Encyclopedia Astronautica
June 28


June 28 Chronology


1911 June 28 - .
  • Nakhla Meteorite Fall in Egypt (Mars Meteorite, Hit Dog) - . Nation: Egypt.

1915 June 28 - .
  • Birth of Charles Stuart 'Charlie' Ames - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, son of an iron works machinist, Project Engineer on the MX-774 and early Atlas programs. He was remembered as rock-solid, smart, practical, able to obtain the best designs by trading off inter-departmental concepts..

1919 June 28 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Treaty loophole permits German rocket development. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Signing of Treaty of Versailles disarmed Germany of a military air force but did not include rockets as potential weapons, thus leaving Germany free under international law to develop them..

1943 June 28 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Sturmbannfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: He was assigned to the Staff of the Oberabschnitt Ostsee..

1944 June 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18112.
  • V-2 M101 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 28 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1946 June 28 - .
  • Birth of John Michael 'Mike' Lounge - . Nation: USA. Summary: American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-35..

1946 June 28 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 6.
  • UVS / Ionosphere properties Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; NRL. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi). Summary: Launched 12:03 local time. Reached 108.1 km. Carried cosmic radiation, solar radiation, pressure, and temperature experiments for Naval Research Lab..

1948 June 28 - .
  • Stalin and Tito break - . Nation: USSR.

1951 June 28 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 52. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Blossom IVF Solar/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; USAF AFSC. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). Summary: Launched 14:43 local time. Reached 5.8 km. Carried solar radiation, air glow, sky brightness experiments for Air Research and Development Command..

1953 June 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 407.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 June 28 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 development plans. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On NIP Plan for Special Product--course of work on the R-7 ICBM' was issued..

1955 June 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon.
  • D35 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 June 28 - .
  • Workers' uprising against Communist rule in Poznan, Poland, is crushed - . Nation: USSR.

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • NIIP-A target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 June 28 - . LV Family: Little Joe. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe.
  • Ablation materials for the Mercury Little Joe flights. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury; Mercury Heat Shield. Between June 28 and July 11, 1959, 12 heat-transfer tests were made in the Preflight Jet Test facility at Wallops Island on several ablation materials being considered for use on the spacecraft afterbody (not heat shield) for the Little Joe flights. Test conditions simulated those of actual Little Joe trajectories. Of the materials used, triester polymer and thermolag demonstrated the capability to protect the spacecraft against expected heat loads.

1960 June 28 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 27D.
  • Research and development / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,800 km (1,100 mi).

1960 June 28 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp AA8.242.
  • NAsp-II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1961 June 28 - .
  • Mercury spacecraft No. 5 in seaworthiness test - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Using spacecraft No. 5, a spacecraft seaworthiness test was conducted 65 miles east of Wallops Island. Sea conditions varied with 2 to 4 foot ground swells and wave heights of from 1 to 2 feet. Spacecraft flotation characteristics were found to be quite satisfactory.

1962 June 28 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 June 28 - . 01:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D. LV Configuration: Thor Agena D 340 / Agena D 1151.
  • KH-4 9038 - . Payload: KH-4 s/n 9038 / Agena D 1151. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4. Decay Date: 1962-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 316 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Gamma-1. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 76.0000 deg. Period: 93.60 min. Summary: KH-4; film capsule recovered 4.1 days later. Severe corona static..

1963 June 28 - .
  • Apollo Pioneer tri-conical solid parachutes canceled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: A cluster of two Pioneer tri-conical solid parachutes was tested; both parachutes failed. Because of this unsatisfactory performance, the Pioneer solid-parachute program was officially canceled on July 15..

1963 June 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 546.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 28 - . 02:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 429.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 June 28 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.62AS.
  • NRL NE3.129? Solar / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1963 June 28 - . 21:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S113.
  • GRS - . Payload: CRL 1. Mass: 99 kg (218 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: GRS. Decay Date: 1983-12-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 612 . COSPAR: 1963-026A. Apogee: 1,306 km (811 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 49.7000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Geophysical Research Satellite; space gas data. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1965 June 28 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 4 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Gibson, Edward; Graveline; Kerwin; Michel; Schmitt. The group was selected to provide scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions.. Qualifications: Doctorate in natural sciences, medicine, or engineering. Under 35 years old, under 183 cm height, excellent health. US citizen.. 1,351 applicants. The National Academy of Science was responsible for the final selection. NASA planned to select up to twenty, but the quality of the applicants was considered so poor that only six were named. Of those, four would fly in space. Geologist Schmitt would walk on the moon on the last Apollo mission, and only after pressure from the scientific community. The other three would fly on Skylab. Only Garriot would fly twice, supplementing his 59 days on Skylab with a ten-day shuttle mission.

