Encyclopedia Astronautica
March 21


March 21 Chronology


1894 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Nebel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German rocket enthusiast. Worked for Oberth; helped found VfR; built largest prewar German test rockets. Work shut down by government in 1934. Did not work on rockets during WW2. Promoted civilian rebirth of German rocketry in 1950's..

1906 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Hans Hueter - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German-Swiss engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2..

1924 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Lewis Emmerich - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer. Project engineer for the Atlas-Mercury manned launch vehicle..

1940 March 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First full-duration test of A4 engine. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The engine is run at 25 tonnes thrust for 60 seconds on Test Stand I at Peenemuende..

1941 March 21 - .
1943 March 21 - .
1944 March 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1945 March 21 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hampstead - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, Statenkwartier, rocket fired, impacted Primrose Hill, Hampstead..

1949 March 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 107 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 42. Familiarization flight. Mach 1.22 at 12200 m..

1950 March 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 42R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 March 21 - . Launch Vehicle: G-4.
  • First Germans returned to Germany. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: First Germans sent back to Germany. Were not used to generate new designs after the G-4.

1952 March 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. LV Configuration: Lark 594. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1952 March 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal. LV Configuration: Corporal 16R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1953 March 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 352.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 March 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 11 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1A. Summary: AF flight 5. Date estimated..

1955 March 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1540T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 March 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17. LV Configuration: X-17 R-25 4203-A4.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 March 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. Launch Vehicle: Burya. LV Configuration: Burya 2/2. FAILURE: The flight continued only to T+63 seconds. Severe vibrations were encountered and the missile was unstable in flight. At T+60 seconds, the autopilot put the missile into a dive..
  • Burya flight 3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. The second stage was a mass model (the tanks were filled with sand). The flight was planned to last 96 seconds..

1958 March 21 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 March 21 - . 06:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able II. LV Configuration: Thor Able II 132.
  • RVX-1 Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1961 March 21 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • The Mercury-Atlas Missile Range Projects Office designated as a staff function - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Summary: The Mercury-Atlas Missile Range Projects Office, headed by Elmer H. Buller, was designated as a staff function of the Space Task Group Director's office..

1962 March 21 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Contract to Aerojet-General for 15 propulsion systems for the Gemini launch vehicle. - . Nation: USA. Air Force Space Systems Division awarded a letter contract to Aerojet-General Corporation, Azusa, California, for the research, development, and procurement of 15 propulsion systems for the Gemini launch vehicle. It also included the design and development of the related aerospace ground equipment. Aerojet had been authorized to go ahead with work on the engines on February 14, 1962, and the final engine was scheduled for delivery by April 1965.

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2. FAILURE: Failure of guidance and engine mounting. Impacted after 69 seconds of flight.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First DF-2 launch attempt. The rocket impacted the earth after only 69 seconds of flight. Fundamental design errors were discovered in calculating flexing of the rocket in flight, placement of the guidance system, and engine mounting. The missile was completely redesigned for reduced thrust.

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 March 21 - .
  • Vostok launch plans in 1963. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Vostok. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On preparation of proposals on launches of Vostok spacecraft' was issued..

1963 March 21 - .
  • Soyuz development approved. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On approval of work on the Soyuz complex' was issued..

1963 March 21 - .
  • Raketoplan model launched atop R-12. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Raketoplan. Summary: Raketoplan model reached 400 km altitude, re-entered at 4 km/sec. Flew a total distance of 1900 km before being recovered by parachute. First test flight of a lifting re-entry vehicle in the world..

1963 March 21 - .
  • Vostok programme cut back - second female flight cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6; Vostok 6A; Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9; Vostok 10. Spacecraft: Vostok. Vostok flight plans were drastically curtailed at a meeting of the Presidium of the Communist Party. Korolev presented the plan for 1963 as approved by the Interorganizational Soviet at the beginning of the year. This plan, already in an advanced stage of execution, was rejected utterly by Kozlov and Vershinin. The Ministry of Defence announced its categorical opposition to further Vostok production. It was finally decided that there would be only two flights in 1963 using existing spacecraft. These were scheduled for June and would consist of simultaneous female and male flights. Kamanin was infuriated that although he was ordered by a leadership decree in December 1961 to train five women for spaceflight, the same leadership was now asking - Who ordered this? What was the purpose? Are we sure they're ready?

1963 March 21 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • Presidium of Inter-institution Soviet - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Chelomei; Glushko. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V; Soyuz 7K-OK. The expert commission report on Soyuz is reviewed by the Chief Designers from 10:00 to 14:00. The primary objective of the Soyuz project is to develop the technology for docking in orbit. This will allow the spacecraft to make flights of many months duration and allow manned flyby of the moon. Using docking of 70 tonne components launched by the N1 booster will allow manned flight to the Moon, Venus, and Mars. Keldysh, Chelomei and Glushko all support the main objective of Soyuz, to obtain and perfect docking technology. But Chelomei and Glushko warn of the unknowns of the project. Korolev agrees with the assessment that not all the components of the system - the 7K, 9K, and 11K spacecraft - will fly by the end of 1964. But he does argue that the first 7K will fly in 1964, and the first manned 7K flight will come in 1965.

