Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 24


July 24 Chronology


1918 July 24 - .
  • Birth of Otto Meier - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department..

1930 July 24 - .
1944 July 24 - .
1944 July 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Last Blizna launch - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1950 July 24 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Bumper-WAC. LV Configuration: Bumper-WAC Bumper 8. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; GE. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Bumper No. 8, a German V-2 with a 320 kg Army-JPL Wac Corporal, was fired from the Long-Range Proving Ground at Cape Canaveral at a very low angle of attack. The first-stage V-2 climbed 16 km before it exploded. The second-stage Corporal separated successfully, however, and traveled another 24 km. This was the first missile launch from Cape Canaveral.

1951 July 24 - .
  • X-1D Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1D flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1D. Summary: Bell flight 1. Glide flight for familiarization. Nose landing gear broken on landing. Following repairs, plane turned over to the Air Force..

1953 July 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: HPAG Deacon.
  • F-102 Model test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 July 24 - . 08:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 59.1 N x 54.2 W. Launch Platform: WYG-279?. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon.
  • SUI 33 Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Launched at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 12 Launch Point 9 - - Latitude: 59.07 N - Longitude: 54.20 W..

1956 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0409.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 July 24 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun N-C 4 (HUGO-1).
  • Hurricane photo Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1957 July 24 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee. LV Configuration: Aerobee SM1.03.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1958 July 24 - . Launch Site: San Clemente. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17. LV Configuration: X-17 Winder 4.
  • Argus test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi).

1959 July 24 - . 12:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18B. Launch Pad: LC18B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 202.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Summary: USAF Thor data capsule recovered near Antigua which contained movie film showing nose cone separation..

1959 July 24 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp NN8.67.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1960 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 July 24 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • Changes in Saturn launch vehicle configurations - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Summary: Changes in Saturn launch vehicle configurations were announced :

    C-1:
    Stages S-I (1.5 million pounds of thrust) and S-IV
    C-2:
    Stages S-I, S-II, and S-IV
    C-3:
    Stages S-IB (3 million pounds of thrust), S-II, and S-IV.
    .

1961 July 24 - .
  • Contract for television system for Ranger - . Nation: USA. Program: Ranger. Spacecraft: Ranger 3-4-5. Summary: NASA issued a letter contract to the Astro-Electronic Division of Radio Corporation of America to develop and fabricate the high-resolution television system (including associated communication and electronic equipment) for the Ranger program..

1962 July 24 - . 17:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C. LV Configuration: Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C 101.
  • ERCS / 279L 2 Communications mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 July 24 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.23US.
  • Lyra alpha test Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1963 July 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 July 24 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 432.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 July 24 - .
  • Voskhod flight slips - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Crew training is proceeding normally and the crews will be ready by the scheduled 1 August date. On the other hand the date for launch of the first manned mission has slipped from 15 August well into September. .

1965 July 24 - . 08:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AF3.266/VFT65-S-3.
  • Noctilucent clouds Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1967 July 24 - .
  • Cosmonaut group meeting. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Feoktistov. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Mishin is seen as jeopardising Soviet manned lunar plans. He has no understanding of the necessity of providing proper training simulators to prepare the cosmonauts for flight. He is coarse, rude, doesn't listen to critics, and ignores the comments of those who will have to fly aboard his spacecraft. The cosmonauts agree they should request a meeting with Brezhnev and tell him flat out - there will be no moon landing as long as Mishin is in charge. Additional Details: Cosmonaut group meeting. .

1967 July 24 - .
  • Yantar-2K reconnaissance satellite authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Summary: Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 220 'On approval of work on the Yantar-2K' was issued..

1968 July 24 - . 00:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.349UA.
  • Composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.265GM.
  • Falling sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 5C. LV Configuration: Skylark-5C SL523.
  • Electron profile Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.253UA.
  • Falling sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.348UA.
  • Composition Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.358UI.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.258GM.
  • Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.359UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.360UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.254UA.
  • Sphere? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1968 July 24 - . 21:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.361UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1969 July 24 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 11 - . Return Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 11. At 16:50 GMT Apollo 11's command module Columbia splashed down in the mid-Pacific, about 24 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Hornet. Following decontamination procedures at the point of splashdown, the astronauts were carried by helicopter to the Hornet where they entered a mobile quarantine facility to begin a period of observation under strict quarantine conditions. The CM was recovered and removed to the quarantine facility. Sample containers and film were flown to Houston.

