Encyclopedia Astronautica
March 16


March 16 Chronology


1912 March 16 - .
  • Birth of Rudi Hoelker - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Aeroballistics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts..

1926 March 16 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • First flight of a Goddard liquid-propellant rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0125 km (0.0078 mi). Range: 0.0560 km (0.0348 mi). Goddard achieves the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket at Aunt Effie's Farm, Auburn, Massachusetts. Altitude 41 ft; average speed 60 mph; in air 2.5 sec; landed 184 ft from launching frame; total path 220 ft. This event was the "Kitty Hawk" of rocketry.

1927 March 16 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1, Soyuz 1. First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz 1 tangled and it crashed to earth. Cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. Call sign: Rubin (Ruby)..

1932 March 16 - .
1933 March 16 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • Final Schmiedl rocket mail service. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Apogee: 2.50 km (1.50 mi). Summary: Schmiedl conducts his final rocket mail 'service' with 379 letters aboard his S1 two-stage rocket over a distance of 5 km at Graz between Sankt Martin and Grazer Feld..

1936 March 16 - .
  • Liquid Propellant Rocket Development published. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Robert H. Goddard's classic report on "Liquid Propellant Rocket Development," reviewing his liquid -fuel rocket research and flight testing since 1919, was published by the Smithsonian Institution..

1944 March 16 - .
  • NACA proposes a jet-propelled transonic research airplane. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: XS-1. At a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) seminar, in Washington, D.C., with Air Force and Navy personnel attending, NACA personnel proposed a jet-propelled transonic research airplane be developed. This proposal ultimately led to the 'X' series research airplane projects.

1945 March 16 - . Launch Vehicle: EA 1941. FAILURE: Exploded on pad..
  • EA 1941 - . Nation: France. Related Persons: Barre. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Launched from Toulon, France. The rocket exploded on the launch pad, destroying it..

1949 March 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 106 - . Crew: Boyd. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Boyd. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 41. Familiarization flight. Inflight engine fire and shutdown..

1953 March 16 - .
  • Reorganization of Soviet missile bureaucracy. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On uniting the First and Second Chief Directorates of Council of Ministers' was issued..

1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1920.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1916.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 March 16 - .
  • Man and the Moon televised. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: The second Walt Disney / Wernher Von Braun program presented the powerful image of a wheelike space station as a launching point for a mission to the Moon..

1958 March 16 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee Hi. LV Configuration: Aerobee Hi NN3.04.
  • NRL NN3.04 Aeronomy/Fields/Ultraviolet Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1959 March 16 - .
  • Purchase of five developmental pressure suits for Project Mercury. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury Space Suit. Summary: Purchase approval in the amount of $125,000 was requested by the Space Task Group from NASA Headquarters for the procurement of five developmental pressure suits for Project Mercury..

1959 March 16 - .
1960 March 16 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • The Space Task Group published recovery requirements for the Mercury-Atlas 1 (MA-1) flight test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury.

1960 March 16 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300 TATTLETALE PCC 3.
  • Signals intelligence test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 March 16 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300 NASA 06.01UI.
  • UM ionosphere probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1961 March 16 - .
  • Mercury spacecraft No. 10 was withdrawn from the flight program - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: It was allocated to a ground test simulating orbital flight environmental conditions at the McDonnell plant site..

1961 March 16 - .
  • Project SAINT Phase I contract signed by RCA. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: SAINT; SAINT II. Project SAINT (SAtellite INTerceptor) was a large and still deeply classified US Air Force program begun in the late 1950's covering a wide range of technologies for interception, inspection, and destruction of enemy spacecraft. After studies in the 1950ís. The Phase I development contract was let to Radio Corporation of America. Saint Phase I would have weighted 1,100 kg and been launched by Atlas D/Agena B.

1961 March 16 - . LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • UR-200 (8K81) launch vehicle development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Kosmoplan; IS-A; US-A; US-P; OGCh. An enabling decree was issued on 1 August 1961 by the Central Committee and Politburo. The UR-200 was designed not only to send a thermonuclear warhead over a range of 12,000 km, but also to orbit all of the Kosmoplan military variants: the IS ASAT; the US nuclear-powered naval intelligence satellite; and the Kosmoplan combat re-entry vehicle.

