Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 21


July 21 Chronology


1914 July 21 - .
  • Seth Nicholson's Discovery of Jupiter Moon Sinope - . Nation: USA.

1933 July 21 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0060 km (0.0037 mi). Summary: After an aborted launch, the rocket does clear the tower but on oxidiser valve fails to open. The rocket reaches only 60 m but splashes down in the lake and is recovered..

1938 July 21 - .
1944 July 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18019.
1949 July 21 - .
  • Birth of Nigel Richard Wood - . Nation: UK. Summary: British engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986..

1949 July 21 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-1. LV Configuration: Aerobee XASR-SC-1 SC 4.
  • Air Sampling Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi). Summary: Composition research. Launched at 0901 local time. Reached 76.1 km..

1954 July 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3392-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 July 21 - .
  • Birth of Frank James Casserino - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985..

1956 July 21 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 29.8 N x 121.5 W. Launch Platform: LSD-18. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • NRL NN5.31 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 11 km (6 mi). Summary: Launched on 1956 NRL Cruise Launch Point 5 - Latitude: 29.75 N, Longitude:121.50 W..

1958 July 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Arcon. LV Configuration: Arcon SEL-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SRDL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1959 July 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin JV-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSWC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 July 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas C. LV Configuration: Atlas C 8C.
  • Research and development / AFSWC-5 test / particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi). Summary: A full-scale USAF Atlas ICBM nose cone recovered for the first time after flight down the AMR..

1959 July 21 - . 07:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 203. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi. LV Configuration: Aerobee Hi NN3.23F.
  • Solar ultraviolet / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

1960 July 21 - .
  • Dyna-Soar three-step approach. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Air Force headquarters issued System Development Requirement 19, which sanctioned the three-step approach..

1960 July 21 - . 01:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun AA6.413.
  • Firefly IDA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1960 July 21 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun AA6.406.
  • Firefly LILY Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1961 July 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 1. LV Configuration: Titan I AJ-18.
  • Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 July 21 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8. LV Configuration: Kappa 8 K-8-7 TW-10/ID-6.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1961 July 21 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV. LV Configuration: Redstone MRLV-8.
  • Mercury MR-4 - . Call Sign: Liberty Bell 7. Crew: Grissom. Backup Crew: Glenn. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom; Glenn. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-4. Spacecraft: Mercury. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). The Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, manned by Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, boosted by a Redstone rocket, reached a peak altitude of 190.3 km and a speed of 8,335 km per hour. After a flight of 15 minutes and 37 seconds, the landing was made 487 km downrange from the launch site. The hatch blew while still in water, and the capsule sank; Grissom saved, though his suit was filling up with water through open oxygen inlet lines.

    This was the second and final manned suborbital Mercury Redstone flight, and the first flight with trapezoidal window. Further suborbital flights (each astronaut was to make one as a training exercise) were cancelled. An attempt to recover the capsule in very deep water in 1994 not successful. It was finally raised in the summer of 1999.


1961 July 21 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 322 / Agena B 1110. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Discoverer 27 - . Payload: KH-5 s/n 9020A. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-5. Decay Date: 1961-07-21 . COSPAR: F610721A. Summary: KH-5; destroyed by range safety. Mission failed..
  • SRV 524 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft: KH-5. COSPAR: F610721B.

1962 July 21 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo advanced Saturn launch complex northwest of Cape Canaveral - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. NASA announced plans for an advanced Saturn launch complex to be built on 80,000 acres northwest of Cape Canaveral. The new facility, Launch Complex 39, would include a building large enough for the vertical assembly of a complete Saturn launch vehicle and Apollo spacecraft.

1962 July 21 - .
  • Egyptians parade rockets - . Nation: Egypt. Related Persons: Saenger; Kleinwaechter; Pilz. The Egyptian government exhibits mock-ups of missiles they are developing with assistance from German engineers. The El Qahir (conqueror) is 11 m long and was said to have a range of 600 km. The El Zafir (Victor) is 5.5 km long and had a range of 300 km. Later it is announced that a two-stage Al Ared (Pioneer) rocket is being developed that will have a range of 1000 km. A modification of this will be capable of launching satellites. Engineers involved in development of the rockets are said to be Wolfgang Pilz, Hans Goercke, and Hans Kleinwaechter. Eugen Saenger at the Stuttgart Propulsion Institute is also implicated. Saenger, who is working with his wife on steam-rocket boosted ramjet aircraft, denies this.

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Al Kahir. Launch Vehicle: Al Kahir.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Egypt. Agency: EGAO. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Al Kahir. Launch Vehicle: Al Kahir.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Egypt. Agency: EGAO. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1962 July 21 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 342 / Agena B 1130.
  • KH-4 9039 - . Payload: KH-4 s/n 9039 / Agena B 1130. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1962-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 344 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Eta-1. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: KH-4. Aborted after 6 photo passes. Heavy corona and radiation fog..