    All primary mission objectives and all detailed test objectives of Apollo 11 were met, and all crew members remained in good health.


1969 July 24 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thorad Agena D SLV-2H. LV Configuration: Thorad SLV-2H Agena D 545 / Agena D 1652.
  • KH-4B 1107 - . Payload: KH-4B s/n 1107 / Agena D 1652 / OPS 3654. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4B. Decay Date: 1969-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4050 . COSPAR: 1969-063A. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 74.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: KH-4B. Forward camera failed on pass 1 and remained inoperative throughout the rest of the mission..

1969 July 24 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: UK S26. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3E.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 July 24 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1969 July 24 - .
  • Return to earth of Apollo 11 - Kennedy's objective is met. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 11. Apollo 11 splashed down at 12:50 GMT in the mid-Pacific, about 24 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. Hornet. Following decontamination procedures at the point of splashdown, the astronauts were carried by helicopter to the Hornet where they entered a mobile quarantine facility to begin a period of observation under strict quarantine conditions. The CM was recovered and removed to the quarantine facility. Sample containers and film were flown to Houston. Additional Details: Return to earth of Apollo 11 - Kennedy's objective is met..

1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 39.0 N x 30.0 W. Launch Platform: VISE. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1971 July 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1972 July 24 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1973 July 24 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1974 July 24 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1975 July 24 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.413GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1975 July 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-254.
  • Cosmos 752 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1981-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 8043 . COSPAR: 1975-069A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 481 km (298 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..

1975 July 24 - .
  • Landing of Apollo (ASTP) - . Return Crew: Brand; Slayton; Stafford. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Slayton; Stafford. Program: ASTP. Flight: Apollo (ASTP). Apollo (ASTP) landed at 21:18 GMT, 7.3 km from the recovery ship New Orleans. It was the last splashdown of an American space capsule. However the flight of the last Apollo spacecraft was marred by the fact that the crew almost perished while the capsule was descending under its parachute.

    A failure in switchology led the automatic landing sequence to be not armed at the same time the reaction control system was still active. When the Apollo hadn't begun the parachute deployment sequence by 7,000 metres altitude, Brand hit the manual switches for the apex cover and the drogues. The manual deployment of the drogue chutes caused the CM to sway, and the reaction control system thrusters worked vigorously to counteract that motion. When the crew finally armed the automatic ELS 30 seconds later, the thruster action terminated.

    During that 30 seconds, the cabin was flooded with a mixture of toxic unignited propellants from the thrusters. Prior to drogue deployment, the cabin pressure relief valve had opened automatically, and in addition to drawing in fresh air it also brought in unwanted gases being expelled from the roll thrusters located about 0.6 meter from the relief valve. Brand manually deployed the main parachutes at about 2,700 meters despite the gas fumes in the cabin.

    By the time of splashdown, the crew was nearly unconscious from the fumes, Stafford managed to get an oxygen mask over Brand's face. He then began to come around. When the command module was upright in the water, Stafford opened the vent valve, and with the in-rush of air the remaining fumes disappeared. The crew ended up with a two-week hospital stay in Honolulu. For Slayton, it also meant the discovery of a small lesion on his left lung and an exploratory operation that indicated it was a non-malignant tumour. Additional Details: Landing of Apollo (ASTP).


1976 July 24 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. Launch Complex: Tonopah UL3. Launch Vehicle: Malemute. LV Configuration: Malemute Sandia 497-007. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 17 km (10 mi).