1962 March 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1. LV Configuration: Kosmos 63S1 6LK.
  • Cosmos 1 - . Payload: DS-2 s/n 2. Mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-2. Completed Operations Date: 1962-03-26 . Decay Date: 1962-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 266 . COSPAR: 1962-Theta-1. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 49.0000 deg. Period: 93.10 min. After five months of further work and tests to improve the reliability of the second stage, Yangel's team felt it was ready to again attempt a launch of the 63S1 booster. 63S1 s/n 6LK put a DS-2 satellite into orbit, which conducted studies of the ionosphere. This was the first successful launch of the Kosmos 63S1 launch vehicle. A decision was made after two unsuccessful launches of the DS-1 to create a simplified DS-2 spacecraft based on the equipment and structural elements of DS-1 spacecraft. The cylindrical section for mission avionics was completely omitted.

1962 March 16 - . 18:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II N-2.
  • Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Summary: The Air Force successfully launched a Titan II intercontinental ballistic missile. This was the first full-scale test of the vehicle; it flew 8000 km out over the Atlantic Ocean..

1963 March 16 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576D. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 63F.
  • OT TALL TREE 5 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1963 March 16 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150A NASA 04.70CG.
  • Lockheed XR 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi).

1963 March 16 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 193D. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • NTMP K-14/NC20.145 Target/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1964 March 16 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 624. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-288.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 March 16 - . 19:29 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 HITAB.
  • BIRA-1 Infrared / ultraviolet background mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NOTS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 March 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 801.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 March 16 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 12.5 S x 77.8 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.171GE.
  • B field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi). Summary: Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP10 - - Latitude: 12.50 S - Longitude: 77.83 W..

1965 March 16 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 12.8 S x 78.3 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.177GI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP11 - - Latitude: 12.82 S - Longitude: 78.25 W..

1966 March 16 - .
  • Landing of Cosmos 110 - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The 'Spusk' landing command is transmitted to the capsule at 14:00, all proceeds normally, and the capsule makes a soft landing at 17:15 210 km southeast of Saratov, 60 km from the aim point. All recovery systems and radio beacons work well, and within 30 to 40 minutes after landing it is reported from the site that the capsule is all right and the dogs alive. However due to bad weather in the landing zone - 100 m ceiling, 1-2 km visibility, fog - the capsule cannot be recovered until the next morning. Kamanin is attacked by the leadership for this delay - but compares the performance by the VVS recovery forces with the American failure to promptly recover Gemini 8 after its emergency re-entry.

1966 March 16 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Bietage test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of two-stage version of MD.620..

1966 March 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5302 / Agena D 5003.
  • Gemini 8 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 3/Agena D 5003 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1967-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2104 . COSPAR: 1966-019A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Target vehicle for Gemini 8..

1966 March 16 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-8 / 62-12563.
  • Gemini 8 - . Call Sign: Gemini 8. Crew: Armstrong; Scott. Backup Crew: Conrad; Gordon. Payload: Gemini SC8. Mass: 3,788 kg (8,351 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong; Scott; Conrad; Gordon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 0.45 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2105 . COSPAR: 1966-020A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. The Atlas-Agena target vehicle for the Gemini VIII mission was successfully launched from KSC Launch Complex 14 at 10 a.m. EST March 16. The Gemini VIII spacecraft followed from Launch Complex 19 at 11:41 a.m., with command pilot Neil A. Armstrong and pilot David R. Scott aboard. The spacecraft and its target vehicle rendezvoused and docked, with docking confirmed 6 hours 33 minutes after the spacecraft was launched. This first successful docking with an Agena target vehicle was followed by a major space emergency. About 27 minutes later the spacecraft-Agena combination encountered unexpected roll and yaw motion. A stuck thruster on Gemini put the docked assembly into a wild high speed gyration. Near structural limits and blackout, Armstrong undocked, figuring the problem was in the Agena, which only made it worse. The problem arose again and when the yaw and roll rates became too high the crew shut the main Gemini reaction control system down and activated and used both rings of the reentry control system to reduce the spacecraft rates to zero. This used 75% of that system's fuel. Although the crew wanted to press on with the mission and Scott's planned space walk, ground control ordered an emergency splashdown in the western Pacific during the seventh revolution. The spacecraft landed at 10:23 p.m. EST March 16 and Armstrong and Scott were picked up by the destroyer U.S.S. Mason at 1:37 a.m. EST March 17. Although the flight was cut short by the incident, one of the primary objectives - rendezvous and docking (the first rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbital flight) - was accomplished.

