Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 20


July 20 Chronology


1918 July 20 - .
  • Birth of Grigoriy Vasilyevich Kisunko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1953-1975 of KB-1 and later of OKB-30. Led work on early anti-ballistic missiles and ASATs..

1931 July 20 - .
  • Birth of Marina Lavrentrevna Vasliyevna Popovich - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer at Antonov, VVS officer and test pilot, holder of 13 aviation world records, wife of cosmonaut Pavel Popovich, world-renowned UFO expert..

1941 July 20 - .
1951 July 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 148 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 47. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Abrupt rudder fixed aileron rolls left and right, from mach 0.70 to mach 0.88..

1951 July 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. LV Configuration: Lark 239. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1954 July 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Hermes. Launch Vehicle: Hermes A-3B. LV Configuration: Hermes A-3B 2/A-16.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: GE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1955 July 20 - .
  • X-1A Flight 25 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: NACA flight 1. Familiarization. Walker attained mach 1.45 at 13725 m. Noted severe aileron buzz at mach 0.90 to 0.92..

1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 5301. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 July 20 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 29.7 N x 121.5 W. Launch Platform: LSD-18. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon. LV Configuration: Deacon Rockoon 8.
  • NRL NN5.30 Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Summary: Launched on 1956 NRL Cruise Launch Point 4 - Latitude: 29.72 N, Longitude:121.53 W..

1959 July 20 - .
  • Western Electric Company selected for the Mercury tracking network. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Negotiations for construction of the Mercury tracking network were started with the Western Electric Company and their subcontractors (Bendix Aviation, International Business Machines, Bell Telephone Laboratories, and Burns and Roe), and a letter contract was signed on July 30, 1959, for the entire range. This included radar tracking; telemetry receiving, recording, and display; communications to both the spacecraft and surface stations; and the computing and control facilities.

1959 July 20 - .
  • Mercury tracking station contractor selected. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Summary: NASA selected Western Electric Co. to build worldwide network of tracking and ground instrument stations to be used in Project Mercury..

1959 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 July 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-B. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun AEC probe.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AEC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1960 July 20 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 598. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A1. LV Configuration: Polaris A1E-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 July 20 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 598. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A1. LV Configuration: Polaris A1E-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 July 20 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Summary: The Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group, established on July 7, 1961, began its formal existence with seven DOD and seven NASA members and alternates.. Additional Details: Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group.

1961 July 20 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.32GA.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1961 July 20 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.05UE.
  • Magnetic Fields Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1962 July 20 - .
  • NASA Mission Control Center would be located at Houston - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Gemini. NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced that the Mission Control Center for future manned space flights would be located at MSC. The Center would be operational in time for Gemini rendezvous flights in 1964 and later Apollo lunar missions. The overriding factor in the choice of MSC was the existing location of the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office, the astronauts, and Flight Operations Division at Houston.

1963 July 20 - .
  • Scientific objectives for spaceflights in 1964 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh. Keldysh issues a letter listing the scientific objectives for spaceflights in 1964:

    • Photograph on marked film the earth and its atmosphere, the surfaces of the moon and planets,
    • Observe the zodiacal light via photometer
    • Conduct spectrographic analysis of the earth's atmosphere in the 3000 to 3600 Angstrom range
    • Conduct ultraviolet spectroscopy of the sky at 304 and 60 Angstroms
    • Map the infrared radiation of the earth from space, especially of the polar regions

1963 July 20 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-3A. LV Configuration: Scout X-3A S110. FAILURE: Failure..
  • Reentry 3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). NASA launched a Scout rocket with a nose cone of experimental heatshield material from Wallops Island, Va. The rocket was intentionally destroyed when it deviated from its course a few seconds after liftoff. The nose cone had been expected to reenter the atmosphere at 27,934 kilometers (18,600 miles) per hour to test the material's thermal performance under heating loads near those of a lunar reentry.

1963 July 20 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.77GS.
  • OSO B spectrometer Solar ultraviolet / eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.91CI.
  • Operation Probe High Ionosphere / eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5A. LV Configuration: Black Brant VA AB17.199.
  • Operation Probe High Eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.92CI.
  • Opn Probe High Ionosphere / eclipse / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.93CI.
  • Opn Probe High Ionosphere / eclipse / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 21:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300A NASA 06.08GA.
  • Thermosphere Probe 3 Aeronomy / eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi).

