Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 18


July 18 Chronology


1890 July 18 - .
  • Birth of Charles Erwin 'Engine Charlie' Wilson - . Nation: USA. Summary: American Manager, Eisenhower's Secretary of Defense 1953-1957, an ardent opponent of spaceflight. He had previously run GM, where he coined the phrase "What's good for General Motors is good for the country"..

1906 July 18 - .
  • Birth of Ira H Abbott - . Nation: USA. Summary: American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1929-1962; supervised the X-15, supersonic transport, nuclear rocket, and advanced reentry programs..

1921 July 18 - .
  • Birth of John Herschel Jr Glenn - . Nation: USA. Summary: American test pilot astronaut, later a politician and US Senator. First American in orbit on his first flight, Mercury MA-6, in 1962, and oldest person in space on his second flight, STS-95, in 1998..

1945 July 18 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Failed to generate sufficient thrust for lift-off..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Launched from Toulon, France..

1945 July 18 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Failed to generate sufficient thrust for lift-off..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Launched from Toulon, France. The pad was damaged, requiring substantial repairs. The source of the rocket's problem is finally found to be burn-through and loss of a portion of the inner wall of the combustion chamber, which blocked the nozzle exit. Ironically the last EA-1941 is ground run for full duration in the summer of 1946 without incident. However plans to develop it further as a sounding rocket are abandoned.

1950 July 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: HVAR. Launch Vehicle: HVAR FFAR.
  • F25 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1951 July 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon. LV Configuration: Double Deacon Double Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • X-2 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1953 July 18 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 42.4 N x 70.4 W. Launch Platform: WYG-279?. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • SUI 8 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 11 km (6 mi). Summary: Launched at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11 Launch Point 1 - - Latitude: 42.43 N - Longitude: 70.37 W..

1955 July 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Matador. Launch Vehicle: Matador. LV Configuration: Matador GM-54-7.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1956 July 18 - .
  • Death of Ivan Gerasimovich Zubovich - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Zubovich. Summary: Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Armaments 1949-1951. Deputy Chairman of Special Committee 2..

1956 July 18 - . 15:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 29.7 N x 121.6 W. Launch Platform: LSD-18. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon.
  • NRL NN5.28 Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Summary: Launched on 1956 NRL Cruise Launch Point 2 - Latitude: 29.70 N, Longitude:121.58 W..

1957 July 18 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 18 - .
  • NASA heritage from NACA. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mercury; X-15A. In a memorandum to Dr. James R. Killian, Jr., Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Director of NACA, pointed out that NASA would inherit from NACA a rich technical background, competence, and leadership in driving toward the objective of a manned satellite program. For years NACA groups had been involved in research on such items as stabilization of ultra-high speed vehicles, provision of suitable controls, high temperature structural designs, and all the problems of reentry. In fact, a part of this work had been directed specifically toward the problem of designing a manned satellite. Also, the X-15 program had provided much experience in human factors applicable to the orbital flight of man. Therefore, Dr. Dryden concluded, in consonance with the intent of the Space Act of 1958, the assignment of the program to the NACA would be consistent.

1958 July 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: B-47. LV Family: Bold Orion. Launch Vehicle: Bold Orion 1. LV Configuration: Bold Orion-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 18 - . Launch Site: China Lake. Launch Complex: China Lake G-2. LV Family: Project Pilot. Launch Vehicle: Project Pilot. LV Configuration: Project Pilot-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 July 18 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 24.
  • GCh No. IZ-24 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. IZ-24 (III)).

1960 July 18 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun AA6.405.
  • Firefly CARRY Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1961 July 18 - .
  • NASA-Industry Apollo Technical Conference - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. 1,000 persons from 300 potential Project Apollo contractors and government agencies attended the conference. STG pushed the conical CM shape, in defiance of Gilruth's preference for the competitive blunt body/lifting body designs. Scientists from NASA, the General Electric Company, The Martin Company, and General Dynamics/Astronautics presented the results of studies on Apollo requirements. Within the next four to six weeks NASA was expected to draw up the final details and specifications for the Apollo spacecraft.

