Encyclopedia Astronautica
July 31


July 31 Chronology


1908 July 31 - .
  • Birth of John P Hagen - . Nation: USA. Summary: American astronomer. At NRL from 1935. Director, Vanguard program, 1955-1962. Thereafter professor of astronomy, Penn State..

1926 July 31 - .
  • Birth of Burton I Edelson - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer. Worked at Comsat 1969-1982. NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications 1982-1988..

1934 July 31 - . Launch Vehicle: Zucker Rocket.
  • Zucker mail rocket explosion at Harris - . Nation: UK. Related Persons: Zucker. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Zucker announced a demonstration firing of his rocket over 1600 m of water between the town of Harris and the Isle of Scarp. Government officials watched as the rocket exploded, blowing the burning payload of postal covers all over the beach. The British found Zucker to be a 'threat to the income of the post office and the security of the country'. He was deported to Germany, where he was immediately arrested by the Germans on suspicion of espionage or collaboration with Britain.

1936 July 31 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Range: 0.0900 km (0.0559 mi). Summary: Rocket achieved altitude 200 ft above 80-ft tower; duration 5 sec; landed 300 ft from tower..

1944 July 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-205.
  • V-2 4205 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+67 seconds.Range 237 km.

1951 July 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 149 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 48. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1952 July 31 - .
  • Birth of Pratiwi Pujilestari Sudarmono - . Nation: Indonesia. Summary: Indonesian biologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1985. Microbiologist. Later research scientist at the University of Dyakarta. Advisor for Bandung Institute of Technology..

1952 July 31 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 103R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 July 31 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-34. LV Configuration: Aerobee AJ10-34 USAF 71.
  • Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi). Summary: Day airglow research. Launched at 1756 local time. Reached 128.8 km..

1958 July 31 - .
  • Republic Aviation man-in-space studies. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mercury; Project 7969. Republic Aviation representatives briefed NACA Headquarters personnel on the man-in-space studies in which the company had been engaged since the first of the year. They envisioned a four-stage solid launch vehicle system and a lifting reentry vehicle, which was termed a sled. The vehicle was to be of triangular shape with a 75 degree leading-edge sweep. Aerodynamic and reaction controls would be available to the pilot. For the launch vehicle, Republic proposed a Minuteman first stage, a Polaris first stage, a Minuteman upper stage, and a Jumbo rocket fourth stage. Other details relative to reentry and recovery were included in the briefing.

1959 July 31 - .
  • First animal couch for the Mercury program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury; Mercury ECS. Personnel from the Aeromedical Field Laboratory inspected the first animal couch fabricated by McDonnell to be used in the Mercury animal flight program. The objective of the animal program was to provide verification of successful space flight prior to manned missions; to aquire data on physical and mental demands which will be encountered by the astronauts during space flight; to provide dynamic test of technical procedures and training for support personnel in handling the aeromedical program for manned flight; and to evaluate spacecraft environmental control systems and bioinstrumentation under flight conditions.

1960 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 July 31 - . LV Family: Nova; Saturn C-3; Saturn V.
  • NASA-DOD report on launch sites for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Debus; Seamans. Program: Apollo. Phase I of a joint NASA-DOD report on facilities and resources required at launch sites to support the manned lunar landing program was submitted to Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., by Kurt H. Debus, Director, Launch Operations Directorate, and Maj. Gen. Leighton I. Davis, Commander of the Air Force Missile Test Center. The report, requested by Seamans on June 23, was based on the use of Nova- class launch vehicles for the manned lunar landing in a direct ascent mode, with the Saturn C-3 in supporting missions. Eight launch sites were considered: Cape Canaveral (on-shore); Cape Canaveral (off- shore); Mayaguana Island (Atlantic Missile Range downrange); Cumberland Island, Ga.; Brownsville, Tex.; White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex.; Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean; and South Point, Hawaii. On the basis of minimum cost and use of existing national resources, and taking into consideration the stringent time schedule, White Sands Missile Range and Cape Canaveral (on-shore) were favored. White Sands presented serious limitations on launch azimuths because of first-stage impact hazards on populated areas.

1961 July 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral.
  • Unions agree to no strikes at Cape Canaveral. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kennedy. At Cape Canaveral with the President's Missile Sites Labor Commission, Secretary of Labor Goldberg made public President Kennedy's message praising the voluntary, no-strike, no-lockout pledges covering labor-management relations at missile and space sites. The President's message stated that "the Nation cannot afford the luxury of avoidable delay in our missile and space program. Neither can we tolerate wasteful and expensive practices which add to the great financial burden our defense effort already places on us."

