Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 12


July 12 Chronology


1935 July 12 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Rocket had strainers and thicker air vanes; duration of propulsion, 14 sec; altitude 6600 ft with excellent correction up to 3000 ft; parachute torn off. .

1951 July 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 147 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 46. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 1.07..

1951 July 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal E. LV Configuration: Corporal E 9R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1956 July 12 - .
  • X-2 Flight 12 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Eighth powered flight, premature engine shutdown..

1957 July 12 - .
  • Birth of Rick Douglas Husband - . Nation: USA. Summary: American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry..

1957 July 12 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. LV Configuration: Jupiter A CC-35. FAILURE: Control system malfunction at re-entry..
  • Jupiter A - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Launched at 0130 hours EST from AMR. The primary test objective was to test the accuracy of the guidance system. The flight was successful. Actual range was 130.125 nm; 0.15 nm over; and 285 meters left of the intended impact point. All missions were successfully accomplished. The missile followed the predicted trajectory very closely. Survey of the impact crater indicated a miss distance of 50 meters over and 284 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, giving a radial miss distance of 389.5 meters. Missed aimpoint by 289 m.

1957 July 12 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 7. FAILURE: Failure of the control system due to a short circuit of the battery. Rapid roll developed, resulting in all four strap-on boosters flying away from the core at 33 seconds in the flight.. Failed Stage: G.
  • M1-7 (I-2) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-7 (I-2)).

1958 July 12 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun OB6.10.
  • Horizon imaging Aeronomy / imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1959 July 12 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Instrumentation to measure noise level during the Mercury Big Joe-Atlas launching. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. An agreement was made with the Air Force for Space Task Group to place microphone pickups on the skin of the Atlas launch vehicle as a part of the instrumentation to measure noise level during the Big Joe-Atlas launching. Distribution of the microphones was as follows: one inside the Mercury spacecraft, three externally about midway of the launch vehicle, and one on the Atlas skirt.

1960 July 12 - .
  • Mercury astronaut desert survival training - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. The astronauts underwent a five and one half day course in 'desert survival' training at the Air Training Command Survival School, Stead Air Force Base, Nevada. The possibility of an arid-area landing was remote but did exist. So this training was accomplished to supply the astronaut with the confidence and ability to survive desert conditions until recovery. The course consisted of one and one half days of academics, one day of field demonstrations, and three days of isolated remote-site training. Survival equipment normally installed in the Mercury spacecraft was used to provide the most realistic conditions.

1961 July 12 - .
  • First large space simulator in the United States - . Nation: USA. Program: Ranger. Spacecraft: Ranger 1-2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that construction was under way on the first large space simulator in the United States capable of testing full-scale spacecraft of the Ranger and Mariner classes. Three primary space effects could be simulated: solar radiation, cold space heat sink, and a high vacuum equivalent to about one part in a billion of the atmospheric pressure at sea level.

1961 July 12 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 286/D5.
  • Tiros 3 - . Payload: Tiros C (A-3). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 162 . COSPAR: 1961-Rho-1. Apogee: 790 km (490 mi). Perigee: 723 km (449 mi). Inclination: 47.9000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1961 July 12 - . 15:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena B 97D / Agena B 1201.
  • Midas 3 - . Payload: Midas / Agena TV 1201. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Midas. USAF Sat Cat: 163 . COSPAR: 1961-Sigma-1. Apogee: 3,540 km (2,190 mi). Perigee: 3,343 km (2,077 mi). Inclination: 91.2000 deg. Period: 161.40 min. Summary: Missile Defense Alarm System..

1962 July 12 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Gemini-Titan Launch Operations Committee. - . Nation: USA. A technical team at Air Force Missile Test Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida - responsible for detailed launch planning, consistency of arrangements with objectives, and coordination - met for the first time with official status and a new name. The group of representatives from all organizations supplying major support to the Gemini-Titan launch operations, formerly called the Gemini Operations Support Committee, was now called the Gemini-Titan Launch Operations Committee.

