Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 23


July 23 Chronology


1927 July 23 - .
  • Birth of Elliot McKay Jr See - . Nation: USA. Summary: American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1966. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer aircraft..

1930 July 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • VfR demonstrates rocket motor to German government officials - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel; Ley; von Braun; Oberth; Riedel, Klaus. The VfR fires its 'Kegelduese' liquid oxygen and gasoline-fueled rocket motor in a demonstration for the Director of the Chemisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in an attempt to secure financial support. Nebel had arranged the demonstration and runs the Kegelduese for 90 seconds. It generates 7 kgf and consumes 6 kg of liquid oxygen and 1 kg of gasoline in that time (specific impulse 90 seconds). Participating are Oberth, Nebel, Riedel, Ley, and Von Braun. Nebel's Mirak is not yet ready to test.

1940 July 23 - .
  • Birth of Daniel S Goldin - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, NASA Administrator 1992-2001. Attempted reforms, with economical approach to space probe development and X-33, X-34, and X-38 to lower space launch costs. These seen as failures; while the ISS budget went out of control..

1945 July 23 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • German space plans revealed to US public. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Life magazine published drawings of a manned space station as envisioned by the German rocket scientists of Peenemünde..

1952 July 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 41.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 July 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1209R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 July 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 462.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 July 23 - .
  • X-2 Flight 13 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Ninth powered flight, Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest (USAF) flew the Bell X-2 rocket-powered research plane at a record speed of Mach 2.87, ust over 1,900 mph, at 20,802 m..

1957 July 23 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon. LV Configuration: Nike Deacon NN7.40F.
  • NRL NN7.40F Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1958 July 23 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able. LV Configuration: Thor Able 119.
  • Able RTV re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi). Summary: Mouse 'Wickie' not recovered; nose cone lost..

1959 July 23 - .
  • Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV) - . Nation: USA. Program: Horizon. Spacecraft: MRSV. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV). The general purpose was to identify U.S. space needs before 1970 which might require vehicles of this type.

1960 July 23 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury spacecraft No. 2 delivered to Cape Canaveral - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Mercury spacecraft No. 2 was delivered to Cape Canaveral for the Mercury-Redstone 1-A (MR-1A) mission..

1962 July 23 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 July 23 - .
  • George E Mueller named NASA Deputy Associate Administrator - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holmes, Brainard; Mueller. Program: Apollo. Summary: George E. Mueller, Vice President for Research and Development of Space Technology Laboratories, was named NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight to succeed D. Brainerd Holmes, effective September 1..

1963 July 23 - .
  • Hamilton Standard began development of the ECS for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS. Grumman authorized Hamilton Standard to begin development of the environmental control system (ECS) for the LEM. The cost-plus-incentive-fee contract was valued at $8,371,465. The parts of the ECS to be supplied by Hamilton Standard were specified by Grumman.

1963 July 23 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150A NASA 04.29GG.
  • Ultraviolet spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1964 July 23 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.107GE.
  • CR nuclei Cosmic rays mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1965 July 23 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Gemini-Titan (GT) 5 was demated following completion of the Wet Mock Simulated Launch to allow the spacecraft fuel cells to be replaced and the coolant bypass to be modified. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 5. Spacecraft and launch vehicle were remated August 5. Modified Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and the Joint Guidance and Control Tests were run on August 6. Spacecraft Final Systems Test on August 9-10 and the Simulated Flight Test on August 13 completed prelaunch testing of GT-5, scheduled for launch August 19.

1965 July 23 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1.
  • Cosmos 76 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 3. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1965-10-28 . Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1464 . COSPAR: 1965-059A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 48.8000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1965 July 23 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.128GM.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1966 July 23 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. Launch Complex: Kagoshima L. LV Family: Lambda. Launch Vehicle: Lambda 3H. LV Configuration: Lambda 3H L-3H-2.
  • Gyro-plasma probe Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1967 July 23 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.337CM.
  • Vapor trail Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1968 July 23 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 3. LV Configuration: Dragon 3 D-301.
  • FU-188 Technology test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 562 km (349 mi).

1968 July 23 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.628.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1968 July 23 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.629.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 202 km (125 mi).