1966 June 28 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/2.
  • ESRO S08 / 2 (SK8) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1966 June 28 - . 17:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin CRL AC19.191.
  • Pulse Phase Delay Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi).

1967 June 28 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Dauphin. LV Configuration: Dauphin DA002.
  • FU-179 test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1968 June 28 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 June 28 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.387UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1971 June 28 - .
  • Soyuz 11 Day 23 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Afanasyev; Keldysh; Mishin; Karas. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK; Salyut 1. The cosmonauts have to be extremely careful in putting Salyut in storage mode. They go through the checklist together with the ground to make sure no errors are made. The Salyut station is much more comfortable than the Soyuz, but the mission has revealed it needs many improvements, including: a unit for ejecting liquids from the station; solar panels, and scientific instruments, that can be automatically pointed at the sun or their target and stabilised; an improved control section; better crew rest provisions. Only with such improvements will it be possible to make flights of two months or longer. And such flights will take ten years to work up to, not by the end of the year, as Mishin claims. Kamanin thinks it will be possible to prolong flights to 40 to 60 days in 1972, but that this will then be a long-standing record. Any longer would be equivalent to running 100 km but then collapsing and dying - the Soviet Union doesn't need those kind of records!

    The bigwigs arrive from Moscow to be in on the landing. But Afanasyev, Keldysh, Mishin, and Karas all remain at the cosmodrome for the investigation into the N1 failure.


1971 June 28 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P109H.
  • Solar La / X / ne Ionosphere / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1972 June 28 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100. LV Configuration: M-100 TERLS-448.
  • ISRO-8.78 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1973 June 28 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1974 June 28 - .
  • Death of Vannevar Bush - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bush, Vannevar. Summary: American engineer, primary scientific adviser to Roosevelt and Truman, immensely influential in plans for nuclear weapons, missiles, aviation, and advanced propulsion 1939-1949. Discouraged early development of the ICBM..

1974 June 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 41 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1480 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20770 m. Flight Time - 427 sec..

1974 June 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 82F.
  • BMRS SFT-3 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1975 June 28 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1976 June 28 - .
  • Start horizontal ground vibration tests Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Start horizontal ground vibration tests and proof load tests, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 June 28 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-17.
  • ITF-1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Summary: Last launch of a Titan II ICBM (first West Coast launch on 16 February 1963). Demonstrated new Universal Space Guidance System for launch vehicle variant..

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT134M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1978 June 28 - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: INTA. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1978 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC170. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 28 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1024 - . Payload: Oko #9. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10970 . COSPAR: 1978-066A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,984 km (3,096 mi). Inclination: 67.3000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 931. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 June 28 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1025 - . Payload: Tselina-D Mass model no. 16. Mass: 4,375 kg (9,645 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2007-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10973 . COSPAR: 1978-067A. Apogee: 567 km (352 mi). Perigee: 551 km (342 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1978 June 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 599. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 June 28 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 7 - . Payload: Progress s/n 107. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . Decay Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11421 . COSPAR: 1979-059A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Jun 1979 11:18:22 GMT. Undocked on 18 Jul 1979 03:49:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jul 1979 01:57:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.0 days. Total docked time 17.69 days.
  • KRT-10 - . Payload: KRT-10. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: KRT-10. Decay Date: 1979-08-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11493 . COSPAR: 1977-097BD. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.99 min. Summary: 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir..

1979 June 28 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53768-304.
  • Cosmos 1110 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 11425 . COSPAR: 1979-060A. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 775 km (481 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.

1980 June 28 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1981 June 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1982 June 28 - . 15:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Primrose Lake. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1983 June 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1471 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 958. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14156 . COSPAR: 1983-064A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission. Final Yantar-2K mission..

1983 June 28 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D170.
  • Galaxy 1 - . Payload: HS 376. Mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 14158 . COSPAR: 1983-065A. Apogee: 35,841 km (22,270 mi). Perigee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 6.3000 deg. Period: 1,438.20 min. TV. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg W in 1983-1991; 133 deg W in 1991-1994 As of 31 August 2001 located at 92.66 deg W drifting at 0.600 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 46.95W drifting at 0.505W degrees per day.