1962 July 12 - . 16:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576B2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 141D.
  • NTMP K-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1962 July 12 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2PE-11.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 July 12 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2PE-10.
  • Operational Test - Flight over 80 minutes - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 July 12 - .
  • Korolev wants review of Tereshkova's flight performance - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Bykovsky; Korolev. Flight: Vostok 6; Vostok 5. Kamanin discusses future cosmonaut book plans with writer Riabchikov. He is interrupted by a call from Korolev. Korolev wants Tereshkova and Bykovskiy in his office the following morning at 10 am sharp and he wants a full explanation for Tereshkova's poor self- samochuviniy on orbits 32 and 42, about her pvote, her poor appetite during the flight, and her failure to complete some assigned tasks. He blames Kamanin for providing her with inadequate training prior to the flight -- which Kamanin finds a joke since he had never received any support in the past from Korolev for his requests for more and better training of the cosmonauts in high-G and zero-G situations. Korolev had also never listened to any of Kamanin's complaints about the need to improve the living conditions for the cosmonaut on the Vostok spacecraft.

1963 July 12 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Effects on pilot performance of longitudinal oscillations (POGO) of the Gemini launch vehicle. - . Nation: USA. Gemini Project Office (GPO) completed a test program on the centrifuge at Ames Research Center to evaluate the effects on pilot performance of longitudinal oscillations (POGO) of the Gemini launch vehicle. When subjected to oscillatory g-loads ranging from 0 to ± 3g superimposed on a steady-state load of 3.5g, pilot perception and performance decreased markedly above ± 0.25g. Primary effects were impaired pilot vision, reduced eye scan rate, masked sensory perception and kinesthetic cues, and degraded speech. GPO reconfirmed the need to reduce POGO to a maximum of 0.25g.

1963 July 12 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Nike Zeus. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus. LV Configuration: Nike Zeus-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 July 12 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 201D / Agena D S01A 4702.
  • KH 7-01 (Gambit) - . Payload: KH-7 no. 1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1963-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 618 . COSPAR: 1963-028A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 95.3000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1964 July 12 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1965 July 12 - .
  • Extravehicular activity deleted from Gemini missions 5, 6, and 7. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 5; Gemini 6; Gemini 7. Summary: NASA Headquarters Gemini Program Office informed Manned Spacecraft Center that it had decided to delete extravehicular activity from Gemini missions 5, 6, and 7. .

1965 July 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 7112. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • KH-7-20 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 20. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1965-07-12 . COSPAR: F650712A. Summary: KH-7 type satellite..

1966 July 12 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 653.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 July 12 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 7120 / Agena D 7120.
  • KH 7-30 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 30 / OPS 1850. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1966-07-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2322 . COSPAR: 1966-062A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 95.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1966 July 12 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Mud Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.9 N x 117.1 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-64-107.
  • X-15A Checkout, Systems test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 39 km (24 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5876 kph. Maximum Altitude - 39620 m..

1966 July 12 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin NASA 8.12UA.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,015 km (630 mi).

1967 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 800.
  • FOT GB42 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1968 July 12 - .
  • L3 recovery controversy. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. VVS has been charged with arranging for ocean recovery of the L3 capsule in case it splashes down in the Indian Ocean since 1966. TsNII-30 did the research work under project 'Ellips', resulting in the recommendation that the VVS and VMF jointly develop the air and naval forces to recover the capsule at sea, at a cost of 800 million roubles. The Ellips concept requires that the L3 capsule be equipped with radio beacons and dye markers. Despite knowing this for two years, Mishin has done nothing to implement these features into the spacecraft.

1968 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1084.
  • ST Olympic T. B-4 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg BOM2. LV Family: Bomarc. Launch Vehicle: Bomarc. LV Configuration: Bomarc A.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • FOT GT95B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 July 12 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.370GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Barrow. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.381GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1971 July 12 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.374GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1972 July 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Safety in Earth Orbit - . Nation: USA. North American Rockwell issues a study on safety concepts for the space shuttle. These include putting an Apollo command module in the shuttle payload bay as an emergency re-entry capsule in case of inability of the shuttle to re-enter due to heat shield damage or a propulsion system failure. The study finds that all solutions have unacceptable weight penalties, and that any upper stages carried in the payload bay had to be man-rated in order to ensure crew safety. Liquid propellant upper stages (such as Centaur and the planned Space Tug) were probably too dangerous to be taken to orbit by the shuttle.