1962 July 21 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-12.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 July 21 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-13.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 July 21 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 611. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 July 21 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
1964 July 21 - .
  • Orbital laboratory using Apollo-developed components for military applications. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo X. Commenting on Republican Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater's views on the space program, Warren Burkett, science writer for the Houston Chronicle, observed that a great deal of research being conducted as part of NASA's Apollo program could be of direct value to the military services. Burkett contended that an orbital laboratory using Apollo-developed components could be used for such military applications as patrol and orbital interception. He suggested that, with Apollo, NASA was generating an inventory of 'off-the-shelf' space hardware suitable for military use if needed.

1964 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 21 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk-9 Sandia 152-31.
  • LASL Sun Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1965 July 21 - .
  • Surveyor small rover cancelled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Surveyor Lunar Rover. Several lunar surface vehicles received national attention:

    • NASA announced that it had dropped plans for developing a small rover to be carried to the moon aboard soft-landing Surveyor spacecraft. This action, the space agency said, stemmed from a desire to concentrate on the development of the spacecraft per se and on its scientific instrumentation.

    1965 July 21 - .
    • Apollo Manned Flying System - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: MFS. Bell Aerosystems Company announced that it had received additional funds from NASA (almost a half million dollars) to continue work on another lunar vehicle, the so-called Manned Flying System. This latter craft, also primarily a tool for exploration, would be able to transport an astronaut and about 136 kg (300 lbs) of equipment (or two astronauts) for distances up to 24 km (15 mi) from the original landing site.

1965 July 21 - . LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: R-9.
  • R-9A ICBM accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-9A in shaft and surface variants into armaments' was issued..

1965 July 21 - .
  • Apollo Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: LFV Bell. Bell Aerosystems Company announced that it had designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon. This work was the result of a year-long study that the company had conducted for MSFC. The LFV, nicknamed "Hopper," would be able to travel about 80 km (50 mi) without stopping. Bell announced also that it had received additional funds from NASA (almost a half million dollars) to continue work on another lunar vehicle, the so-called Manned Flying System. This latter craft, also primarily a tool for exploration, would be able to transport an astronaut and about 136 kg (300 lbs) of equipment (or two astronauts) for distances up to 24 km (15 mi) from the original landing site.

1965 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 July 21 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois AE07.347.
  • Sphere / Vehicle test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1965 July 21 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-B. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-62.
  • Long Ball operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 July 21 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 CRL AD3.375.
  • Mass spectrometer / Impulse probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 193 km (119 mi).

1966 July 21 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Resolute Bay. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 3. LV Configuration: Black Brant III AKF-3-15.
  • Ionosphere / chemical release mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1966 July 21 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.3 N x 114.9 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 2-46-83.
  • X-15A-2 Alt,ST,Abl TPS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5741 kph. Maximum Altitude - 58610 m..

1966 July 21 - .
  • Landing of Gemini 10 - . Return Crew: Collins; Young. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins; Young. Program: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 10. The retrofire maneuver was initiated at 70 hours 10 minutes after liftoff, during the 43rd revolution. The spacecraft landed at 21:06 GMT within sight of the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Guadalcanal, some 5 km from the planned landing point on July 21.

1967 July 21 - . LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon.
  • R-36 ICBM accepted into service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On approval of the R-36 ICBM variant with countermeasures to overcome anti-ballistic missiles and on adoption of the R-36 ICBM into armaments' was issued..

1967 July 21 - . LV Family: UR-700. Launch Vehicle: UR-700.
  • Chelomei signs design documents for UR-700/LK-700 lunar expedition - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Spacecraft: LK-700. Summary: Chelomei's TsKBM began work on the UR-700 launch vehicle for manned lunar landing missions in 1962. Chelomei took a sound conservative design approach (i.e. no docking required, no cryogenics)..

1967 July 21 - .
  • Soyuz spacecraft programme review is conducted. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Summary: Problems are identified with the parachutes and oxygen regeneration system which must be solved before the first manned flight..

1967 July 21 - . LV Family: R-7; Tsiklon.
  • US Project reassigned; R-36-O booster development approved; Yantar-2K and Zvevda 7K-VI approved. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Spacecraft: US-A; US-P; Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Soyuz VI. Decree 715-240 'On the Creation of Space Systems for Naval Reconnaissance Comprising the US sat and the R-36-based booster -further work on the US naval reconnaissance satellite, approval of work on the Yantar-2K, and course of work on 7K-VI Zvezda'.

    An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlovís design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.