1984 June 28 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47134-133.
  • Cosmos 1578 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1Yu. Decay Date: 1993-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 15080 . COSPAR: 1984-068A. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..

1985 June 28 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135JA. LV Configuration: MT-135JA-3.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1986 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 June 28 - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-200.
  • Meteorological Chaff Meteorological mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1989 June 28 - . 15:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1990 June 28 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R750.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1991 June 28 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-11 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 52. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 23.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 21524 . COSPAR: 1991-044A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 253 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1991 June 28 - . 19:02 GMT - .
1992 June 28 - .
  • Mir News 135: Progress-M12 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-11. OPERATIONS CONCLUDED.

    To make the docking of the freighter Progress-M13 on 2 July 1992 possible, the Progress-M12 had to disappear. Progress-M12 had been docked to the forward docking port (PKhO) on 22 April and was often used to correct the orbit of the complex. This also happened a few days ago and so only Kepler elements from day 178 or younger are useable. Radio traffic in the night from 27 to 28 June 1992 revealed that the undocking operation was going on. Kaleri watched the undocking and autonomous flight of Progress-M12 from the airlock (S.Sh.O.) of Module-D and Viktorenko observed all what was happening from the base block. During the pass in orb. 36394, which began at 2129 UTC, Progress-M12 separated from Mir. This was right over our heads at 2135 UTC. Telemetry and Doppler beacon (resp. on 166, 165 and 922.755 mc) could be heard. TsUP received TV images made by Kaleri. For a long time Mir and Progress-M12 flew in formation. During the next pass (in orb. 35395, 2306- UTC) Progress-M12 still flew autonomously still more or less observed by Kaleri. At 230654 UTC the exact TCA could be determined (922.755mc passed the BFO-dip). Almost on this moment Progress-M12's rocket worked to reduce its speed and it entered the earth's atmosphere. It decayed (burnt up) at 2321 UTC on 27 June 1992, so 9 minutes after our LOS. Progress-M12 had not been equipped with a return capsule.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1995 June 28 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2314 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 70.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23601 . COSPAR: 1995-031A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 28 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 June 28 - .
  • Mir News 365: Radio traffic after collision Progress-M34 with MIR. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-23. On 25.06.1997 during the first pass of the daily sequence (orb. 64831, 1049-1054 UTC) it was obvious that something went terribly wrong. If the redocking would have been a success this should have been obvious during this traffic. No word about the Progress-M34. The only subjects about which the crew spoke with TsUP were the systems on board Mir. In the first place they had problems with the SUD (attitude control) and something had happened with a module. TsUP transmitted a long series of 4-digit groups and the crew got orders to record and to collate them ('kvitantsiya').

    In the next pass (orb. 64832, 1223-1232 UTC) reports about serious problems indicating that the complex had suffered from a heavy blow. An emergency signal warned that the power supply was too low (tension too low), that storage accumulators could not be charged and that the attitude of the complex had been changed and flew on its side. One or more of the 5 still available solar arrays could not be adjusted for a good angle towards the sun.. Tsibliyev reported that they were unable to change this and that the complex had a movement along the X-axis.

    The crew got orders to activate the direct TV-link (commands Anna-72 and Anna-86) and to send images. Mike Foale made this images with a camera. (These images could be seen all over the world during the rest of the day). Very alarming was that what the crew reported during the 3d pass (orbit 64833, 1359-1409 UTC). Those solar panels which were still available could not be adjusted via computer commands, but this had to be done manually by the cosmonauts.

    The gyrodynes did not work any more , the electrical tension was too low and the Ts.V.M.-1 (the main computer) ceased to function. The SUD failed and this was also the case with such a system in Module-D. After reporting all these calamities Tsibliyev stated that the situation was very bad. A number of ventilators did not work and the crew was grateful about the fact that the ventilators in Module-D functioned normally.

    The fact that the gyrodynes stopped and did not consume power anymore decreased the burden on the power supply. After a long discussion about the power problems the crew got permission to adjust the solar panels of Module-D manually for a better angle towards the sun. In the background the voice of the veteran cosmonaut Vladimir Solovyov, Head of Flight Control, could be heard. As much as necessary the crew could use the Soyuz-TM25 and in case of a failure of the communications from the Base block they could use the transceiver of that ship.

    The traffic during the 4th pass (orb. 68434, 1535-1546 UTC) began with the cheerful voice of Foale asking Tsibliyev how he felt himself. Tsibliyev said that he was very tired and suffered from strain caused by the event. Before LOS TsUP gave the windows for communications via the ground facilities of Oberpfaffenhofen, Dryden en Wallops in the coming night.