1972 July 12 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/4. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 501 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 50. Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-12-20 . Decay Date: 1974-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6099 . COSPAR: 1972-054A. Apogee: 2,167 km (1,346 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 48.0000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1973 July 12 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12. LV Configuration: MR-12 B-38.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1974 July 12 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 666 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7367 . COSPAR: 1974-053A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 July 12 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, AN/DMQ-9- - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1976 July 12 - .
  • Start installation secondary structure (MPTA-098) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 July 12 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.05UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1977 July 12 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 927 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10139 . COSPAR: 1977-063A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 12 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-210. LV Configuration: S-210JA-29.
  • E / B / ne / ISIS-2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: WTR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: WTR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 July 12 - . Launch Site: WTR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 July 12 - . 20:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 July 12 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1982 July 12 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1983 July 12 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Platform: S655. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1984 July 12 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Platform: S615. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1985 July 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle Challenger Pad Abort - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: The countdown for Challenger's launch was halted at T-3 seconds when on-board computers detected a problem with a coolant valve on main engine #2. The valve was replaced and Challenger was launched on July 29, 1985..

1985 July 12 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-310. LV Configuration: S-310JA-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1987 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • FOT GT123GM-1 Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1988 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT128GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 July 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT126GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 July 12 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-2 356-01.
  • Phobos 2 - . Payload: 1F s/n 102. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19287 . COSPAR: 1988-059A. Apogee: 79,750 km (49,550 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 4,590.00 min. First of two Mars missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried two landers; entered Mars orbit 1/29/89; failed 3/27/89; extremely limited science data. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform, contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on 27 March 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.
  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19287 . COSPAR: 1988-059xx.
  • 1F PPS - . Payload: Prigayushchaya PS. Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19287 . COSPAR: 1988-059xx.

1989 July 12 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V32.
  • Olympus-1 - . Payload: Olympus F1. Mass: 2,595 kg (5,720 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Olympus. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20122 . COSPAR: 1989-053A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Commsat technology demonstration;19 deg W. Olympus-1 is a multi-payload communications satellite for direct TV broadcast in the bands of the 1977 Geneva Plan of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (including a national beam to Italy) plus communication transponde rs in the 14/12 GHz, 2nd 30/20 GHz bands. The latter are also used for a data relay experiment with ESA's EURECA satellite. Position on geostationary orbit 341 deg E. Launch time 0014:00 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg W in 1989-1991; 19 deg W in 1991-1993 As of 4 September 2001 located at 82.22 deg E drifting at 3.961 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 118.63E drifting at 3.947E degrees per day.

1989 July 12 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2030 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20124 . COSPAR: 1989-054A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft failed. Blown up in orbit on July 28..

1990 July 12 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1992 July 12 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.81CE.
  • EL COQUI AA-2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi).

1993 July 12 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1995 July 12 - .
  • Galileo probe released - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Galileo. Summary: It entered Jupiter's atmosphere on 1995.12.07..

1999 July 12 - .
  • Mir News 460: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. During the whole period covering this report the 27th Main Expedition to Mir continued. This expedition is also called Russian-French expedition, but in my opinion it would be better to say 'French-Russian expedition'. ESA-astronaut Haignere, who executes the CNES program Perseus, seems to dominate life on board and it is obvious that he is enjoying his job very much. Daily he co-ordinates his work with the French consultative group at TsUP Moscow, his contacts with Russian experts or controllers are very scarce and he seems to go his own way on board. Now and then he and Avdeyev help each other with experiments and they get on rather well together. I don't believe that this is also the case between Haignere and Afanasyev.

    Afanasyev shows no signs that he is enjoying his flight, on the contrary: he makes a irritated impression. I would not be surprised if he has health problems. He and Avdeyev take care of the good functioning of the systems of the station, especially those for the life support and the operational control, such as the performance of the solar batteries. Afanasyev uses to load commands given to him by TsUP in the on board computer systems and he checks the so called 'ugli posadki', angles of attack for eventual emergency landings. Avdeyev is responsible for the Packet Radio traffic on the service channels and the transmission to earth of files with experimental data.

    As far as this can be derived from radio traffic, the mood on board is far from cheerful. Some time ago, Haignere had an argument with Russian physicians. They found some anomalies in the cardiovascular system of Haignere during a medical experiment. Haignere did not share their opinion. He stated that the exercises during that experiment were too strenuous and he demanded to be informed about the limits for such exercises during previous flights of French astronauts. In his opinion there was nothing wrong with his health and he presumed that the anomalies had psychological causes. Regularly technical problems emerged for instance failing ventilators, solar batteries showing incorrect angles towards the sun, bad performance of the air-conditioning and of the power supply systems.