    Following numerous problems in the first flight tests of the Soyuz 7K-OK, Kozlov ordered a complete redesign of the 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. The new spacecraft, with a crew of two, would have a total mass of 6.6 tonnes and could operate for a month in orbit. The new design switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital modules and was 300 kg too heavy for the standard 11A511 launch vehicle. Therefore Kozlov designed a new variant of the Soyuz launch vehicle, the 11A511M. The project was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with first flight to be in 1968 and operations to begin in 1969. The booster design, with unknown changes to the basic Soyuz, did not go into full production.


1967 July 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-14. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F670721A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1968 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L - . Payload: Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L. Mass: 5,140 kg (11,330 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-07-21 . Summary: Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however..

1969 July 21 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Soviet engineers view moonwalk - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Tyulin; von Braun. Program: Lunar L3. Flight: Apollo 11. At the same time the reconstruction schedule for the destroyed N1 launch complex was being laid out, Apollo 11 landed on the moon and the Americans won the moon race. Mishin's engineers watched the live television at TsNIIMASH. Afterwards Tyulin declared, "this is all Chertok's fault. In 1945 he should have thought of stealing Von Braun from the Americans - but he never considered that solution". "True", Chertok replied, "my adventure with Vasiliy Kharchev didn't turn out too well".

1969 July 21 - .
  • EVA Apollo 11-2 - . Crew: Armstrong; Aldrin. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0188 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong; Aldrin. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off..

1969 July 21 - .
  • Death of Profiri Yebenov. Reportedly assisted the Apollo 11 astronauts in repair of the Lunar Module Eagle on the lunar surface, 21 July 1969. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yebenov. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend: Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the moon. Naked Soviet cosmonaut, stranded sometime before, assisted them in repairing their lunar module. Joke: Yebenov means 'f---d' in Russian..

1969 July 21 - . 02:39 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 11-1 - . Crew: Armstrong; Aldrin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.10 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong; Aldrin. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed EPISEP unmanned scientific station equipment..

1970 July 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 708 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 228 sec..

1970 July 21 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F700721A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1971 July 21 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.04GT. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1971 July 21 - . 21:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-210. LV Configuration: S-210JA-3.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1972 July 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para, Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1973 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 July 21 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-18 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1973 July 21 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 261-01.
  • Mars 4 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 52S. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6742 . COSPAR: 1973-047A. Failed; did not enter Martian orbit as planned; intended to be a Mars orbiter mission. Mars 4 reached Mars on 10 February 1974. Due to use of helium in preflight tests of the computer chips, which resulted in degradation of the chips during the voyage to Mars, the retro-rockets never fired to slow the craft into Mars orbit. Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2,200 km. It returned one swath of pictures and some radio occultation data. Final heliocentric orbit 1.02 x 1.63 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 556 day period.

1975 July 21 - .
  • ASTP - Soyuz returns to earth, Apollo remains in orbit. - . Nation: USSR. Program: ASTP. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Following a rest period of nearly 10 hours, the Soyuz crewmen advised the ground that they were awake and that all systems were normal. The deorbit burn came exactly on time (5:09 in Houston), and the Soyuz crew landed safely in Kazakhstan. For the remaining three and a half days, Stafford, Slayton, and Brand would concentrate on their experiments, but in many respects the saga of Apollo and Soyuz had come to an end.

1975 July 21 - . 15:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.25DS.
  • HRTS-1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1975 July 21 - .
1976 July 21 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53731-266.
  • Cosmos 842 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 9025 . COSPAR: 1976-070A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1976 July 21 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 843 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1976-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 9043 . COSPAR: 1976-071A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 839. Deorbited after test..

1977 July 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.16GG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1978 July 21 - .
  • First firing development test, OMS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 July 21 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1980 July 21 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi).

1981 July 21 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1982 July 21 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65055-103.
  • Cosmos 1388 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 241. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13375 . COSPAR: 1982-073A. Apogee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,393 km (865 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1390 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 243. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13377 . COSPAR: 1982-073C. Apogee: 1,475 km (916 mi). Perigee: 1,427 km (886 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1389 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 242. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13376 . COSPAR: 1982-073B. Apogee: 1,475 km (916 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.70 min.
  • Cosmos 1393 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 246. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13380 . COSPAR: 1982-073F. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 1,470 km (910 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 1391 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 244. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13378 . COSPAR: 1982-073D. Apogee: 1,475 km (916 mi). Perigee: 1,443 km (896 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1394 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 247. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13381 . COSPAR: 1982-073G. Apogee: 1,496 km (929 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.70 min.
  • Cosmos 1395 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 248. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13382 . COSPAR: 1982-073H. Apogee: 1,516 km (941 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1392 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 245. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 13379 . COSPAR: 1982-073E. Apogee: 1,475 km (916 mi). Perigee: 1,460 km (900 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.