    There was also good news: Foale reported that the amount of CO2 in the air was so low that the CO2 scrubber Vozdukh was not needed. An inconvenience was the fact that the alarm light : 'Depressurization of the complex' was burning continuously and that reset was impossible while the mano-vacuummeters indicated that the pressure remained stable (692 mm). During a following pass Tsibliyev said that he understood that the launch of the Progress-M35 had been put back. TsUP confirmed this. (to be continued)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 June 28 - .
  • Mir News 429: Uncertainty - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-25. For the time being the fate of Mir is uncertain. The cosmonauts on board Mir hoped to get information about the results of meetings on earth about the exploitation of Mir for the very near future. A meeting about this subject planned for last week has been put back until 2.07.1998. At this meeting a commission or group of experts will discuss the serious problems due to the lack of money for the present Mir exploitation and future operations. RKK Energiya did not receive the promised money badly needed this year and if this allotment will not be transferred soon, there are no means for the launch of Soyuz-TM28 with the relief crew for the present expedition. Possibly the meeting on 2.07.1998 will draft an ultimatum to the Kremlin: if the Kremlin fails to transfer the needed amount, another meeting will take place in mid July to discuss the termination of Mir's exploitation and to plan the operation to bring the station back into the atmosphere for decay later this year.

    The present uncertainty phase is unpleasant for the cosmonauts. On 19.06.98 Musabayev spoke with Baturin, who is still training for his flight to Mir with Soyuz-TM28, together with the crew for the next (26th) Mir Main Expedition. Musabayev wished Baturin a good flight and said that he hoped to meet him soon on board Mir. Baturin, a former spaceflight constructor and an advisor of Yeltsin, was selected for a flight to Mir for political reasons, but regretfully Yeltsin sacked him due to measures of economy.

    Apart from asking questions about the developments the cosmonauts do not say much about the present situation, but it is clear that their mood is far below the desired level. This could repeatedly be derived from conversations between the crew and TsUP. Especially Musabayev, a man with a stable character and in fact a humorist who likes to laugh a lot, regularly looses his temper.

    Mir-routine:

    Nevertheless Musabayev and Budarin continue to run the station as good as possible. They performed a number of repairs and were busy with a series of experiments. Last week they spent a lot of time to mend the defective Elektron oxygen generator in Kvant-1 for which they used parts of the Elektron in Module-D. A few times they did not succeed, but on 25.06 the Elektron worked well for 6 hours. On 26.06 the crew replaced a part of the Antares transmitter (for communications via Altair-2) and obviously they succeeded, for on 28.06 the transmitter was in use for a televised family meeting. Later on Musabayev reported that he had replaced the transmitter.

    Experiments:

    In co-ordination with American experts the cosmonauts continued the use of the Optizon furnace for melting processes. The Gallar furnace was also used. There were a lot of medical experiments, especially aimed at the cardio-vascular systems, Regularly they reported about experiments like Cardio, Holter and (the Dutch) Portapress.

    They also worked on astrophysical experiments. The crew reactivated the spectrometer Mariya in Kvant-1 to study electromagnetic processes in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere. They also carried out radiation measurements outside the complex along Mir's trajectory. Experiments located in the Priroda module were also discussed, i.e. MOMS, Ozon and Alisa.

    Planning:

    The last report about the launch of the Soyuz-TM28 with the relief crew Padalka and Avdeyev, and the politician Baturin, was about putting back this mission with 1 day for ballistic reasons. The launch is now scheduled for 3.08.1998 and the rendezvous with Mir for 5.08.98. To free the aft (+X axis) docking port of Mir the Progress-M39 has to undock from there on 4.08 for an autonomous flight. After the departure of Soyuz-TM27 the new transport ship Soyuz-TM28 has to be redocked to the forward (-X-axis) port. From that moment on the aft docking port is free for the redocking of the Progress-M38. This cargo ship has to remain docked to Mir, for the next one, Progress-M40, will not arrive before September 1998.

    This all with due reserve, for important decisions regarding Mir's immediate fate have to be made. If Padalka, Avdeyev and Baturin will fly, their call will be Altair.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 June 28 - .
  • Hainan Commercial Space Port Proposed - . Nation: China. A Chinese company proposed a project to build a space port in Hainan. The $500 million project would include a launch complex, a tourist center and an industrial park. Hainan was already used as a sounding rocket launch site. It provided the most southern possible launch site on Chinese territory, which would maximise payload when launching geosynchronous satellites.

