin. Some people are trying to blame Kamanin or the cosmonauts, saying the vent could have been plugged with a finger if the crew was properly trained. Others blame the crew in other ways. But the main problem was already brought up early over and over and over by the VVS and Kutakhov - the crew should never have flown without spacesuits! This has been going on for seven years. Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Ustinov, Smirnov, all wrote of their fear of allowing dangerous spaceflights. But these were the same leaders who supported the categorical rejection of the need for the crew to fly in spacesuits. The need for the suits was rejected first by Korolev, then Mishin. They kept saying that hundreds of manned and unmanned spacecraft had flown without depressurisation ever occurring.

    The idea of plugging the vent with a finger is absurd. Had they done so, they would have had only 15 to 17 minutes to work the problem before the onset of G-forces. Imagine the real situation - retrofire was normal - the BO module jettisoned - suddenly the depress light on the caution warning panel is on! Dobrovolsky checks the hatch, but it's not the hatch -- and there are only 25 to 30 seconds until they all become unconscious. Volkov and Patsayev undo their straps and turn on the radio. The whistling of the air can only be heard at the commander's seat - where the vent valve is located. Kamanin discontinues diary entries for two years after this date.


1972 July 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle orbiter contract - . Nation: USA. North American Rockwell received NASA contract NAS9-14000, valued at $2.6 billion, for development of the space shuttle orbiter. Included are two flight articles, the STA Structural Test Article, and the MPTA Main Propulsion Test Article. Later production of two additional orbiters will be added, bringing the final contract value to $ 5.815 billion by 1996.

1972 July 7 - . 17:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3D. LV Configuration: Titan IIID 23D-5.
  • KH-9 no. 03 - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1972-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6094 . COSPAR: 1972-052A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 96.0000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: KH-9 type satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .
  • OPS 7803 - . Payload: SSF-B No. 23. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1978-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6096 . COSPAR: 1972-052C. Apogee: 504 km (313 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 96.2000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Summary: Radar monitoring..

1973 July 7 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 July 7 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1976 July 7 - . 17:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 July 7 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 925 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 12. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10134 . COSPAR: 1977-061A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1978 July 7 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle MPTA long duration test - . Nation: USA. Summary: The engine assembly is run for several minutes, and engine restart is demonstrated..

1978 July 7 - .
  • Fourth static firing, MPTA-098 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 July 7 - .
  • Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 July 7 - . Launch Site: WTR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 7 - . Launch Site: WTR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.

1979 July 7 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 July 7 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 July 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1281 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 12583 . COSPAR: 1981-064A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1982 July 7 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65093-473.
  • Cosmos 1386 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 13353 . COSPAR: 1982-069A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 948 km (589 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1225..

1983 July 7 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart T 1-0644.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1986 July 7 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1987 July 7 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT148M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 July 7 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1957 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 29. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Decay Date: 1988-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19276 . COSPAR: 1988-057A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 July 7 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-2 356-02.
  • Phobos 1 - . Payload: 1F s/n 101. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19281 . COSPAR: 1988-058A. Apogee: 130,504 km (81,091 mi). Perigee: 2,628 km (1,632 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 3,267.73 min. Second of two missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried 2 landers; planned to enter Mars orbit. Phobos 1 operated nominally until an expected communications session on 2 September 1988 failed to occur. The failure of controllers to regain contact with the spacecraft was traced to an error in the software uploaded on 29/30 August which had deactivated the attitude thrusters. This resulted in a loss of lock on the Sun, resulting in the spacecraft orienting the solar arrays away from the Sun, thus depleting the batteries. Left in solar Orbit (Heliocentric).
  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19281 . COSPAR: 1988-058xx.

1992 July 7 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D211.
  • USA 83 - . Payload: GPS 2A-14 / GPS SVN 26. Mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Seal Beach. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2 and 2A. USAF Sat Cat: 22014 . COSPAR: 1992-039A. Apogee: 20,400 km (12,600 mi). Perigee: 19,962 km (12,403 mi). Inclination: 54.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Global Positioning System. Placed in Plane F Slot 2..

1993 July 7 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 FCET-9.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 7 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 735. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 FCET-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 7 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2258 - . Payload: US-PY s/n 3. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 603.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22709 . COSPAR: 1993-044A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Third launch of new EORSAT, final of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node. Ocean surveillance..

1995 July 7 - . 13:02 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: DC-X. Launch Vehicle: DC-X.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Final flight of second series. Demonstrated turnaround maneuver. Aeroshell cracked during 4 m/s hard landing. Reached altitude of 2500 m during a 124 second flight..

1995 July 7 - . 16:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40-3 V75.
  • Helios 1A - . Mass: 2,537 kg (5,593 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DGA. Program: Helios. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Helios 1A-1B. USAF Sat Cat: 23605 . COSPAR: 1995-033A. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 680 km (420 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.40 min.
  • CERISE - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DGA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 23606 . COSPAR: 1995-033B. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Caracterisation de l'Environnement Radioelectrique par un Instrument Spatiale Embarque; examined Earth RF environment. Customer: Alcatel Espace/DME. French government research payload incorporated into an advance microsatellite platform. Still operational as of 2000.
  • UPM/LBSAT 1 - . Mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: UPM. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: LBSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 23607 . COSPAR: 1995-033C. Apogee: 676 km (420 mi). Perigee: 663 km (411 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments..