1961 July 31 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 21E.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1962 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 31 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2A Agena D 382 / Agena D 1167.
  • KH 4A-07 - . Payload: KH-6 s/n 8003 / Agena D 1167. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-6. Decay Date: 1963-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 626 . COSPAR: 1963-032A. Apogee: 455 km (282 mi). Perigee: 152 km (94 mi). Inclination: 74.9000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: KH-6. Third and final KH-6 mission (LANYARD). Mission was successful but image quality was poor. Officially: Spacecraft Engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1963 July 31 - . 20:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576B1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 143D.
  • ST COOL WATER I test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 July 31 - .
  • NASA / Public Health Service agreements on Apollo back contamination - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. At a meeting between representatives of NASA and Public Health Service representatives, it was agreed:

    • That the PHS had responsibility for the health of the nation and for any potential threat to that health from extraterrestrial life, particularly from back contamination.
    • That the Office of the Surgeon General, PHS, would submit to the NASA Administrator a proposal for action deemed necessary.
    • That the Department of Agriculture had a similar responsibility for the nation's crops and animals of economic importance and that the Department of Agriculture would probably accept arrangements made by PHS, and be brought into the matter at the point they considered action to be necessary.
    Additional Details: NASA / Public Health Service agreements on Apollo back contamination.

1965 July 31 - .
1965 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. Launch Pad: LC131?. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 31 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 2. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena D004.
  • USAF D004 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1967 July 31 - .
  • Meeting of space programme management in the Crimea. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Spacecraft: Soyuz OB-VI; Almaz OPS. Two planning documents are discussed. The first deals with the training of civilian cosmonauts. Two phases of training are planned, the first phase at MOM institutes and Minzorar, the second at TsPK and the VVS. In addition 50 new air force pilots will be identified for space duty in three groups in 1968, 1969, and 1970. They will be ready for the planned large number of 7K-VI and Almaz flights beginning in 1972. Brezhnev would like to see more Voskhod flights. Meanwhile Titov has qualified as a test pilot third class, and will qualify as second class by the end of the year. All in all, things are looking good in the years ahead.

1967 July 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 659. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3P-529.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-30.
  • ESRO C20 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-31.
  • ESRO C32 / 1 Meteorite mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36-O. LV Configuration: R-36O 8K69 Ya22500 No. 12L.
  • Cosmos 170 - . Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Military. Type: Orbital bombing system. Spacecraft: OGCh. Decay Date: 1967-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 2902 . COSPAR: 1967-074A. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi). Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Inclination: 49.6000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Summary: Fractional Orbital Bombardment system test..

1968 July 31 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Chemical release / plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1968 July 31 - . 18:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Electron fluxes Chemical release / plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1968 July 31 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.31UA.
  • JHU Airglow 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1969 July 31 - .
1969 July 31 - .
  • Gen Samuel Phillips made Commander of SAMSO - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. The Secretary of Defense announced the assignment of Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips (USAF), who had been serving as Apollo Program Director in the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight, to be Commander of the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO) in Los Angeles. He would assume his new responsibilities in the Air Force effective September 1.

1969 July 31 - .
  • Mariner 6 fly-by of Mars - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mariner 6-7. Mariner 6 encountered Mars on July 31,1969. Together with Mariner 7, which arrived four days later, it returned a combined total of 143 approach pictures of the planet and 55 close-up pictures. These images, from the vehicles' television cameras, included pictures of the northern and southern polar caps as well as Phobos, one of Mars' two moons.

1969 July 31 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thorad Agena D SLV-2G. LV Configuration: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D 523 / Agena D 2735.
  • OPS 8285 - . Payload: Ferret 14 / Agena D 2735. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Ferret. Decay Date: 1973-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 4054 . COSPAR: 1969-065A. Apogee: 536 km (333 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 75.0000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1969 July 31 - . 21:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 FTM-207.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 July 31 - .
  • Titov's privileges at risk. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Kamanin meets with Titov. In his nine-year cosmonaut career, Titov has had ten major disciplinary incidents. Kamanin tells him this is the last time -- one more incident, and he will be removed from the General Staff Academy, stripped of his titles, and lose his benefits. He doesn't seem to take Kamanin seriously - to the world, he is still Cosmonaut#2, the second man in orbit...

1971 July 31 - . 00:16 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-1 - . Crew: Scott. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0229 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Photographed lunar surface panorama from top hatch of LM..

1971 July 31 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C59/1.
  • ESRO C59/1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 00:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.468UA.
  • SSC NNA1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 13:12 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-2 - . Crew: Scott; Irwin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott; Irwin. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed ALSEP unmanned scientific station equipment..