1977 July 24 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1978 July 24 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1980 July 24 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1202 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11907 . COSPAR: 1980-065A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1981 July 24 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1983 July 24 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1484 - . Payload: Resurs-OE s/n 3-2. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-OE. Duration: 3,752.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 14207 . COSPAR: 1983-075A. Apogee: 593 km (368 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 96.00 min. Follow-on to Meteor series. Second flight of prototype for Resurs-O1 spacecraft. Gathering regular information on the natural resources of the earth for use in various branches of the Soviet economy, and conducting further tests on new types of measuring apparatus and methods of remote sensing of the earth's surface and atmosphere.

1984 July 24 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB NASA 21.91GE.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1984 July 24 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1583 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 15123 . COSPAR: 1984-075A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1984 July 24 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 July 24 - . 11:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1986 July 24 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1765 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16874 . COSPAR: 1986-054A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1987 July 24 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1989 July 24 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2033 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 20147 . COSPAR: 1989-058A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1989 July 24 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C SP-4 DRO-0401.
  • CHEER / Black Star 1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1990 July 24 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V37.
  • TDF 2 - . Mass: 2,096 kg (4,620 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Program: TDF. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 300. Completed Operations Date: 1999-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 20705 . COSPAR: 1990-063A. Apogee: 36,435 km (22,639 mi). Perigee: 36,085 km (22,422 mi). Inclination: 3.1000 deg. Period: 1,460.40 min. French DBS; 19 deg W. Direct broadcasting satellite. Registration 1990-2-B. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg W in 1990-1997; 36 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.59 deg E drifting at 6.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 98.15W drifting at 5.991W degrees per day.
  • DFS 2 - . Payload: Kopernikus 2. Mass: 1,418 kg (3,126 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Bundespost. Program: DFS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 20706 . COSPAR: 1990-063B. Apogee: 36,014 km (22,378 mi). Perigee: 35,965 km (22,347 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,446.50 min. West German DBS; 28.5 deg E. Communications satellite, position 28.5E Ariane 4 flight no 37. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1990-1999 As of 30 August 2001 located at 32.30 deg E drifting at 0.451 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 128.29W drifting at 2.623W degrees per day.

1992 July 24 - . 13:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.133UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1992 July 24 - . 14:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6925. LV Configuration: Delta 6925 D212.
  • Geotail - . Payload: Geotail. Mass: 1,008 kg (2,222 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Geotail. USAF Sat Cat: 22049 . COSPAR: 1992-044A. Apogee: 399,941 km (248,511 mi). Perigee: 57,448 km (35,696 mi). Inclination: 18.0000 deg. Period: 18,904.40 min. Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the geomagnetic tail that extends on the nightside of the Earth. Launch time 1426 GMT. Launching states Japan and the United States of America. Launching organization NASA.
  • DUVE - . Payload: DUVE. Nation: Japan. Agency: MDAC. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: DUVE. Decay Date: 1993-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 22050 . COSPAR: 1992-044B. Apogee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 27.4000 deg. Period: 101.17 min. Summary: Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 2nd stage..

1992 July 24 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2203 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22052 . COSPAR: 1992-045A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1995 July 24 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 374-01.
  • Cosmos 2316 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 80L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23620 . COSPAR: 1995-037A. Apogee: 19,167 km (11,909 mi). Perigee: 19,093 km (11,863 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 26 August 1995. .
  • Cosmos 2318 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 85L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23622 . COSPAR: 1995-037C. Apogee: 19,206 km (11,934 mi). Perigee: 19,054 km (11,839 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 22 August 1995..
  • Cosmos 2317 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 81L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23621 . COSPAR: 1995-037B. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 25 August 1995..

1995 July 24 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: UK S29. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 DASO-3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 July 24 - .
  • Mir News 431: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-25. Indefatigably the 2 cosmonauts on board Mir continued the exploitation of this immense laboratory. Contradictory to the last months it seemed as if the cosmonauts could reduce their attention to repairs and replacement of systems, which enabled them to spend more time and energy to their main task: the preparation and execution of all kinds of scientific experiments. In the west, especially in the U.S.A., media attention for that what is going on aboard Mir is rather poor after the departure of the last American astronaut. Long series of radiograms, reaching the cosmonauts by the Packet Radio system (originally used by radio-amateurs and which cannot be praised enough) contain enough instructions for experiments to keep them busy day in and day out. Regularly the crew speaks about experiments in the furnaces Optizon, Gallar and Kristall, of which those performed in the Optizon furnace take place in co-ordination with American experts. Other experiments which pass the review are Dakon, MAD, Temir, Phantom, Optovert, Maksat and Laser sensing with Alisa.