1962 July 18 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2D. LV Configuration: Thor DSV-2D 338.
  • AVT 2 Satellite test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi).

1962 July 18 - . 20:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena B 120D.
  • Samos 9 - . Payload: Samos E-2 no. 3 / Agena B 2403. Mass: 1,860 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Samos. Decay Date: 1962-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 342 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Zeta-1. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 96.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: First generation photo surveillance; radio relay of images; Satellite and Missile Observation Satellite. Poor results..
  • FTV 2403 RV - . Payload: E-6 RV. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft: Samos. Decay Date: 1962-07-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 343 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Zeta-2. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 96.1000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

1963 July 18 - .
  • Pratt and Whitney to develop fuel cells for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Electrical. Grumman selected Pratt and Whitney to develop fuel cells for the LEM. Current LEM design called for three cells, supplemented by a battery for power during peak consumption beyond what the cells could deliver. Grumman and Pratt and Whitney completed contract negotiations on August 27, and MSC issued a letter go-ahead on September 5. Including fees and royalties, the contract was worth $9.411 million.

1963 July 18 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Mud Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.9 N x 117.1 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-38-61.
  • X-15A VO Stability test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 31 km (19 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 6315 kph. Maximum Altitude - 31940 m..

1964 July 18 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 July 18 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 3 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 3. Mass: 959 kg (2,114 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 1454 . COSPAR: 1965-056A. Zond 3 was towards the moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with a TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20, during lunar flyby, 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km. The photos covered 19,000,000 km square of the lunar surface. Photo transmissions by facsimile were returned to earth from a distance of 2,200,000 km on July 29 and were retransmitted later from a distance of 31,500,000 km, thus proving the ability of the communications system. After the lunar flyby, Zond 3 continued space exploration in a heliocentric orbit. Those pictures showed clearly the heavily cratered nature of the surface. This mission dramatized the advances in space photography that the U.S.S.R. had made since its first far-side effort six years earlier.

1966 July 18 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: 36.1 N x 116.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-52-78.
  • X-15A Checkout, Systems test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 29 km (18 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5176 kph. Maximum Altitude - 29290 m. First flight with X-20 energy management system..

1966 July 18 - . 20:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5305 / Agena D 5005.
  • Gemini 10 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 1A/Agena D 5005 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2348 . COSPAR: 1966-065A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 290 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1966 July 18 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-10 / 62-12565.
  • Gemini 10 - . Call Sign: Gemini 10. Crew: Collins; Young. Backup Crew: Bean; Williams, Clifton. Payload: Gemini SC10. Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins; Young; Bean; Williams, Clifton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2349 . COSPAR: 1966-066A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena is stored. Collins space walks from Gemini to Agena to retrieve micrometeorite package left in space all those months. Loses grip first time, and tumbles head over heels at end of umbilical around Gemini. Package retrieved on second try.

    The Gemini X mission began with the launch of the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle from complex 14. The Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) attained a near-circular, 162- by 157-nautical-mile orbit. Spacecraft No. 10 was inserted into a 145- by 86-nautical-mile elliptical orbit. Slant range between the two vehicles was very close to the nominal 1000 miles. Major objective of the mission was achieved during the fourth revolution when the spacecraft rendezvoused with the GATV at 5 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time and docked with it about 30 minutes later. More spacecraft propellant was used to achieve rendezvous than had been predicted, imposing constraints on the remainder of the mission and requiring the development of an alternate flight plan. As a result, several experiments were not completed, and another secondary objective - docking practice - was not attempted. To conserve fuel and permit remaining objectives to be met, the spacecraft remained docked with the GATV for about 39 hours. During this period, a bending mode test was conducted to determine the dynamics of the docked vehicles, standup extravehicular activties (EVA) were conducted, and several experiments were performed. The GATV primary and secondary propulsion systems were used for six maneuvers to put the docked spacecraft into position for rendezvous with the Gemini VIII GATV as a passive target. The spacecraft undocked at 44 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, separated from the GATV, and used its own thrusters to complete the second rendezvous some three hours later. At 48 hours and 42 minutes into the flight, a 39-minute period of umbilical EVA began, which included the retrieval of a micrometorite collection package from the Gemini VIII Agena. The hatch was opened a third time about an hour later to jettison extraneous equipment before reentry. After about three hours of stationkeeping, the spacecraft separated from the GATV. At 51 hours 39 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew performed a true anomaly-adjust maneuver to minimize reentry dispersions resulting from the retrofire maneuver.