1963 July 20 - . 22:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.94CI.
  • Opn Probe High Ionosphere / eclipse / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1964 July 20 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S124R.
  • SERT 1 Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 4,002 km (2,486 mi). Suborbital 30 minute test of NASA SERT ion engine. The early part of the flight was dedicated to attempts to operate the cesium engine. The cesium engine could not be started because of a high-voltage electrical short circuit. The mercury engine was started about 14 minutes into the flight. This engine was successfully operated for 31 minutes with 53 high-voltage recycle vents which were handled by the fault protection system. Each of the recycle events was only a few seconds duration. Major results from the test were the first demonstration of an ion engine in space, demonstration of effective ion beam neutralization, no EMI effects on other spacecraft systems, and effective recovery from electrical breakdowns. Thrust was measured using three independent measuring systems, and there were no major differences between in-space and ground test performance.

1964 July 20 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk-9 Sandia 152-20.
  • LRL SAP Camera Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi).

1965 July 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena C007. FAILURE: Failure.
  • USAF C007 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 20 - . 08:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 225D / Agena D 1803.
  • Vela 5 - . Payload: Vela 3A / OPS 6577. Mass: 235 kg (518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Vela. USAF Sat Cat: 1458 . COSPAR: 1965-058A. Apogee: 115,839 km (71,978 mi). Perigee: 106,367 km (66,093 mi). Inclination: 35.2000 deg. Period: 6,679.00 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • ORS 3 - . Payload: ERS 17. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ERS. Decay Date: 1968-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1460 . COSPAR: 1965-058C. Apogee: 111,793 km (69,464 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 36.9000 deg. Period: 2,595.40 min. Summary: Radiation data. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • Vela 6 - . Payload: Vela 3B / OPS 6564. Mass: 235 kg (518 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Vela. USAF Sat Cat: 1459 . COSPAR: 1965-058B. Apogee: 121,281 km (75,360 mi). Perigee: 101,715 km (63,202 mi). Inclination: 34.2000 deg. Period: 6,712.70 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1965 July 20 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.3 N x 114.9 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-45-69.
  • X-15A Bound.Layer Noise test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 32 km (19 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 6050 kph. Maximum Altitude - 32126 m..

1966 July 20 - .
1966 July 20 - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-3 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0007 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of spacecraft..

1966 July 20 - .
  • Heated exchange with Mishin - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Severin; Darevskiy; Komarov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: Yastreb. Kamanin and VVS officers spend more than two hours in a heated exchange with Mishin and his staff at OKB-1. Mishin is attacked for delays in completion of Soyuz; his demand that OKB-1 cosmonauts be trained in VVS zero-G aircraft without any agreement on this having been reached; the lack of work on spacesuits for the Soyuz flights by Severin; and above all his "illegal" training of his own cosmonauts. Mishin responds with wild attacks against the competence of Kamanin's cosmonauts, saying that his engineers could better guide a spacecraft to a docking than Kamanin's pilots. Finally things cool down, and Mishin agrees to submit to Kamanin a list of OKB-1 candidates for cosmonaut training within two to three days. Kamanin agrees to consider how they may be prepared for flight on a two-month schedule.

    Later Kamanin's group visits Darevskiy at MAP and reviews the status of Soyuz trainer completion. He promises to have them completed by the end of August. Finally Kamanin confronts Komarov over statements he made in Japan. Komarov admits telling the world press that the Soviet Union will, at the scheduled time, fly an automated spacecraft around the moon and return it to earth, to be followed by a dog flight, then a manned circumlunar flight. Kamanin has already had the Central Committee and Soviet Ministers calling him about this unauthorised disclosure.


1966 July 20 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-02.
  • Cosmos 125 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2351 . COSPAR: 1966-067A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor. Lost on the 52nd revolution as a result of a possible failure in the chemical power units placed on board instead of the nuclear BES-5..

1966 July 20 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.218GE.
  • SPICE 1 (PCA) Solar particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1966 July 20 - . 23:01 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-2 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0271 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Retrieved micrometeoroid collector from Agena..

1967 July 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 2370.
  • ST Olympic Trials 3 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1967 July 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. Launch Pad: PU32?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SBP Special test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 July 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.212UA.
  • Composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1967 July 20 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: 36.1 N x 116.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-61-91.
  • X-15A HT/Guid/Telem test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 25 km (15 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5942 kph. Maximum Altitude - 25720 m..