    During the last week radio traffic revealed a mysterious leak of air.

    The leak seems to be very small for the loss of pressure was not more than 4 mm in 24 hrs. For a long time the cosmonauts tried to find the location of the leak and to be sure they closed all hatches between the base block and the modules. On 12.07.1999 the suspicion fell on the Module Kvant-2 (Module D).

    The very last failure: In the night from 8 to 9.07.99 Afanasyev and Avdeyev reported that the SEP (Electrical Power Supply system) in the Module Priroda failed at 2136 UTC. Lights, ventilators, experiments and the radio amateur equipment in that module failed. Only the computer used by Haignere was still functioning. During all following passes that night and the passes during the following night there was no radio traffic, so no follow up about this problem. Possibly the crew restored the power supply in Priroda.

    To reduce the natural decay of the complex a little bit, occasionally minor orbit corrections had been executed. On 6.05.1999 this was done by the use of the engines of the Progress-M41 and on 23.06.99 the impulses were given by the approach and orientation engines of the ship Soyuz-TM29. On 6.07.99 a correction with the engines of the Progress-M41 was performed, lifting the orbit of Mir a few kilometres upwards.

    Communications: Often the 2 VHF-channels, UKW-1 (143.625 mc) and UKW-2 (130.165 mc) were used at the same time for different purposes. For instance Packet Radio or phone conversations by the Russians on UKW-1 and Haignere with his group at TsUP on UKW-2. During TV-sessions via UHF UKW-2 was in use as phone channel. Now and then interference was mentioned between ionospheric experiments (for instance with Ionozond) and VHF traffic.

    Radio amateurism: During the period covering this report Jean-Pierre Haignere was still very active with phone using the call R0Mir on 145.985 as well as on 145.940 mc. At AOS of almost every pass the Packet Radio on 145.985 mc could be heard. This lasted until LOS or until the beginning of Haignere's calls by phone. Often the Packet Radio continued during the phone conversations. Haignere handles traffic in French as well as in English and he acts as a very skilled radio amateur. Especially on 145.985 mc the uplink is overloaded by traffic and to be able to make as much QSO-s as possible, he uses only 2 or 3 characters of the calling stations. He also regularly states with whom he wants to communicate and even threatened 'naughty' callers to ban them from answering for a certain period.

    When in range of Moscow he switches over to 145.940 mc for conversations with his countrymen over there or with his wife Claudie.

    Apart from Phone and Packet Radio the 145.985 mc was also used for a few SSTV transmissions. Now and then Avdeyev can be heard on the amateur frequencies. I did not at all hear Afanasyev over there.

    Plans for the near future: Progress-M42: On 14.07.1999 at 1725 UTC launch of the freighter Progress-M42 with the normal cargo plus a special guidance and control computer to steer the complex remote controlled by TsUP during the last unmanned status of the Mir complex. At deadline for this report the launch that day was not sure due the decision of the Kazakh government to suspend all launches from Baykonur due to a dispute with Russia about compensation for pollution by Russian space debris.

    The launch of the freighter Progress-M42 on 14.07.99 is crucial, not only for the well-being of the present crew, but also for the forthcoming period in which the complex will fly in the unmanned status.

    To enable controllers on earth to control the flight via the special navigation computer to be delivered by Progress-M42 the present crew must be able to install and test that computer.

    Without that computer the 'mission impossible' to put the complex on a safe destruction course into the earth's atmosphere would become considerably more 'impossible'. I am sure that the government of Kazakhstan will give permission for the launch of Progress-M42 on 14.07.99 and in that way leave the burden of the responsibility for the decay of the Mir space station where it belongs: on Russia. (remark: When this report went to 'press' the government of Kazakhstan did not yet give the green light for the launch, but preparations for the launch on 14.07.99 were going on and on 12.07 the carrier-rocket and freighter had been rolled out and erected on the start-complex.) 2nd Spacewalk (EVA) crew 27th Main Expedition: This EVA is on schedule for 23.07.1999. Though not officially confirmed now the EVA almost certainly will be executed by Avdeyev and Haignere. They must install a new so called reflector antenna and retrieve from the outer surface of the complex the experiments Spica and Ekzobiologiya.