    Communications:

    For Western Europe the Mir-complex merely comes in range during the night hours and so there is not much traffic via the VHF-channels. During the working day Mir-TsUP communications take place during one window. In the period from 10 to 17.07.98 Altair-2 was in use for other purposes. On 16 and 17.07.98 the 10 GHz channel was in use for the relay of audio and TV transmissions of the ceremonies for the burial of Czar Nikolay-II and his family. Just before the conclusion of the ceremonies, as soon as the first salute of guns was fired the relay of Altair-2 stopped and this satellite could be used for Mir-TsUP traffic again. On 22.07.98 during a communications session via Altair-2 the cosmonauts called someone with the call sign Agata. They spoke about the BDD-2 (Betriebstechnik Deutschland Direkt), so they used the same system which was operational during the ESA-expedition to Mir (Euromir-95). The crew had received 2 diskettes with a program to activate a computer for BDD experiments. They exchanged data of the experiment Dakon. The communications took place via a station in Russia and not via Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany as was the case during Euromir-95.

    Technical failures:

    The a.c. BKV-3 still shows hiccups just after switching on. An alarm signal points out that something is wrong with the pressure. After switching off and on a few times, the BKV-3 worked well. On 19.07.98 there was again smoke alarm. There was no smoke at all and in this case the smoke sensor was to blame. The malfunction of one of the gyrodynes was also mentioned and one of the solar panels of the Spektr module does not produce enough energy due to the malfunction of the driver which has to change the angle of that panel. (To eliminate this problem the crew of the next expedition has to execute an internal spacewalk -IVA- inside Spektr). The life support systems are performing well in this period, possibly due to the fact that they have to serve only 2 men. The crew keeps a sharp eye on the CO-2 values, especially during and after physical exercises.

    Plans for the near future:

    In fact the uncertainty phase still continues. Russian spaceflight organisations are still waiting for the promised funding needed to continue Mir operations until June 1999. The Russians expect that the money will be remitted in due time. And there was another development: the Russian Menatep bank promised to sponsor the last Mir-Mohicans, i.e. Mir's ME 27 from February to June 1999.

    Almost certain is:

    that Soyuz-TM28 with Padalka, Avdeyev and Baturin will be launched on 13.08.1998 and dock with Mir on 15.08.1998, that the freighter Progress-M39 will separate from Mir on 14.08.1998 for an autonomous flight until the departure of the relieved crew and Baturin with the Soyuz-TM27 on 25 or 26.08.1998 and that the launch of the next freighter Progress-M40 will take place not before 15.10.1998. Znamya-2: Several Television programs used the Itar-Tass publication about the execution of the experiment Znamya-2 in November this year to enlighten the dull season program with an interesting item. A Progress-M freighter should deploy a circular reflection sail for the spectacular illumination of a number of cities on earth.

    That this operation might be possible in November is doubtful for after an experiment like this, the freighter has to decay in the earth's atmosphere and cannot return to the Mir-complex to redock to the aft (Kvant-1) docking port. Because of the necessary thermal protection of that port and the Kvant-1 itself, a Progress-M ship has to be docked there until the next Progress-M ship. The period until the docking of the Progress-M41 (not before March 1999) would be pretty long. (And there is also the question if the Progress-M can be redocked after the experiment.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 July 24 - .
1999 July 24 - .
  • Mir News 463: 2nd spacewalk (EVA) 27th Main Expedition Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. This time Afanasyev and Avdeyev 'walked' in open space and Haignere stayed inside to lend assistance, act as a liaison between TsUP and his comrades outside and to make video and photos.