1968 July 23 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.632.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1968 July 23 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.642A.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 July 23 - .
  • McDonnell Douglas and North American to conduct phase B planning studies of 12-man orbiting space stations for the mid-1970s. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Space Station. NASA announced selection of two aerospace firms--McDonnell Douglas and North American-to conduct phase B planning studies of 12-man orbiting space stations that could be developed by the mid-1970s. The parallel 11-month program definition studies were a prelude to even larger semipermanent space bases during the later 1970s and 1980s.

1969 July 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100K.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 July 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1140.
  • FOT GT41B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 July 23 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2. LV Configuration: Thor Burner 2 279.
  • DMSP-Block-4A F13 - . Payload: DAPP 7421 (FTV-6) / OPS 1127. Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 4A. USAF Sat Cat: 4047 . COSPAR: 1969-062A. Apogee: 835 km (518 mi). Perigee: 768 km (477 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 100.90 min. Summary: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1969 July 23 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63. FAILURE: Second stage failed 267 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DS-P1-Yu s/n 23 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. COSPAR: F690723A. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1970 July 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M1-3 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thorad Agena D SLV-2H. LV Configuration: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D 556 / Agena D 1654.
  • KH-4B 1111 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1111 / Agena D 1654 / OPS 4324. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1970-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4477 . COSPAR: 1970-054A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 59.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: KH-4B. The overall image quality is good..

1970 July 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/2.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta M. LV Configuration: Thor Delta M 563/D79.
  • Intelsat 3 F-8 - . Mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 3. Completed Operations Date: 1970-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4478 . COSPAR: 1970-055A. Apogee: 36,599 km (22,741 mi). Perigee: 33,877 km (21,050 mi). Inclination: 12.1000 deg. Period: 1,408.20 min. Unusable orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). As of 28 August 2001 located at 175.58 deg E drifting at 7.155 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 110.93W drifting at 7.169E degrees per day.

1971 July 23 - .
  • M2 Flight 23 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 788 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18440 m. Flight Time - 353 sec..

1971 July 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 430 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5340 . COSPAR: 1971-062A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 23 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0900. LV Configuration: Delta 0900 574/D89.
  • Landsat 1 - . Payload: ERTS A. Mass: 816 kg (1,798 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Landsat 1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 6126 . COSPAR: 1972-058A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 898 km (557 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Summary: Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1973 July 23 - . 12:23 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P45H.
  • XRB scintillator tel X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1974 July 23 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-10 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 7376 . COSPAR: 1974-056A. Apogee: 38,868 km (24,151 mi). Perigee: 1,501 km (932 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 July 23 - .
  • Apollo (ASTP) in-flight experiments - . Nation: USA. Program: ASTP. Flight: Apollo (ASTP). Some minor experiment hardware problems developed during the final days of the mission, but for the most part the crew members worked through their flight plan - which included 23 independent experiments - with few difficulties. After a relatively quiet day of work on the 22nd, the major part of the 23rd was devoted to preparing for and conducting the doppler tracking experiment (MA-089). The day was also marked by a press conference from space and jettison of the docking module. Additional Details: Apollo (ASTP) in-flight experiments.

1975 July 23 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Shuttle SSME engine chamber Test - . Nation: USA. Summary: The first full thrust chamber test is completed..

1975 July 23 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 751 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 8040 . COSPAR: 1975-068A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 July 23 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-35 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1987-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9049 . COSPAR: 1976-074A. Apogee: 38,911 km (24,178 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 698.40 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 July 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-01.
  • Raduga 3 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 13L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10159 . COSPAR: 1977-071A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min. Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.

1979 July 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A.
  • First test STS stack move from VAB to LC39A - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Enterprise (OV-101), ET, SRBs transported on mobile launcher platform from Launch Complex 39-A to Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC.

1979 July 23 - . 09:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute Sandia 497-012.
  • PLUMEX II Aeronomy / Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi).

1980 July 23 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 37 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Gorbatko; Tuan. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Liem. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 53. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gorbatko; Tuan; Bykovsky; Liem. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-7; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11905 . COSPAR: 1980-064A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Manned two crew. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the sixth international crew under the Intercosmos programme, comprising V V Gorbatko (USSR) and Pham Tuan (Viet Nam), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 35 to Earth. Recovered October 11, 1980 9:50 GMT.