1967 July 18 - .
  • John Bailey Chairman of ad hoc Apollo Safety Group - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Debus. Program: Apollo. Summary: Kurt H. Debus, KSC Director, appointed John Bailey of MSC Chairman of an ad hoc Safety Group, following discussions with George E. Mueller of NASA OMSF, MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth, and MSFC Director Wernher von Braun. . Additional Details: John Bailey Chairman of ad hoc Apollo Safety Group.

1968 July 18 - .
  • Cosmonaut revolt. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Belyayev; Leonov; Vershinin. The cosmonauts are revolting against the selection of Nikolayev as their commander. They have written a letter demanding that Belyayev be put in the position. Leonov is also lobbying for the job, but Kamanin notes he has made two serious mistakes since April, no chance. Leonov attends a self-criticism meeting with the 'Gagarin comrades', self-confesses and emotionally says he will leave the cosmonaut unit if there are no future chances for promotion due to his repeated mistakes. Finally he is told that if does good work in the future, he could achieve the deputy commander position, but he can never, never make mistakes again.

    A Zenit-2 spy satellite capsule has gone off course, splashed down in the Volga River, and sunk. Vershinin is in the hospital with intestinal polyps. Kamanin is reminded of Korolev's case, although he is told Vershinin's condition is not serious. There is criticism of the botched Zenit-2 recovery from Kutakhov. Meanwhile the Central Committee has decided to take no action on Czechoslovakia but send a letter to the Czech Communist Party. Kamanin is sick of this limp-wristed talk, talk, talk.


1968 July 18 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena B040. FAILURE: Failure.
  • USN B040 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1968 July 18 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.881.
  • Mass spectrometer Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1968 July 18 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 233 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 15. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1969-02-06 . Decay Date: 1969-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3326 . COSPAR: 1968-061A. Apogee: 1,514 km (940 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.9000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1969 July 18 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • NASA Administrator Paine approved the shift from a "wet" to a "dry" Orbital Workshop for AAP. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Paine. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop; Skylab; Apollo ATM. NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine approved the shift from a 'wet' to a 'dry' Orbital Workshop concept for AAP following a review presentation by program officials on the potential benefits of such a change. On 22 July, AAP Director William C. Schneider ordered program managers at the three Centers to implement the change, abandoning the idea of using a spent Saturn IB second stage for a Workshop and adopting the concept of a fully equipped 'dry' configuration-with the ATM integrated into the total payload-launched aboard a Saturn V. Additional Details: NASA Administrator Paine approved the shift from a "wet" to a "dry" Orbital Workshop for AAP..

1970 July 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • OT GT30M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 July 18 - . 01:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1972 July 18 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. LV Configuration: Aerobee 170 KP3.40.
  • Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper-Dart. LV Configuration: Viper-Dart E 1-6686.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 03:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki G 1-6687.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.418GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki G 1-6689.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.419GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1973 July 18 - . 07:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper-Dart. LV Configuration: Viper-Dart E 1-6693.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1974 July 18 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle carrier aircraft purchased - . Nation: USA. NASA purchases used American Airlines 747 N9668 for use as a carrier to ferry the shuttle orbiter between factory, landing sites, and launch sites. Modification of a 747 to carry the orbiter on its back was chosen over two more costly alternatives that would have suspended it from a wing connecting two fuselages: a new design proposed by NASA LaRC, and a Lockheed proposal for two C-5A transports joined together.