1963 March 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Design work starts on N1 launch complex. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1963 March 21 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-01.
  • Cosmos 13 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 9. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 554 . COSPAR: 1963-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 March 21 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar PL1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • M-12 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Summary: First flight of Raketoplan Chelomei, launched at 16:40 Moscow Time. The reentry vehicle was destroyed during reentry. Maximum Altitude - 400 km. Maximum Speed - 14,400 kph. Distance of free flight - 1900 km..

1963 March 21 - . 15:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II N-18.
  • Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 March 21 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg OSTF2. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 83F.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1964 March 21 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-20. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-03-21 . COSPAR: F640321A. Summary: The upper stages burnt on re-entry into the atmosphere..

1965 March 21 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew recovered - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Keldysh; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. By the next morning, two clearing suitable for helicopter operations have been cleared - a small zone 1.7 km from the capsule, and a larger zone 5 km from the capsule. At 6:50 the cosmonauts and their rescuers - seven in all - ski away from the capsule, reaching the small zone at 8:06. They are picked up there by an Mi-4 helicopter and flown to the large zone, arriving their 20 minutes later. From there a larger Mi-6 helicopter flies them at 9:50 to the airport at Perm. They were to depart aboard an An-10 from Perm at 11:00 for Tyuratam, but their departure is delayed by an hour as they talk on the telephone with Brezhnev. Afterwards toasts are raised at Area 10 at Baikonur by the Chief Designers and Keldysh. Korolev calls for them all to push together toward reaching the moon. The cosmonauts finally arrive at the cosmodrome at 17:30 and are driven through cheering crowds in Zvezdograd. In the hall of the hotel they give the first account of their mission.

1965 March 21 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena B 204D (AA14) / Agena B 6007 (AA14).
  • Ranger 9 - . Payload: RA-9. Mass: 366 kg (806 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Program: Ranger. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Ranger 6-7-8-9. Decay Date: 1965-03-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1294 . COSPAR: 1965-023A. Ranger 9, last of the series, returned 5814 images before lunar impact. The target was Alphonsus, a large crater about 12 degrees south of the lunar equator. The probe was timed to arrive when lighting conditions would be at their best. The Atlas- Agena B booster injected the Agena and Ranger 9 into an Earth parking orbit at 185 km altitude. A 90 second Agena 2nd burn put the spacecraft into lunar transfer trajectory. This was followed by the separation of the Agena and Ranger. The initial trajectory was highly accurate; uncorrected, the craft would have landed only 650 km north of Alphonsus. 70 minutes after launch the command was given to deploy solar panels, activate attitude control, and switch from the omni-directional antenna to the high-gain antenna. The accuracy of the initial trajectory enabled delay of the planned mid-course correction from 22 March to 23 March when the manoeuvre was initiated at 12:03 GMT. After orientation, a 31 second rocket burn at 12:30 GMT, and reorientation, the manoeuvre was completed at 13:30 GMT. Ranger 9 reached the Moon on 24 March 1965. At 13:31 GMT a terminal manoeuvre was executed to orient the spacecraft so the cameras were more in line with the flight direction to improve the resolution of the pictures. Twenty minutes before impact the one-minute camera system warm-up began. The first image was taken at 13:49:41 at an altitude of 2363 km. Transmission of 5,814 good contrast photographs was made during the final 19 minutes of flight. The final image taken before impact has a resolution of 0.3 meters. The spacecraft encountered the lunar surface with an incoming asymptotic direction at an angle of -5.6 degrees from the lunar equator. The orbit plane was inclined 15.6 degrees to the lunar equator. After 64.5 hours of flight, impact occurred at 14:08:19.994 GMT at approximately 12.83 S latitude, 357.63 E longitude in the crater Alphonsus. Impact velocity was 2.67 km/s. Millions of Americans followed the spacecraft's descent via real time television coverage provided to the three networks of many of the F-channel images (primarily camera B but also some camera A pictures) were provided for this flight.

    The pictures showed the rim and floor of the crater in fine detail: in those just prior to impact, objects less than a foot in size were discernible.

    A panel of scientists presented some preliminary conclusions from Ranger IX at a press conference that same afternoon. Crater rims and ridges inside the walls, they believed, were harder and smoother than the moon's dusty plains, and therefore were considered likely sites for future manned landings. Generally, the panel was dubious about landing on crater floors however. Apparently, the floors were solidified volcanic material incapable of supporting a spacecraft. Investigators believed several types of craters were seen that were of nonmeteoric origin. These findings reinforced arguments that the moon at one time had experienced volcanic activity. Later the images were shown to the press as a continuous-motion movie, leading astronaut Wally Schirra to yell ‘bail out you fool!’ just before the final frame.