1981 July 23 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1982 July 23 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1983 July 23 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 645. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1984 July 23 - . 21:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1985 July 23 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1986 July 23 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1987 July 23 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R644.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1990 July 23 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1991 July 23 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-12 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 53. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 21611 . COSPAR: 1991-052A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy of the USSR, and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation. .

1991 July 23 - . 09:15 GMT - .
1993 July 23 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 July 23 - .
1995 July 23 - .
  • Alan Hale's and Tom Bopp's Discovery of Comet Hale-Bopp - . Nation: USA.

1997 July 23 - .
  • Death of Paul Andrew Sefchek at Rancho Palos Verdes, California. Natural causes. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sefchek. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985..

1997 July 23 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 July 23 - . 03:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D245.
  • USA 132 - . Payload: GPS 2R-2 / GPS SVN 43. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Program: Navstar. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: GPS Block 2R. USAF Sat Cat: 24876 . COSPAR: 1997-035A. Apogee: 20,235 km (12,573 mi). Perigee: 20,132 km (12,509 mi). Inclination: 55.8000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Placed in Plane F Slot 3 of the constellation..

1999 July 23 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-93.
  • STS-93 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Collins, Eileen; Ashby; Hawley; Coleman; Tognini. Payload: Columbia F26 / Chandra. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins, Eileen; Ashby; Hawley; Coleman; Tognini. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: North American. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-93. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1999-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25866 . COSPAR: 1999-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. STS-93 was first rolled out to pad 39B on June 7 1999. The Chandra/IUS-27 vehicle was placed in the payload canister on June 19. The first launch attempt was on July 20, but controllers aborted the launch at T-6 seconds, just before main engine ignition, due to a data spike in hydrogen pressure data. This was determined to be due to a faulty sensor and a second attempt was on July 22. A lightning storm prevented launch during the 46 minute window, and the launch was again scrubbed. Finally the vehicle lifted off the pad on July 23, but five seconds after launch a short in an electrical bus brought down two of the three main engine controllers. Backup controllers took over, but a further failure on the backup controller bus would have resulted in engine shutdown and the first ever attempt at an RTLS (Return To Launch Site) abort. To further complicate matters engine 3 (SSME 2019) had a hydrogen leak throughout the ascent, causing the engine to run hot. Controllers sweated as temperatures neared redline. The hot engine’s controller compensated as programmed by using additional liquid oxygen propellant. The final result was that the shuttle ran out of gas - main engine cut-off (MECO) was at 04:39 GMT, putting Columbia into a 78 km x 276 km x 28.5 degree transfer orbit. Columbia was 1,700 kg short of oxygen propellant and 5 meters/sec slower than planned. The OMS-2 engine burn at 05:12 GMT circularised the orbit 10 km lower than planned.

    The orbiter payload bay contained only the Chandra spacecraft, the IUS, and the IUS tilt tableTthe following payloads were carried in the shuttle’s cabin: STL-B (Space Tissue Loss), CCM (Cell culture module), SAREX-II (Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment), EarthKam, PGIM (Plant Growth Investigations in Microgravity), CGBA (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus), MEMS (Micro-electric Mechanical System), and BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters) and SWUIS (the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System, an 0.18-m UV telescope to be used for airglow and planetary observations); GOSAMR (the Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research experiment) and LFSAH, the Lightweight Flexible Solar Array Hinge. MSX and SIMPLEX experiments were also to be carried out.

    Chandra/IUS-27 was deployed from Columbia at 11:47 GMT July 23. Flight duration was limited; this was the heaviest shuttle (122,534 kg) and heaviest payload (19,736 kg) to that date. Columbia landed at 03:20 GMT on July 28 on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center. Post-flight inspection found the presence of holes in the cooling lines on the nozzle of SSME 2019 (engine 3) which caused a hydrogen leak. A loose repair pin in the engine broke free and caused the failure. The cause of the short was found to be chaffed wiring inside the shuttle. The entire fleet was grounded for inspection and replacement of wiring as necessary.