1967 July 20 - . 19:24 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.211UA.
  • Composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1969 July 20 - .
  • Apollo 11 achieves first landing of humans on the moon - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 11. At 8:50 a.m. July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin reentered the LM and checked out all systems. They performed a maneuver at 1:11 p.m. to separate the LM from the CSM and began the descent to the moon. The LM touched down on the moon at 4:18 p.m. EDT July 20. Armstrong reported to mission control at MSC, "Houston, Tranquillity Base here - the Eagle has landed." Additional Details: Apollo 11 achieves first landing of humans on the moon.

1969 July 20 - .
  • Death of Boris Chimp 504. Reportedly died on the lunar surface aboard Luna 15, surviving for a time after the landing. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Boris Chimp 504. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. Fictional lunar landing chimpanzee, subject of Dwayne Allen Day satire of Soviet space history research articles..

1970 July 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKMR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1971 July 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 429 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5331 . COSPAR: 1971-061A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 20 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 504 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 25. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6117 . COSPAR: 1972-057A. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,321 km (820 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 509 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 30. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6122 . COSPAR: 1972-057F. Apogee: 1,498 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min.
  • Cosmos 506 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 27. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6119 . COSPAR: 1972-057C. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,382 km (858 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.
  • Cosmos 507 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 28. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6120 . COSPAR: 1972-057D. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 511 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 32. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6124 . COSPAR: 1972-057H. Apogee: 1,545 km (960 mi). Perigee: 1,495 km (928 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.40 min.
  • Cosmos 510 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 31. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6123 . COSPAR: 1972-057G. Apogee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,495 km (928 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.00 min.
  • Cosmos 508 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 29. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6121 . COSPAR: 1972-057E. Apogee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,443 km (896 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 505 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 26. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 6118 . COSPAR: 1972-057B. Apogee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,352 km (840 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.

1973 July 20 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

1973 July 20 - . 06:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 50.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12. LV Configuration: MR-12 B-40.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1974 July 20 - . 06:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. LV Configuration: Aerobee 170 NASA 13.84UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1975 July 20 - .
1976 July 20 - .
  • Viking 1, Mars Landing - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Viking.

1976 July 20 - .
  • Viking 1 landed on Mars - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Viking. Viking 1 reached Mars orbit June 19, 1976. Landing was planned for the US Bicentennial on July 4, but was delayed until a suitable landing site was located. The lander separated from the orbiter and touched down on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold) at 22.3 deg N latitude, 48 deg longitude.

1977 July 20 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 931 - . Payload: Oko #8. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10150 . COSPAR: 1977-068A. Apogee: 36,549 km (22,710 mi). Perigee: 3,770 km (2,340 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 665. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 July 20 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 932 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10153 . COSPAR: 1977-069A. Apogee: 358 km (222 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 July 20 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.37UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1979 July 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.1026GU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1979 July 20 - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P211H.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1979 July 20 - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P209H.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1979 July 20 - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P210H.
  • Atomic oxygen Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1979 July 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC172. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 July 20 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1116 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 21. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11457 . COSPAR: 1979-067A. Apogee: 408 km (253 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.60 min.

1981 July 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1982 July 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.53US.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1983 July 20 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1483 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-08-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14204 . COSPAR: 1983-074A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Medium resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1983 July 20 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.35GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1984 July 20 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1987 July 20 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 D5X-6.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 July 20 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1989 July 20 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2032 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-08-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 20145 . COSPAR: 1989-057A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1990 July 20 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2086 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-08-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 20702 . COSPAR: 1990-062A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1994 July 20 - . 05:53 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.121CL.
  • EUVS Jupiter Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1994 July 20 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. Launch Pad: LC43/4?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2283 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 71.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23182 . COSPAR: 1994-042A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.42 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1995 July 20 - . 03:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress M-28 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 228. Mass: 7,125 kg (15,707 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 46.25 days. Completed Operations Date: 1995-09-04 08:58:14 . Decay Date: 1995-09-04 08:58:14 . USAF Sat Cat: 23617 . COSPAR: 1995-036A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 393 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir's front port on 22 Jul 1995 04:39:37 GMT. Undocked on 4 Sep 1995 05:09:53 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Sep 1995 08:58:55 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 44.02 days. Two Icons of Saint Anastasia were taken into space aboard the craft and transferred to the Mir station where they remained for about seven months. They were returned to earth, apparently aboard Soyuz TM-22, and later shown in diffent shrines around the world.

1997 July 20 - .
  • Mir News 371: Cable trouble - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-23. By accident one member of the Mir crew disconnected a cable connection between a rate-sensor in Module Kristall and the SUD (attitude control computer), which caused a troublesome chain reaction of system failures. Among the systems which did not work anymore were also transmitters in the base block, the UKW-1 transceiver and Telemetry transceivers. So for communications, but also for an alternative attitude control the crew had to use the systems of the fully autonomous Soyuz-TM25.