1971 July 31 - . 23:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.469UA.
  • SSC NNA2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1972 July 31 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1973 July 31 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1974 July 31 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1975 July 31 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 753 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 8059 . COSPAR: 1975-071A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 July 31 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1977 July 31 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1978 July 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, OPF 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, shuttle landing facility, and Hypergolic Maintenance Facility, KSC.

1979 July 31 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 C4T-6.
  • PEM-6 test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 July 31 - . 03:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-44 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 11474 . COSPAR: 1979-070A. Apogee: 39,806 km (24,734 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1979 July 31 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 657. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4. LV Configuration: Trident C-4 C4T-7.
  • PEM-7 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 July 31 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1203 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11915 . COSPAR: 1980-066A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable (?); also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1980 July 31 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47175-122.
  • Cosmos 1204 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1981-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11917 . COSPAR: 1980-067A. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1980 July 31 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Orion. LV Configuration: HJ Orion NASA 33.14GE.
  • E-Field Plasma / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 111 km (68 mi).

1980 July 31 - .
1981 July 31 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Aries. LV Configuration: Aries GL A24.6S1-02.
  • ZIP II (BMP) Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi).

1983 July 31 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34B. LV Configuration: Titan 34B 34B-9 (3B-65) / Ascent Agena D.
  • Jumpseat 7 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 14237 . COSPAR: 1983-078A. Apogee: 39,321 km (24,432 mi). Perigee: 1,028 km (638 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.10 min.

1984 July 31 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1585 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 15142 . COSPAR: 1984-077A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1985 July 31 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1986 July 31 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: RT-23. Launch Vehicle: RT-23U 15Zh60. LV Configuration: RT-23U 15Zh60 15Zh60.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 July 31 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT116GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1987 July 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 631. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 July 31 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.13UE.
  • WIPP Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X Black Star 3.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X Black Star 3.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC Black Star 5.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 July 31 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 July 31 - .
  • Bush-Gorbachev summit negotiates strategic arms reduction treaty - . Nation: International.

1992 July 31 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-46.
  • STS-46 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Hoffman; Ivins; Malerba; Nicollier; Shriver. Payload: Atlantis F12 / Eureca 1 / TSS 1. Mass: 12,965 kg (28,582 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Andy; Chang-Diaz; Hoffman; Ivins; Malerba; Nicollier; Shriver. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-46. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049A. Apogee: 437 km (271 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS)-1; European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)-1L; Evaluation of Oxygen Integration with Materials (EOlM)-lll/ Thermal Energy Management Processes (TEMP)-2A; Consortium for Materials Development In Space Complex Autonomous Payloads (CONCAP)-ll and Ill; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE); Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF); Ultravio-let Plume Instrument (UVPl).
  • TSS-1 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.
  • TSS-1 MPESS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.
  • TSS-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. COSPAR: 1992-049xx.
  • EOIM-3/TEMP2A-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1992-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22064 . COSPAR: 1992-049xx. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.
  • Eureca-1 - . Payload: Atlantis F12 / Eureca 1 / TSS 1. Mass: 4,491 kg (9,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Eureca. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22065 . COSPAR: 1992-049B. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Microgravity experiments; deployed from STS-46 8/2/92; retrieved by STS-57; European Retrievable Carrier. EURECA is a European scientific and technology mission, launched by the US Space Transportation System. The spacecraft is scheduled to be retrieved likewise by the US/STS in late spring/early summer 1993. Designator ESA/92/01. Frequency plan: 2053.4583/22 30 MHz, 28 GHz/ 18 GHz (data-relay via Olympus).

1994 July 31 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion DLR A-NO-211.
  • Echo 94 F-103 DUSTY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1995 July 31 - .
  • 351st Missile Wing at Whiteman AFB, Missouri, inactivated as part of the ICBM drawdown. - . Nation: USA.

1995 July 31 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: THAAD. LV Configuration: THAAD FT-02.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1995 July 31 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-118.
  • USA 113 - . Payload: DSCS III B-7. Mass: 2,610 kg (5,750 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 23628 . COSPAR: 1995-038A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit; located at 53 deg W in 1997..

1996 July 31 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: DC-X. Launch Vehicle: DC-XA. FAILURE: Landing strut 2 failed to extend; vehicle tipped over and LOX tank exploded; vehicle destroyed..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Reached altitude of 1250 m during a 140 second flight..

1996 July 31 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress M-32 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 232. Mass: 7,130 kg (15,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 96.11 days. Completed Operations Date: 1996-11-04 22:47:04 . Decay Date: 1996-11-04 22:47:04 . USAF Sat Cat: 24071 . COSPAR: 1996-043A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. This was the first successful launch of a Soyuz-U after two failures. Docked with Mir at the forward docking port on 2 Aug 1996 22:03:40 GMT. Undocked on 18 Aug 1996 09:33:45 GMT in order to free up the docking port. By 29 August 1994 Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit; the Progress M-32 cargo ship, flying separately, was in a 375 x 392 km x 51.6 deg orbit. Redocked with Mir on 3 Sep 1996 09:35:00 GMT at the rear port of the Kvant module. Finally undocked from Mir on 20 Nov 1996 19:51:20 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Nov 1996 22:42:25 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.20 days. Total docked time 93.91 days.