1995 July 7 - .
1996 July 7 - .
  • Russian Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 11 Supplemental selected. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kotov.

1996 July 7 - .
1997 July 7 - .
  • Mir News 368: Progress-M35 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-23. The start of this cargo ship from Baykonur took place on 5.07.97 at 04.11.54 UTC. During the pass in orb. 2, 0847-850 UTC, the Telemetry transmissions in the 166 and 165 mc could be heard and during the pass in the next orbit these transmissions, but also those of the beacon in the 922.755mc could be monitored. On 6.07.1997 during the passes in the orbits 18, 19 and 20 good signals on all frequencies and with the doppler shift on 922.755 mc 2 times TCA's could be determined: 071751 and 085100 UTC.

    Progress-M35, approach and docking: Again all went of old: a stable and reliable execution of this operation by the automatic system Kurs. The docking took place on 7.07.1997 at 05.59.24 UTC. During Mir's orbit 65015 from 0549-0554 UTC the approach was going on. At AOS the Progress-M35 was in a distance of 147 M. Tsibliyev reported very little deviations in the course and attitude of Progress-M35. There was a stable GSO (gyrostabilised orientation) and all went so successful that Tsibliyev could load some date, given him by TsUP, in a computer. Just before LOS the distance was still 120 M and the approach was continued with a speed of 30 cm\sec.

    During the next passes they did not speak about the opening of the hatches to Progress-M35. The main subject was the good functioning of the gyrodynes, the good attitude of the complex and the fact that the solar arrays had been turned to a good angle in relation to the sun. The accumulators could be fully charged. The crew has to remove temporarily the spacesuits from the P.Kh.O. (transition section) to get more room for the transfer of goods from Progress-M35 to the rest of the complex.

    The Russians deserve a heartfelt 'Molodtsy' (well done fine fellows). But please let those responsible for Russian manned spaceflight as soon as possible make a deal with the Ukrainian factory Khartron for the restoration of the delivery of the system Kurs. In that way docking-operations can be executed with a 99.99% reliability!! Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 July 7 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-407. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil-1/1N.
  • Shtil 1 - . Payload: Shtil-1 instr. package. Nation: Israel. Manufacturer: TuB. USAF Sat Cat: 25391 . COSPAR: 1998-042C. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 79.0000 deg. The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted R-29RM (RSM-54) three stage liquid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile made by the Makeyev design bureau. The satellite payload is placed in the standard R-29RM reentry vehicle. The launch plaform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet's 3rd Flotilla. Launch was from the Barents Sea at 69.3 degrees N x 35.3 degrees E. The Shtil contained an Israeli instrument package.
  • Tubsat-N - . Mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: TuB. Program: Tubsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. Decay Date: 2002-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 25389 . COSPAR: 1998-042A. Apogee: 776 km (482 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 78.9000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted Makeyev R-29RM SLBM. The satellite payload was placed in the standard re-entry vehicle. The launch platform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet 3rd Flotilla. The launch was made from a firing range in the Barents Sea off the coast of the Kolskiy Peninsula, at 35.3 deg E 69.3 deg N. The payloads were the Tubsat-N and Tubsat-N1 `nanosatellites'. Tubsat-N entered a 400 x 776 km x 78.9 deg orbit. Both carried small store-forward communications payloads used to keep track of transmitters placed on vehicles, migrating animals, and marine buoys. They are owned, operated and built by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB). Tubsat-N was the larger of the pair, with dimensions of 32x32x10.4 cm and a mass of 8.5 kg.
  • Tubsat-N1 - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: TuB. Program: Tubsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. Decay Date: 2000-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 25390 . COSPAR: 1998-042B. Apogee: 776 km (482 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 78.9000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. The dual Tubsat-N/Tubsat-N1 repersented the Technical University of Berlin's first Nanosatellite project. Tubsat-N1 measured 32x32x3.4cm and had a mass of 3 kg. The technology demonstrator satellite provided store and forward communications and conducted attitude control experiments.

2000 July 7 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Oriole.
2005 July 7 - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Vehicle: DF-21. LV Configuration: DF-21 ASAT 1.
  • ASAT - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi).

2006 July 7 - .
2007 July 7 - . 01:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M 535-20 (17?).
  • DirecTV-10 - . Mass: 5,893 kg (12,991 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DirecTV. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: DirecTV. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 702. USAF Sat Cat: 31862 . COSPAR: 2007-032A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0100 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. First launch of a pair of satellites, DirecTV 10 and 11, that will beam HDTV programs to 500 local markets from the company's primary orbital slot at 101 degrees west longitude. Acquisition and launch cost of $300 million per satellite; one ground spare also built.

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