1982 July 21 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-55 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 13383 . COSPAR: 1982-074A. Apogee: 39,618 km (24,617 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 706.20 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1983 July 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart T 1-0661.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1987 July 21 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1988 July 21 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V24.
  • Insat-1C; Insat 1C - . Payload: Insat 1C. Mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19330 . COSPAR: 1988-063A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 9.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also performed communications tasks. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg east. Launch vehicle Ariane 3 launch vehicle of Arianespace, 24th flight of Ariane and 9th flight of the Ariane 3 version. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1988-1989 As of 4 September 2001 located at 58.51 deg E drifting at 0.073 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 80.89E drifting at 0.154W degrees per day.
  • Eutelsat I F5 - . Payload: ECS 5. Mass: 1,185 kg (2,612 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19331 . COSPAR: 1988-063B. Apogee: 36,456 km (22,652 mi). Perigee: 36,321 km (22,568 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,466.90 min. European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan 136-138 MHz (S-E), 148-149.9 MHz (E-S), 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E), 14.0-14.5 GHz (E-S). Launch time 2334:00 UT. ESA designator ESA/88/03. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1989-1991; 21 deg E in 1991-1998; 12 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 48.15 deg E drifting at 7.596 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 102.26W drifting at 7.597W degrees per day.

1993 July 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R860.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 July 21 - .
  • Clementine asteroid flyby cancelled - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Clementine. Summary: After the lunar mapping phase was completed, the spacecraft left lunar orbit for a planned encounter with Geographos, but a computer fialure on 17 May 1994 led to the flyby being cancelled..

1994 July 21 - .
1994 July 21 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-9 (34).
  • Apstar 1 - . Mass: 1,383 kg (3,048 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23185 . COSPAR: 1994-043A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Asia-Pacific communications. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 138.04 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.96E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1995 July 21 - . 00:28 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-19-3 - . Crew: Solovyov; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Solovyov; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed Miras spectrometer..

1998 July 21 - .
  • Galileo, Europa 16 Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Galileo.

1998 July 21 - .
  • Death of Alan Bartlett Jr 'Al' Shepard at Monterey, California. Natural causes - Leukemia, two years after diagnosis. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shepard. Summary: American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MR-3, Apollo 14. First American in space. Grounded due on medical grounds during Gemini, but reinstated, becoming fifth person to walk on the moon. Millionaire entrepreneur on the side., Apollo 14, , , , , ,.

2000 July 21 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-32 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. With its days flying alone in orbit coming to an end, the Zvezda service module nears completion of systems checkouts in preparation for docking to the International Space Station. The linkup remains scheduled for 8:53 p.m. Eastern Time next Tuesday, July 25, as the two spacecraft fly high above the Russian Federation within the coverage area of ground communication stations. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-32.

2001 July 21 - . 04:34 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-104-3 - . Crew: Gernhardt; Reilly. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.17 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gernhardt; Reilly. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-104. Summary: The astronauts made the first spacewalk from the Quest module. Nitrogen Tank 3 was transferred from the forward Spacelab pallet to the exterior of Quest. The astronauts then climbed the P6 tower to inspect the solar arrays and the FPP experiment. .

2004 July 21 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper. LV Configuration: Peacekeeper 33PA.
  • GT-33PA - 8 RVs Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: ICBM Demonstration Flight. Delayed from March..

2005 July 21 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • SERV-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Summary: Delayed from June. SERV-1 warhead technology test with Mk. 21 warhead..

2006 July 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2422 - . Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 29260 . COSPAR: 2006-030A. Apogee: 39,741 km (24,693 mi). Perigee: 616 km (382 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Missile early warning satellite.

2006 July 21 - . 09:04 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion. LV Configuration: Improved Orion NASA 30.066DR.
  • Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; NAWC. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

2006 July 21 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • GT-192GM FDEP operational test launch - 3 RV's - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2006 July 21 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Improved Orion. LV Configuration: Improved Orion NASA 30.067DR.
  • Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; NAWC. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

2009 July 21 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2454 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 35635 . COSPAR: 2009-039A. Apogee: 944 km (586 mi). Perigee: 918 km (570 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 103.60 min.
  • Sterkh - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 35636 . COSPAR: 2009-039B. Apogee: 944 km (586 mi). Perigee: 917 km (569 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 103.60 min. Summary: First Sterkh search-and-rescue satellite. Russia moved the COSPAS-SARSAT search and rescue system previously installed on Nadezhda navigation satellites to a dedicated platform..

2011 July 21 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • NASA 41.092GO - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Summary: Education mission..

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