    Thus far the return flight of the Soyuz-TM29 with the present crew is scheduled for the end of August this year.

    For an eventual extra, so 28th Main Expedition, in February 2000 we will have to wait, see and hear.

    Illness Mrs. van den Berg: I tried to monitor Mir radio traffic as much as possible, but was not able to analyse, verify and report the gathered material as comprehensively as I used to do until May this year. Though we have still a long way to go, the condition of my wife is gradually improving and I hope to be able to restore my normal working methods in the near future.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202 request: My last report was of 16.04.1999, so a number of E-mail addresses might be incorrect now. Please confirm the receipt of this report to enable me to determine which E-mail addresses have been changed.


2000 July 12 - . 04:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 398-01.
  • Zvezda - . Mass: 20,295 kg (44,742 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei; Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: ISS Zvezda. USAF Sat Cat: 26400 . COSPAR: 2000-037A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.

2001 July 12 - . 09:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-104.
  • STS-104 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Lindsey; Hobaugh; Kavandi; Gernhardt; Reilly. Payload: Atlantis F24 / Quest. Mass: 117,127 kg (258,220 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lindsey; Hobaugh; Kavandi; Gernhardt; Reilly. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-104. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 12.77 days. Decay Date: 2001-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 26862 . COSPAR: 2001-028A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. STS-104 was an American ISS Assembly shuttle flight with a crew of five American astronauts and a major space station module, the Quest Airlock. Orbiter OV-104 Atlantis main engine cutoff and external tank separation was at 0913 GMT. Atlantis was then in an orbit of 59 x 235 km x 51.6 deg. The OMS-2 burn at 0942 GMT increased velocity by 29 m/s and raised the orbit to 157 x 235 km x 51.6 deg and another burn at 1240 GMT raised it further to 232 x 305 km. Atlantis docked with the International Space Station at 0308 GMT on July 14. The main payload on STS-104 was the Quest Joint Airlock, built by Boeing/Huntsville. It consisted of an Equipment Lock for storage and the Crew Lock, based on the Shuttle airlock. The 13,872 kg payload consisted of:
    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System/External Airlock - 2160 kg including 3 EMU spacesuits
    • Bay 4-5: Spacelab Pallet (Fwd) with O2-1/O2-2 oxygen tanks - 2500 kg
    • Bay 6-7: Spacelab Pallet (Aft) with N2-1/N2-2 nitrogen tanks - 2500 kg
    • Bay 8-12: Station Joint Airlock Adapter beam (6064 kg) with IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (238 kg)
    • Sill: RMS arm - 410 kg
    The Equipment Lock was berthed to the Unity module at one of the large-diameter CBM hatches. STS-104 then installed the Airlock onto the Unity module. In a series of spacewalks the astronauts moved the oxygen and nitrogen tanks onto the airlock exterior.

    The six tonne Airlock consisted of two cylinders of four meters diameter and a total length six meters. The Airlock could be pressurized by the externally-mounted high pressure oxygen-nitrogen tanks, and was to be the sole unit through which all future EVAs were to take place. (Until that point, all EVA entries/exits had been through a Russian module in ISS, with non-Russians having to wear Russian space suits). Another payload was the "EarthKAM" of middle/high school interest. It was to allow pupils to command picture-taking of chosen spots on Earth; they were expected to target 2,000 spots. The shuttle also carried out pulsed exhaust tests during maneuvers to enable better understanding of the formation of HF echoes from the shuttle exhaust. The echoes were obtained by ground based radars in an experiment called SIMPLEX (Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Local EXhaust). The STS-104 crew returned to Atlantis on July 22, and undocked at 0455 GMT. After flying around the station they departed the vicinity at 0615 GMT. Atlantis landed at 0338:55 GMT on July 25, touching down at Kennedy Space Center runway 15.