    Primary objectives of the scheduled three-day mission were to rendezvous and dock with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) and to conduct extravehicular activities. Secondary objectives included rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, performing docked maneuvers using the GATV primary propulsion system, executing 10 experiments, conducting docking practice, performing a rerendezvous, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV in a 220-nautical mile circular orbit. The GATV was inserted into a nominal 161-nautical mile circular orbit, the spacecraft into a nominal 86 by 147-nautical mile elliptical orbit. During the six hours following insertion, the spacecraft completed nine maneuvers to rendezvous with the GATV. Rendezvous phase ended at 5 hours 58 minutes ground elapsed time, with the spacecraft 150 feet from the GATV and no relative motion between the two vehicles. Stationkeeping maneuvers preceded docking, which was accomplished at 6 hours 33 minutes ground elapsed time. A major problem developed 27 minutes after docking, when a spacecraft orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) thruster malfunctioned. The crew undocked from the GATV and managed to bring the spacecraft under control by deactivating the OAMS and using the reentry control system (RCS) to reduce the spacecraft's rapid rotation. Premature use of the RCS, however, required the mission to be terminated early. The retrofire sequence was initiated in the seventh revolution, followed by nominal reentry and landing in a secondary recovery area in the western Pacific Ocean. The spacecraft touched down less than 10 km from the planned landing point. The recovery ship, the destroyer Leonard Mason, picked up both crew and spacecraft some three hours later. Early termination of the mission precluded achieving all mission objectives, but one primary objective - rendezvous and docking - was accomplished. Several secondary objectives were also achieved: rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV. Two experiments were partially performed.


1966 March 16 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 SL581.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1967 March 16 - .
  • Soyuz state commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Gagarin; Smirnov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The Soyuz 1/2 crews had planned to depart for Baikonur on 30 March, but Mishin wants to push this forward to the night of 17/18 March. This disrupts all of Kamanin's training plans and shows the poor planning and work of Mishin and his followers. A Soyuz state commission is held. Kamanin doesn't trust Mishin. The spacecraft is unreliable and incompletely tested. But it is decided all the conditions exist for a launch of the mission on 20-25 April. The question of Gagarin flying on the mission is brought up. The Communist Party says he is too valuable to risk on further spaceflights. Kamanin is against making him a living 'museum exhibit'. Smirnov agrees to raise the matter with the Politburo.

1967 March 16 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena B012.
  • USN B012 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1967 March 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 148 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 2. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1967-05-07 . Decay Date: 1967-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2712 . COSPAR: 1967-023A. Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Operational radar target for the ABM forces. First launch of 63SM/11K63 version of Kosmos launch vehicle; first launch from the Raduga launch complex at Plesetsk..

1967 March 16 - . 17:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576A2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 151F.
  • ABRES MBRV-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1967 March 16 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.256II.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 141 km (87 mi).

1968 March 16 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.198GE.
  • Crab X-ray X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1968 March 16 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 207 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3154 . COSPAR: 1968-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 March 16 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1969 March 16 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache K-NA-17.
  • DLR K-NA-17 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1970 March 16 - . 02:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Kookaburra. LV Configuration: Kookaburra 142.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 38 km (23 mi).

1971 March 16 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.14UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 16 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 170. LV Configuration: Aerobee 170 CRL A04.002-2.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 March 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-7 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 March 16 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6. LV Configuration: Skylark 6 SL1023.
  • UK SL1023 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1972 March 16 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-24.
  • CARIBOU VI Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1972 March 16 - . 10:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5A. LV Configuration: Black Brant VA CRL A17.110-3.
  • ICECAP 72 Plasma / infrared aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1972 March 16 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ISRC-PO-7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1973 March 16 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.152UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi).

1974 March 16 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.11GG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1974 March 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC10W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Burner 2A. LV Configuration: Thor Burner 2A 207.
  • DMSP-Block-5B F5 - . Payload: DMSP 8531 / OPS 8579. Mass: 195 kg (429 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5B. USAF Sat Cat: 7218 . COSPAR: 1974-015A. Apogee: 846 km (525 mi). Perigee: 757 km (470 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 100.90 min. Summary: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program..

1974 March 16 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Tomahawk [Strypi Tomahawk?].
  • Acanta / Contiga Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi).

1974 March 16 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk Acanta Contiga.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1975 March 16 - .
  • Mariner 10, third Mercury Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mariner 10.

1975 March 16 - .
  • Mariner 10 third flyby of Mercury - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mariner 10. Summary: The third and final Mercury encounter yielded primarily fields and particles data..

1975 March 16 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P184T/C.
  • ISRO-18.18 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1976 March 16 - . LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Zenit launch vehicle authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Creation of a Universal Space Missile Complex 11K77 'Zenit'--approval of work on the Zenit launcher' was issued..