1974 July 18 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan.
  • Safeguard TRM-133 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1974 July 18 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-146 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975 July 18 - .
  • ASTP-Crew transfers between the docked vehicles. - . Nation: USA. Program: ASTP. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). The crew members take turns visiting each other's capsules, a complicated procedure due to the need to keep both spacecraft manned at all times and for the transfer crews to transition in the docking module between the different Soyuz and Apollo cabin atmospheres. Additional Details: ASTP-Crew transfers between the docked vehicles..

1976 July 18 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin NASA 12.1776GT. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Chemical Release test / plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 25 km (15 mi).

1977 July 18 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • DM-1 Shuttle SRB development static firing - . Nation: USA. Summary: The first firing of a shuttle Solid Rocket Booster motor..

1977 July 18 - .
  • 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Conduct 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah, Thiokol (2.4 million pounds of thrust).

1978 July 18 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 292-02.
  • Raduga 4 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 14L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10987 . COSPAR: 1978-073A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.

1979 July 18 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1980 July 18 - . 02:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLV. LV Family: SLV. Launch Vehicle: SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 SLV-3-E2.
  • Rohini RS-1 - . Payload: Rohini 1B. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Rohini. Decay Date: 1981-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11899 . COSPAR: 1980-062A. Apogee: 921 km (572 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 44.7000 deg. Period: 97.00 min. Summary: Experimental-technology mission. Rohini satellite RS-1. .

1980 July 18 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-13 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 11896 . COSPAR: 1980-063A. Apogee: 38,990 km (24,220 mi). Perigee: 1,364 km (847 mi). Inclination: 63.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1983 July 18 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1984 July 18 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1985 July 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1987 July 18 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 July 18 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 37 - . Payload: Progress s/n 145. Mass: 7,065 kg (15,575 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . Decay Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19322 . COSPAR: 1988-061A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187x256 km, 51. 62 deg; 235 x 319 km; 343 x 347 km. Docked with Mir on 20 Jul 1988 22:33:40 GMT. Refuelling operations on 7,8, and 9 August 1998. Undocked on 12 Aug 1988 08:31:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Aug 1988 13:45:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 22.42 days.

1988 July 18 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65096-175.
  • Cosmos 1959 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 19324 . COSPAR: 1988-062A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 953 km (592 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1989 July 18 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-03 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 47. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 21.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 20134 . COSPAR: 1989-055A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Deployed Pion 3 & 4. Resurs-F: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. Satellite carries two passive separable 'Pion' probes to investigate upper atmospheric density.
  • Pion - . Payload: Pion-3. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1989-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20160 . COSPAR: 1989-055C. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.76 min.
  • Pion - . Payload: Pion-4. Mass: 78 kg (171 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1989-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20161 . COSPAR: 1989-055D. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.76 min. Deployed from Resurs F3 8/7/89; passive atmospheric research. Resurs-F: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. Satellite carries two passive separable 'Pion' probes to investigate upper atmospheric density.

1989 July 18 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2031 - . Payload: Orlets-1 no. 1. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 20136 . COSPAR: 1989-056A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: First launch of Orlets-1 long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited..

1990 July 18 - . 21:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 340-01.
  • Cosmos 2085 - . Payload: Potok no. 6 s/n 17L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1995-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20693 . COSPAR: 1990-061A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1990-1994 As of 29 August 2001 located at 71.92 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.57E drifting at 0.022W degrees per day.

1995 July 18 - .
1996 July 18 - .
  • Death of Martin Summerfield - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Summerfield. Summary: American scientist. Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet in 1943; American inventor of regenerative cooling for liquid rocket engines. Left in 1944 for theoretical studies and academia, teaching at Princetone 1949-1994..