2001 July 12 - . 21:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V142 (510).
  • Artemis - . Mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26863 . COSPAR: 2001-029A. Apogee: 32,586 km (20,247 mi). Perigee: 32,451 km (20,164 mi). Inclination: 1.1000 deg. Period: 1,272.40 min. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite designed to test new communications technologies. The Ariane 510 vehicle failed to reach its correct orbit. The solid boosters and main stage worked as planned and put the EPS upper stage in the planned near-suborbital trajectory. The EPS stage then fired but the Aestus engine failed to reach full thrust and cut off 1 minute early. Instead of the planned 858 x 35853 km orbit, only a 592 x 17528 km orbit was reached. The 3.1 tonne (with fuel), 2.5 kW spacecraft carried two pairs of ion engines and had adequate xenon propellant for those engines to reach geosynchronous altitude. This was the first ever rescue of a satellite mission using electric propulsion. The satellite reached its operational orbit in 31 January 2003.using the four German RITA electric xenon thrusters. Artemis could then function as originally planned, as there remained sufficient chemical propellant for 10 years’ operation. Artemis was to provide voice and data communications between mobile phones in Europe and North America, and act as a relay satellite between low-Earth orbiters and ground stations. Eventually, as part of the planned EGNOS system (to be operational by about 2010) it was to provide navigation/location determination as an independent European counterpart to the GPS and GLONASS fleets. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 21.40E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.
  • BSAT-2b - . Mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 26864 . COSPAR: 2001-029B. Apogee: 17,400 km (10,800 mi). Perigee: 659 km (409 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 317.20 min. BSAT-2b was planned as a geosynchronous television broadcast satellite for the Japanese B-SAT company. It used Orbital's Star 1 bus and had a launch mass of 1298 kg. It carried a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor and a set of station-keeping thrusters with 200 kg of propellant. A propulsion problem in the final stage of rocket stranded the satellite at a much lower altitude than planned. Since BSAT 2B carried only a soild propellant apogee kick motor, it was unable to maneuver itself to a useful orbit.

2002 July 12 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-44. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • IRDT-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). The Russian Navy launched the IRDT-2 spacecraft using a surplus R-29R Volna from the submarine K-44 Ryazan. The spacecraft was launched on a suborbital trajectory from the Barents Sea and landed in Kamchatka. After third stage separation the IRDT fired a boost motor to increase its speed and then inflated the first stage of its heat shield.

2006 July 12 - . 06:20 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-121-3 - . Crew: Sellers; Fossum. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sellers; Fossum. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-121. Summary: The crew tested repairing samples of heat shield material with DTO 848 protection system repair kit demonstator mounted in the shuttle payload bay..

2006 July 12 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC94. Launch Pad: FIX. Launch Vehicle: Hera. LV Configuration: Hera BRV.
  • THAAD Target FTT-4? - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA MDA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2006 July 12 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n 6.
  • Genesis 1 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 29252 . COSPAR: 2006-029A. Apogee: 565 km (351 mi). Perigee: 552 km (342 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module..

2010 July 12 - . 03:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV CA. LV Configuration: PSLV CA s/n C-15.
  • Cartosat 2B - . Mass: 694 kg (1,530 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 36795 . COSPAR: 2010-035A. Apogee: 647 km (402 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Summary: Cartography satellite with 0.8 meter resolution..
  • Studsat - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 36796 . COSPAR: 2010-035B. Apogee: 640 km (390 mi). Perigee: 621 km (385 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: ISRO-sponsored Indian student-designed satellite..
  • Aissat 1 - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: Norway. Agency: ISRO. Program: AIS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 36797 . COSPAR: 2010-035C. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: Satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) payload to track maritime assets worldwide (all vessels over 300 metric tons are equipped with AIS transponders)..
  • Alsat 2A - . Mass: 116 kg (255 lb). Nation: Algeria. Agency: ISRO. Program: Alsat. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 36798 . COSPAR: 2010-035D. Apogee: 674 km (418 mi). Perigee: 672 km (417 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.20 min. Summary: Optical surveillance satellite with 2.5 meter panchromatic resolution and 10 meter in 4 band/multispectral mode..
  • Tisat 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Switzerland. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 36799 . COSPAR: 2010-035E. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 619 km (384 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: Swiss student satellite..

2011 July 12 - .
  • EVA STS-135-1 - . Crew: Fossum; Garan. EVA Type: Extravehicular activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-135; ISS EO-27; ISS EO-28. Summary: Final EVA from a shuttle. The astronauts moved a failed pump module to the shuttle bay, and deployed several experiments on the outside of the ISS..

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