1976 March 16 - . 17:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 808 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 9. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 8754 . COSPAR: 1976-024A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

1977 March 16 - .
  • Wings on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 March 16 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S2. LV Configuration: SSBS S2 S-1E-2607.
  • Operational test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Fields mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 PHA F4D AB3-F4.
  • DLR A-GR-81 Christ. Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1978 March 16 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3D. LV Configuration: Titan IIID 23D-20.
  • KH-9 no. 14 - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1978-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10733 . COSPAR: 1978-029A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OPS 7858 - . Payload: SSF-D No. 2. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: SSF. USAF Sat Cat: 10734 . COSPAR: 1978-029B. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 95.8000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Radar monitoring..

1978 March 16 - .
1979 March 16 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3D. LV Configuration: Titan IIID 23D-21.
  • KH-9 no. 15 - . Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-9. Decay Date: 1979-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11305 . COSPAR: 1979-025A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OPS 6675 - . Payload: SSF-D No. 3. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: SSF. USAF Sat Cat: 11306 . COSPAR: 1979-025B. Apogee: 628 km (390 mi). Perigee: 621 km (385 mi). Inclination: 95.8000 deg. Period: 97.20 min.

1980 March 16 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Taurus Tomahawk NASA 34.03UE.
  • KING CRAB Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 571 km (354 mi).

1981 March 16 - . 19:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 23C-22 (3C-40).
  • IMEWS 11 - . Payload: DSP MOS/PIM s/n 10 / OPS 7350. Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12339 . COSPAR: 1981-025A. Apogee: 35,527 km (22,075 mi). Perigee: 35,463 km (22,035 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,421.20 min. Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly eleven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 69 deg W in 1981-1982; 135 deg W in 1982-1984; 75 deg E in 1984-1985. As of 2003 Mar 6 located at 40.27E drifting at 0.598E degrees per day.

1982 March 16 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1983 March 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT144MS Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1983 March 16 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1446 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13886 . COSPAR: 1983-018A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1983 March 16 - . 18:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 1-56 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 13890 . COSPAR: 1983-019A. Apogee: 39,043 km (24,260 mi). Perigee: 1,442 km (896 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 720.50 min. Summary: Replaced Molniya 1-50. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1984 March 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 322-01.
  • Ekran 12 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 26L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1986-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14821 . COSPAR: 1984-028A. Apogee: 37,048 km (23,020 mi). Perigee: 36,973 km (22,973 mi). Inclination: 9.1000 deg. Period: 1,499.10 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1984-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 148.57 deg W drifting at 15.168 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.29W drifting at 15.169W degrees per day.

1984 March 16 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 1-60 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1994-11-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 14825 . COSPAR: 1984-029A. Apogee: 40,011 km (24,861 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 64.2000 deg. Period: 716.50 min. Summary: Replaced Molniya 1-51. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1986 March 16 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1987 March 16 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT121GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 March 16 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1989 March 16 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2006 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19893 . COSPAR: 1989-022A. Apogee: 380 km (230 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1989 March 16 - . 18:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 41 - . Payload: Progress s/n 149. Mass: 6,995 kg (15,421 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-4; Mir LD-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 39.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . Decay Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 19895 . COSPAR: 1989-023A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted fourth test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Delivered Bulgarian Spektr 256 spectrometer, power supplies for failed equipment. Docked with Mir on 18 Mar 1989 20:50:46 GMT. Between April 9 and 17 boosted Mir into a 373 X 416 km storage orbit after the decision was made to delay remanning the station. However these maneuvers resulted in the spacecraft running out of fuel. Undocked on 21 Apr 1989 01:46:15 GMT. Destroyed in uncontrolled decay of orbit on 25 Apr 1989 12:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 6.52 days. Total docked time 33.21 days.