1998 July 18 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3B CZ3B-5 (53).
  • Sinosat - . Mass: 2,820 kg (6,210 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Eurasspa. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Sinosat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000 . USAF Sat Cat: 25404 . COSPAR: 1998-044A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The CZ-3B's liquid hydrogen upper stage and the Sinosat were placed in a 609 x 35958 km x 19.0 deg geostationary transfer orbit at 09:45 GMT. The first two liquid apogee burns were carried out on July 19 and 21. Sinosat, an Alcatel Spacebus 3000, was built in Cannes and owned temporarily by EurasSpace, a joint venture between Daimler-Benz Aerospace and the China Aerospace Corporation. After on-orbit testing it was delivered to the Sino Satellite Communications Company of Shanghai for communications services in China. The satellite carried 24 C-band transponders and 14 Ku-band transponders which covered the entire Asia-Pacific region. With a design life span of 15 years, the satellite was to provide multiple data transfer services for China's financial and air transportation control systems, as well as the Shanghai Information Port project, Sinosat operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110.5 deg E in 1998-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 110.55 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 110.51E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

1999 July 18 - .
  • New Tracking Ship Joins Yuan Wang Fleet - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. A new space tracking ship, Yuan Wang 4, was delivered to China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General by the China State Shipbuilding Corporation. This was the fourth tracking ship in China's Yuan Wang space tracking fleet. The Yuan Wang 4 tracking ship was converted from the scientific survey ship Xiang Yang Hong 10. The announcment also contained the second announcement that the fleet would deploy for a major new operation (a test of a manned spacecraft) within the next year. The Yuan Wang 4 was 156.09 m long, 20.6 m wide along the mold-line, and had a displacement of 10,895 tons.

1999 July 18 - . 03:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.066UE.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2001 July 18 - . 03:10 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-104-2 - . Crew: Gernhardt; Reilly. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gernhardt; Reilly. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-104. The astronauts assisted in the installation of the oxygen and nitrogen tanks on the Quest module. The tanks, mounted on the Spacelab pallet, were grappled by the Station's SSRMS arm and moved to Quest one by one. Minor problems with valve configurations and recalcitrant connectors were overcome.

2003 July 18 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #03-34 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lu; Malenchenko. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-7. Summary: The Expedition 7 crew, Commander Yuri Malenchenko and NASA ISS Science Officer Ed Lu, prepared for a new science experiment and performed maintenance activities this week aboard the International Space Station.. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #03-34.

2004 July 18 - . 00:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5Gp. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G+ V163 (519).
  • Anik F2 - . Payload: BSS-702. Mass: 5,950 kg (13,110 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 702. USAF Sat Cat: 28378 . COSPAR: 2004-027A. Apogee: 38,333 km (23,818 mi). Perigee: 33,253 km (20,662 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Summary: Delayed from May, July 9, 13, 16 and 17. Heaviest single payload to GTO to that date. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 111.09W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

2009 July 18 - .
  • EVA STS-127-1 - . Crew: Wolf; Kopra. EVA Type: Extravehicular activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-127; ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Summary: JEF installed and P3 Nadir UCCAS deployed. S3 Zenith Outboard PAS deploy postponed due to time constraints..

2011 July 18 - . 02:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3F. LV Configuration: Zenit-3F/Fregat.
  • Spektr R - . Mass: 3,660 kg (8,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Navigator bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37755 . COSPAR: 2011-037A. Apogee: 316,213 km (196,485 mi). Perigee: 16,018 km (9,953 mi). Inclination: 73.9000 deg. Period: 11,882.80 min. Summary: Russian astronomical space observatory. Carried 10m diameter radio telescope observing at 92, 18, 6 and 1.35 cm wavelengths; solar wind and cosmic dust detectors; and laser corner reflectors for tracking..

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