  • Chandra - . Payload: OV-102. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Chandra. USAF Sat Cat: 25867 . COSPAR: 1999-040B. Apogee: 128,769 km (80,013 mi). Perigee: 20,046 km (12,455 mi). Inclination: 45.1000 deg. Period: 3,808.60 min. The Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was one of NASA’s four Great Observatories (along with Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the SIRTF). Chandra will study the composition and nature of galaxies, stellar objects and interstellar phenomena as well as basic issues in theoretical physics using the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. The IUS under-performed and placed Chandra in an orbit about 900 km lower than planned. Therefore Chandra's own IPS propulsion system had to be used to make up the difference. The first such manoeuvre was at 01:11 GMT on July 25 when the IPS engines fired for 5 minutes to raise perigee to 1192 km. Further perigee burns on July 31, August 4, and August 7 raised the orbit to its final 10,000 km x 140.000 km. Additional Details: Chandra.

1999 July 23 - . 11:06 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-27-2 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Mir spacewalk started at 11:06 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev installed a new experimental 6-meter antenna but failed to deploy it..

2000 July 23 - .
2001 July 23 - . 07:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-142.
  • GOES 12 - . Payload: GOES-M. Mass: 2,105 kg (4,640 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Program: GOES. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 26871 . COSPAR: 2001-031A. Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Launch delayed from July 12, 15 and 22. The GOES-M weather satellite was placed by the Atlas AC-142 Centaur stage into a 164 x 505 km parking orbit and then a super synchronous transfer orbit of 274 x 42275 km x 20 deg. GOES-M was a Loral 1300-series satellite with a single solar array and a solar attitude control sail. Launch mass was 2279 kg and dry mass 1042 kg. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites were developed by NASA-Goddard and were transferred to the NOAA weather agency when operational. In addition to the usual weather imager/sounder, GOES-M carried a new solar soft X-ray imager. Earlier GOES satellites carried simple X-ray collimator detectors, but the new SXI was a full-fledged grazing incidence telescope similar to the SXT on Japan's Yohkoh satellite. The GOES-M satellite was redesignated GOES 12 once in orbit.

    GOES 12 was a 980 kg, 973 W spacecraft that carried an IR imager, a "sounder", and an X-ray imager. The IR imager was a Cassegrain telescope covering five wavelength channels, 0.55-0.75, 3.80-4.00, 6.50-7.00, 10.20-11.20, and 11.50-12.50 microns. It provided images covering 3,000 km x 3,000 km every 41 seconds, by scanning the area in 16 square kilometer sections. The "sounder" provided vertical distribution of temperature, moisture and ozone, by passive monitoring in 18 depth-dependent wavelengths. (Long wave IR: 14.71, 14.37, 14.06, 13.64, 13.37, 12.66, and 12.02 microns. Medium wave IR: 11.03, 9.71, 7.43, 7.02, and 6.51 microns. Short wave IR: 4.57, 4.52, 4.45, 4.13, 3.98, and 3.74 microns. There was also another band at visible wavelength 0.7 microns, to provide pictures of cloud tops.) The sounder covered an area of 3,000 km x 3,000 km in about 42 minutes. Another instrument package named SEM (Space Environment Monitor) monitored the energetic electrons and protons in the magnetosphere and the X-rays from the Sun. The above three had been carried on the earlier GOES missions, but GOES 12 carried also an X-ray imager providing an X-ray (about 0.1-1.0 nm wavelength) picture of the solar disk. For some months, the spacecraft was to be on standby, to be activated and moved to a desired longitude. As of 5 September 2001 located at 89.93 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.73W drifting at 0.014E degrees per day.


2004 July 23 - . 08:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • GT184GM? Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2006 July 23 - .
  • Death of Charles Eldon Jr Brady at Orcas Island, Washington. Probable suicide. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brady. Summary: American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78..

2007 July 23 - . 10:25 GMT - .
  • EVA ISS EO-15-3 - . Crew: Yurchikhin; Anderson, Clayton. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yurchikhin; Anderson, Clayton. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-15; ISS EO-15-2. The crew emerged from the Quest airlock at 10:24 GMT. A video stanchion was removed from the ESP-2 external spares cache and installed on an external truss of the station. 736 kg of redundant storage structures and equipment were removed and pushed by the astronauts away from the station, into orbits that would eventually decay and reenter the atmosphere.

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