    The exit hatch of the Sh.S.O. (airlock of the Module-D) was opened 9 minutes before the scheduled time. So for a while some profit of time, but all activities during the EVA lasted longer than planned and so did the EVA. The hatch swung open at 1106 UTC and was closed behind the cosmonauts at 1713 UTC, so a duration of 6 hrs and 7 minutes, 28 minutes longer than had been foreseen in the original plan.

    The number of tasks was quite substantial and not all of them could be accomplished. One item had been added to the schedule, i.e. the search for an air-leakage in the hull of the module Kvant-2 (Module-D). We still remember how difficult it was to find the leakage in the hull of the module-O (Spektr) during EVA-s and also with the help of gaseous dye markers for observations from departing Shuttles, and so it is not difficult to conclude that this task would be a mission impossible. The fact that the cosmonauts at least had to give it a try clearly indicates that specialists at TsUP consider the leakage, though very small, to be a serious problem. Ultimately they did not find the leakage.

    A lot of time was consumed during attempts to deploy a new system for the deployment of antennae for satellites. This antenna was a Russian-Georgian project. The parabolic reflector antenna had to be installed at the Sofora girder and deployed with a remote control.

    Afanasyev was able to open the antenna for 80 or 90%. During the following EVA the cosmonauts will try to achieve 100%. If they do not succeed the antenna they will get rid of it.

    During the EVA the cosmonauts had to retrieve some experiments from the outer surface. They succeeded to do so with the experiments Exobiology and Dvikon.

    Exobiology is a study to determine the possibility for survival in open space of organic samples wrapped up in meteorite-like materials. Dvikon is a study to determine and measure the effects of the exhaust of Mir's engines on materials nearby. Due to lack of time they did not try to retrieve the experiment Spica.

    The EVA ended in a great hurry due to a failure of the thermoregulation in the spacesuit of Afanasyev. A filter was overheated.

    Communications: A serious handicap for cosmonauts who have to do EVA-s is the fact that there is not a single geostationary communication satellite available. A lot of crucial activities they had to do when they were out of range of ground facilities, for instance the opening of the exit hatch. The communications between Mir and TsUP took place on 143.625 mc (UKW-1) as well as on 130.165 mc (UKW-2). As always during EVA-s 7 kc/s lower than normal.

    When Mir came in range during orbit 76715 at 1640 UTC, the hatch was still open. During the first passes within my range TsUP and the cosmonauts experienced a lot of noise caused by cross modulation from air-traffic control centres. So the help of Haignere as a relay station was very useful.

    The cosmonauts got orders to close the hatches between the air lock and the P.N.O. and the P.N.O. and P.G.O (respectively the scientific-instrument compartment and the instrument-cargo compartment) of the module which is leaking air, Module-D.

    3rd EVA: This EVA is scheduled for 28.07.1999 between 1020 and 1530 UTC.

    Which of the Russians will make this EVA together with Haignere was not yet known during the hard disc preparation of this report.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


2000 July 24 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-33 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. The International Space Station's newest module, Zvezda, has completed all of its planned maneuvers and now awaits the arrival of its permanent home in space as the Zarya control module takes over the remaining rendezvous tasks. The updated docking time is 8:44 p.m. Eastern Tuesday. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-33.

2001 July 24 - .
  • Chinese Lunar Exploration Plan - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Chinese Lunar Base. A Chinese aerospace magazine indicated that Chinese scientists had drafted a four-phase long term plan.
    • Phase 1, by 2005: Lunar flyby or orbiting satellite missions, perhaps using the DFH-3 bus.
    • Phase 2, by 2010: unmanned soft-landing missions. Phase 3, by 2020: Robotic exploration using surface rovers. Phase 4, by 2030: Lunar sample return missions.
    Only after 2030 would manned flights and construction of a lunar base begin.

2008 July 24 - .
2009 July 24 - .
2009 July 24 - . 10:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/5. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U s/n 1746.
  • Progress M-67 - . Mass: 7,285 kg (16,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 65.00 days. Decay Date: 2009-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 35641 . COSPAR: 2009-040A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Docked at the Zvezda port of the International Space Station at 11:12 GMT on 29 July. Undocked and was deorbited over the Pacific Ocean on 27 September at 09:33 GMT..

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