    During the night hours I use to record transmissions using a time switch. In the morning I did not find anything on my tape and during the pass in orbit 65171, 0548-0559 UTC, the 143.625, 145.985 and the 166/165 mc telemetry transmitters did not show any sign of life. I checked whether they used Altair-2 or not: again negative. A few minutes after the pass Geoff Perry told me that he had heard them on 121.750 mc.

    During the next pass they still used the 121.750 mc during which Geoff Perry heard them laughing in reaction on that what TsUP had said. The first pass in which the 143.625 mc was in use again was during orbit 65173 at 0900 UTC. Tsibliyev reported that there has been some recharging of the accumulators again and consequently they had switched on some systems, i.e. the UKW-1 transmitter and Telemetry transceivers.

    In the early morning of 18.07 I was on duty during the nightly passes. During 2 of them (in orb. 65184 and 65185) all service frequencies remained silent, but I had a hope that conditions had improved for on 145.985 mc there were Packet Radio bursts again. During the pass in orb. 65186 Tsibliyev kept watch in the Base Block and he confirmed that the situation was better than the day before. His 2 colleagues still slept which they badly needed because of the fact, as Tsibliyev stated, they had to endure so much during the last days. During the passes still to follow he also slept and the only sign of life was the continuous rattle of Packet Radio. My oscilloscope did not give any indication that Altair-2's downlink was active.

    VHF:

    The first windows in which VHF-traffic could be monitored here before the early morning hours of 19.07 and as my body was longing for a good night's rest I adjusted my time switch so that during all windows a recorder was active. And of course this time not only for the 143.625 , but also for the 121.750 mc. After a night in which I slept like a log I found a recording of the transmissions on 143.625 mc during the first pass in orb. 65199 (0045 UTC). Lazutkin had the middle watch in the Base Block and he reported good results of the recharging of accumulators and the fact that there was GSO-1 (gyro stabilised orientation), a very slow rotation and the complex flew on one side. Later on Lazutkin was in his couch and only the Packet Radio and Telemetry transmitters were active.

    Altair-2:

    During orbit 65203 Altair-2 showed up again. A signal on 10.825 GHz and on the monitor images of floating cosmonauts, the interior of the Base Block and now and then a glimpse of the damaged Spektr. Also phone in which Foale told that he has to use a list with things he needs for the IVA and components for the Orlan-DMA suit. This list in Russian and he asks for an English translation to make it easier for him in contacts with American experts during training for the IVA and the IVA itself. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 July 20 - .
  • Retrieval of Liberty Bell 7 Capsule From Ocean Floor - . Nation: USA. Flight: Mercury MR-5.

2000 July 20 - .
  • Discovery of Jupiter Moon Callirrhoe by T. B. Spahr - . Nation: USA.

2001 July 20 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya-3-51 - . Payload: Molniya-3K. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 26867 . COSPAR: 2001-030A. Apogee: 39,467 km (24,523 mi). Perigee: 888 km (551 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Molniya-3K military communications satellite and booster fourth stage entered a 214 x 420 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit at 0026 GMT. About half an orbit later, over the southeast Pacific, the NPO Lavochkin Block-ML fourth stage fired to put the payload into a 407 x 40831 km x 62.9 deg orbit. The Molniya-3K was an improved version of the Molniya-3 military satellite.

2001 July 20 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-496. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Cosmos 1 Solar Sail Spacecraft test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 412 km (256 mi). Launch delayed from April 26 and July 19 failure. The Russian Navy launched a three-stage R-29R Volna from the submarine Borisoglebsk in the Barents Sea on a suborbital flight. The payload was a joint project between the Planetary Society and NPO Lavochkin's Babakin center, and consisted of a solar sail deployment test with an inflatable reentry shield. The payload failed to separate from the final stage.

2002 July 20 - .
  • Canadian Arrow injector tests. - . Nation: Canada. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Canadian Arrow. Summary: Canadian Arrow (London, Ontario, Canada) successfully hot fire tests first stage propulsion system injector cup.

2002 July 20 - .
2009 July 20 - .
  • EVA STS-127-2 - . Crew: Wolf; Marshburn. EVA Type: Extravehicular activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-127; ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Summary: Transferred Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) from the Shuttle Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to the External Stowage Platform-3 (ESP3). Transferred materials included a spare high-gain antenna, cooling-system pump module and spare parts for the Mobile Ser.

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