1990 March 16 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cold Lake. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki Datasonde.
  • DYANA DCD19 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1993 March 16 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1.
  • SPEAR 3 Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1994 March 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R883.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1995 March 16 - .
  • Mir News 247: Flight of Soyuz-TM21 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-18; Mir EO-17; Mir LD-4. Launch from Baykonur on 14.03.1995 at 0611 UTC; docking to the Mir-station on 16.03.1995 at 0745 UTC. The crew consisting of the captain Dezhurov, board-engineer Strekalov and the American Norman Thagard, uses the call Uragany, so resp. Uragan-1, 2 en 3. All went well during the 2-days flight. During the 4th and 5th orbit Soyuz-TM21 had been corrected and the crew reported this on 121.750 mc during passes within our range. Telemetry- and beacon-transmitters could be monitored on the well known frequencies (166.130, 165.873 en 922.755mc.). To communicate with TsUP Soyuz-TM21 had to be within range of the ground stations in Russia and Kazakhstan. Communications via the geostationary satellites Altair and Luch-1 are only possible when an Soyuz-TM21 is within range of the Mir-station. Then Mir can act as a relay station. This can be heard during the pass within our range just before the docking. The signals from the Soyuz-TM can be received simultaneously: directly on 121.750 mc as well as via Altair. The images used by American TV-stations reached them via Mir and Altair. The TV-report from Soyuz-TM21 from CNN ceased when Mir/Soyuz-TM21 left the window for Altair. The crew of the Soyuz-TM21 seemed to have no adaptation problems, Strekalov and Thagard have a lot of experience, but newcomer Dezhurov also performed his tasks well. Mir: The crew has been very busy with preparations for the arrival of the so called 18th Main Expedition to Mir. Life support systems and other vital equipment got special attention. As usual before the oncoming return the crew had to undergo a lot of medical checks (E.C.G.-s etc.). The crew also completed the work with the freighter Progress-M26, due to leave the aft docking port of the complex for that port must be available for the docking of the Soyuz-TM21.

    Progress-M26 separated from Mir on 15.03.1995 and decayed that day in a designated area East of New Zealand at abt. 0600 UTC.

    Return to Earth of the 17th Main Expedition (Viktorenko, Kondakova and Dr. Polyakov) on 22.03.1995 with the Soyuz-TM20.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 March 16 - . 21:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. LV Configuration: Atlas II AC-132.
  • USA 138 - . Payload: UHF F/O F8-EHF. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: UHF. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25258 . COSPAR: 1998-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 3.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. UHF Follow-On F8 was the first Block III UHF Follow-On satellite, replacing the old FLTSATCOM satellites. It carried UHF, EHF and Ka-band transponders, including a video broadcast payload. This was the last Atlas II launch; future Atlas launches would use the Atlas IIA, IIAS and III models. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 172 deg E in 1998-1999.

2000 March 16 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-11 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Summary: A docking attitude test was performed Tuesday to verify the operation of the motion control system aboard Zarya - the electronics associated with commanding maneuvers of the ISS for rendezvous and docking operations.. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-11.

2001 March 16 - .
  • STS-102 Mission Status Report #17 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shepherd; Wetherbee. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-1; ISS EO-2; STS-102. Summary: The crews of Discovery and the International Space Station welcomed the addition of another day orbiting the Earth in tandem as they continued to pack for the trip home. Discovery's return will mark the homecoming of the first resident space station crew.. Additional Details: STS-102 Mission Status Report #17.

2002 March 16 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 732. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 DASO-17.
  • 95ss - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 March 16 - . 02:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minotaur. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur 2. LV Configuration: Minotaur 2 TLV-2.
  • IFT-8 GMDS target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi). Summary: A mock warhead and three decoy balloons (one large, two small) were used to increase the difficulty of determining the targetís location..

2002 March 16 - . 02:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Payload Launch Vehicle. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 PLV PLV IFT-8.
  • IFT-8 EKV ABM test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SSDC. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Summary: Successful ABM intercept test, with additional decoy target balloons being introduced..

2002 March 16 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 MASER 9.
  • MASER 9 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

2007 March 16 - .
2008 March 16 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 03/16/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Behnken; Doi; Eyharts; Foreman; Linnehan; Love; Malenchenko; Reisman; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; STS-123. Sunday - 1J/A Flight Day 6/7 (FD6/7).

    Ahead: Week 22 of Increment 16. Crew sleep cycle today: Sleep 7:00am -3:30pm; wake 3:30pm -6:00am tomorrow.

    More good news!

    SPDM Dextre was checked out and is working nominally with both arms. (The waist-up-only robot from Canada arrived in space in nine separate pieces that are being assembled in the current spacewalks. Each of the two arms has seven joints; in addition, SPDM (Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator) Dextre can pivot at the 'waist'. Its grippers (hands) have built-in socket wrenches, cameras & lights. Only one arm is movable at a time, to keep the robot stable and avoid a two-arm collision. Dextre can be attached to MT (Mobile Transporter) to translate along the stations rail tracks, or alternately to the SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) to swing to places where the railcart can't go. What a supercool helper!) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 03/16/08.


2011 March 16 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Oriole.
  • ARAV-B Target - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

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