2000 June 28 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Nadezhda - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 26384 . COSPAR: 2000-033A. Apogee: 712 km (442 mi). Perigee: 686 km (426 mi). Inclination: 98.1366 deg. Period: 98.66 min. Summary: Nadezhda navigation/search and rescue satellite. This represented the first sun-synchronous launch from Plesetsk..
  • SNAP 1 - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SNAP. USAF Sat Cat: 26386 . COSPAR: 2000-033C. Apogee: 710 km (441 mi). Perigee: 691 km (429 mi). Inclination: 98.1358 deg. Period: 98.70 min. The SNAP-1 Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform was a 6 kg satellite with imager and propulsion. It was to test rendezvous techniques by formation flying with the Tsinghua satellite placed in orbit on the same launch. In October 2000 Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) released a picture of Tsinghua-1 taken in orbit by the SNAP-1 6.5 kg nanosatellite.
  • Tsinghua - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Tsinghua. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 26385 . COSPAR: 2000-033B. Apogee: 713 km (443 mi). Perigee: 687 km (427 mi). Inclination: 98.1397 deg. Period: 98.68 min. Tsinghua University of Beijing satellite equipped with an imager, communications payload, and momentum wheels for 3-axis stabilisation. The 50 kg, 0.69 x 0.36 x 0.36m box-shaped satellite used a standard Surrey SSTL microsat bus.Tsinghua-1 was the first demonstrator for the planned Disaster Monitoring Constellation and carried a multi-spectral Earth imaging camera providing 39-metre nadir ground resolution in 3 spectral bands. The satellite also carried out research in low Earth orbit using digital store-and-forward communications, a digital signal processing (DSP) experiment, a Surrey-built GPS space receiver and a new 3-axis microsat attitude control experiment. Tsinghua-1 used the SGR-10, with 12 channels and equipped with two receive antennas, to investigate the use of GPS signals in microsat on-board attitude and orbit determination. In October 2000 Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) released a picture of Tsinghua-1 taken in orbit by the SNAP-1 6.5 kg nanosatellite.

2002 June 28 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • MM-SFS-01 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2005 June 28 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier ASAS. LV Configuration: Terrier ASAS NASA 12.060GT.
2007 June 28 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Bulava. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: The warhead impacted on target in the Kamchatka Peninsula. This was the first successful launch after two consecutive failures..

2007 June 28 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n No. 10.
  • Genesis 2 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 31789 . COSPAR: 2007-028A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 556 km (345 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. The spacecraft's 22 interior and exterior cameras provided images of items and pictures carried for paying participants in Bigelow's “Fly your Stuff” program.

2008 June 28 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 06/28/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kononenko, O D; Love; Volkov, Sergey. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-17. Saturday - off duty for CDR Volkov, FE-1 Kononenko and FE-2 Chamitoff.

    Crew Sleep Cycle Adjustments: Crew wake/sleep cycle today shifted 3.5 hrs to the right for the next days: wakeup - 5:30am, sleep - 9:00pm EDT.

    Upon wake-up, Sergey Volkov terminated his fifth MBI-12 SONOKARD experiment session for the long-term Russian sleep study, by taking the recording device from his SONOKARD sports shirt pocket and later copying the measurements to the RSE-MED laptop for subsequent downlink to the ground. (SONOKARD objectives are stated to (1) study the feasibility of obtaining the maximum of data through computer processing of records obtained overnight, (2) systematically record the crewmember's physiological functions during sleep, (3) study the feasibility of obtaining real-time crew health data. Investigators believe that contactless acquisition of cardiorespiratory data over the night period could serve as a basis for developing efficient criteria for evaluating and predicting adaptive capability of human body in long-duration space flight.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 06/28/08.


2011 June 28 - . Launch Site: Semnan. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 3. LV Configuration: Ghadr.
  • Shahab RV - . Nation: Iran. Summary: Operational test..

2011 June 28 - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Shahab. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 6. LV Configuration: Shahab 2.
  • Shahab RV - . Nation: Iran. Summary: Operational test..

2011 June 28 - . Launch Site: Semnan. LV Family: Shahab. Launch Vehicle: Hwasong 5. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Shahab RV - . Nation: Iran. Summary: Operational test..

2011 June 28 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Bulava. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 6 - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Operational test; from the White Sea to the Kura test range in Kamchatka. This was the first launch from the new 955-class submarine K-535 Yuri Dolgorukiy..

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