1997 July 31 - .
  • Mir News 374: Soyuz-TM26 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-23. The launch of this ship with on board a crew of 2 for Mir's Main Expedition 24 is still planned for 5.08.1997 at 1535 UTC and if launch and flight go according to plan the docking will take place on 7.08.1997 at 1723 UTC. This time deviates from the normal routine to dock only a few minutes after LOS for the first pass for our position. This time the docking will take place almost 20 minutes later possibly to enable Solovyov and Vinogradov to make a video and/or photo survey of the module Spektr for damage assessment and to see whether Spektr is not the only module that suffered from the blow on 25.06.97. Recently there have been suggestions that there might be more damage than had been supposed initially.

    On 6.08.1997, so 1 day after launch of Soyuz-TM26 the freighter Progress-M35, meanwhile fully loaded with trash , will leave the aft (Kvant +X axis) docking port for a 10 days lasting autonomous flight. On 7.08 Soyuz-TM26 has to dock at that port, but after the departure of Soyuz-TM25 with the relieved crew on 14.08.97, Soyuz-TM26 with on board Solovyov, Vinogradov and Foale have to redock at the forward (P.Kh.O. = -X axis) port as soon as possible. This is scheduled for 15.08.97. They can fly around, but also wait until the Mir complex has made a turn of 180 degrees around the Z-axis.

    After redocking the Russians have to accept another challenge for already on 16.08.97 Progress-M35 has to redock at the aft (+ X axis) port. This time again in the automatic mode with the reliable system Kurs. There will be no time to recover from the sustained strain for the crew will have to deal with the preparations for the IVA on 20.08.97. If this IVA will be awarded by success TsUP can give green light for an EVA (so a real external one) on 3.09.97 for an inspection of the outer surface of Spektr.

    Radio-amateur traffic:

    On 145.985 mc Packet Radio could be monitored in which Foale gave the following Mir-status report: TNC frozen again, this time the PMS. Waiting for a replacement with Mir 24, Anatoliy and Pavel, docking on the 7th. Crew is preparing for their arrival, getting Progress loaded with trash, to be undocked before next crew. Greenhousing, but not yet showing cotyledons. Mike. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 July 31 - .
  • Lunar Prospector, Moon Impact - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Lunar Prospector. A two year extended mission following the original one-year mission was possible, during which the orbit was to be lowered to 50 km and then 10 km altitude to obtain higher resolution measurements. However this was not funded, and the spacecraft was commanded to crash into the moon.

2000 July 31 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-35 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross. Program: ISS. Summary: The night sky's third brightest object - the International Space Station - now is under computer control from its newest addition, the Zvezda service module, following a 'handover' of that responsibility this weekend from the Zarya control module.. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-35.

2001 July 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Koronas-F - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KF. Mass: 2,260 kg (4,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2005-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26873 . COSPAR: 2001-032A. Apogee: 529 km (328 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Launch delayed from July 25. Koronas-F was a Russian solar observatory that pointed toward Sun within 10 arc-minutes to conduct a variety of observations. In broad categories, it carried X-ray monitors to locate sources within 1 arc-sec, radio receivers to measure flux and polarization, and particle counters. Additional Details: Koronas-F.

2005 July 31 - .
2009 July 31 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion. LV Configuration: Unknown.
  • Aegis Target - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Summary: Target.

2009 July 31 - . 03:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Platform: DDG-70. LV Family: Standard-ER. Launch Vehicle: Standard SM-3.
  • Aegis FTM-17 KV - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Summary: Interceptor.

2009 July 31 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion. LV Configuration: Unknown.
  • Aegis Target - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Summary: Target.

2010 July 31 - . LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Prisma Tango - . Payload: Tango. Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36827 . COSPAR: 2010-028F. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Tango subsatellite separated from the main Prisma satellite Mango on 11 August 2010 at 17:51 GMT to begin formation flying experiments..

2010 July 31 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3A.
  • Beidou IGS 1 - . Payload: Beidou DW5. Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Beidou. USAF Sat Cat: 36828 . COSPAR: 2010-036A. Apogee: 35,901 km (22,307 mi). Perigee: 35,680 km (22,170 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Summary: Fifth Beidou navigation satellite, placed in an inclined geosynchronous orbit..

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