1965 March 21 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. Launch Vehicle: Blue Streak. LV Configuration: Blue Streak F-3.
  • Blue Streak only. Successful. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1966 March 21 - .
  • House Committee recommended combining NASA's Apollo Applications Program with the Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: MOL; Apollo X. A report by the Military Operations Subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations recommended combining NASA's Apollo Applications Program with the Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory. 'Inasmuch as both programs are still research and development projects without definitive operational missions,' stated the Committee's report, 'there is reason to expect that with earnest efforts both agencies could get together on a joint program incorporating both unique and similar experiments of each agency.'

1966 March 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 569 (63-061).
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 March 21 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 113 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2114 . COSPAR: 1966-023A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 March 21 - . 23:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.109GI.
  • D-region composition Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; NDRE. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1967 March 21 - . 10:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC86/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 149 - . Payload: DS-MO s/n 1. Mass: 321 kg (707 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-MO. Completed Operations Date: 1967-04-08 . Decay Date: 1967-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2714 . COSPAR: 1967-024A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilisation and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments..

1968 March 21 - .
  • Apollo lunar landing research vehicle in operation - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LLRV. The lunar landing research vehicle was operating and training was being conducted, MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth wrote Langley Research Center's Acting Director Charles J. Donlan. MSC intended to conduct a second class for LLRV pilots and one of the first requirements for checkout was a familiarization program on Langley's Lunar Landing Research Facility. He requested that a program be conducted for not less than four nor more than six MSC pilots between April 15 and May 15.

1968 March 21 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena B046.
  • USAF B046 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1968 March 21 - . 06:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.63UE.
  • Auroral emissions Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1968 March 21 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 208 - . Payload: Zenit-2M. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3156 . COSPAR: 1968-022A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed high energy gamma ray experiment capsule. First flight of modernised Zenit-2 area survey reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3167 . COSPAR: 1968-022C. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.08 min.

1969 March 21 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 CRL AT3.756.
  • Auroral Input / Output Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1969 March 21 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 March 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1971 March 21 - .
  • DOS communications tests at Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1; Penguin. Due to problems with the electrical system aboard the station, the crews are unable to start their training aboard the actual station until 22:00. So after breakfast they work on their flight plans and logs and test the training suits to be used on this flight for the first time. This includes the Penguin suit which has elastic bands sewn into it to simulate the strain of gravity. At 17:00 the crews go to the MIK and start communications tests on the DOS. All proceeds normally. On the bus back, the crews discuss the new tracking ship Yuri Gagarin. It has a displacement of 45,000 tonnes and cost 120 million roubles. It will expand the time communications are possible with the ground during the long station flight.

1971 March 21 - . Launch Site: Hall Beach. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.125GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1971 March 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 33B. LV Configuration: Titan 33B 33B-1 (3B-36) / Ascent Agena D.
  • Jumpseat 1 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Jumpseat. USAF Sat Cat: 5053 . COSPAR: 1971-021A. Apogee: 33,800 km (21,000 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 596.70 min.

1972 March 21 - . 08:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 3. LV Configuration: Black Brant III AMF-3A-52.
  • Oxygen recombination Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1972 March 21 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 KP3.38.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: KPNO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1973 March 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.144GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1974 March 21 - . 04:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.29UE.
  • Auroral Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1974 March 21 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 March 21 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 720 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT Mod. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7696 . COSPAR: 1975-019A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 March 21 - .
  • Orbiter 1/4-scale model on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 March 21 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB AND-VB-44.
  • CMB spectrum Submillimeter radio astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 178 km (110 mi).

1978 March 21 - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.165GA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1979 March 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.33UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1979 March 21 - . 04:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47172-413.
  • Cosmos 1089 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 11308 . COSPAR: 1979-026A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite..

1979 March 21 - . 23:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Chilca. LV Family: Canopus. Launch Vehicle: Castor (A). FAILURE: Failure.
  • Spread F Barium release mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1980 March 21 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. Launch Pad: LC29/pad?. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TK PT-2.
  • Chevaline warhead test launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 March 21 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1983 March 21 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 635. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 March 21 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 635. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 March 21 - . 09:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Punta Lobos. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Taurus Tomahawk NASA 34.10UE.
  • Project Condor Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1984 March 21 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1545 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14849 . COSPAR: 1984-030A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1985 March 21 - . 00:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53734-134.
  • Cosmos 1635 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 281. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15617 . COSPAR: 1985-023A. Apogee: 1,513 km (940 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.80 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1640 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 286. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15622 . COSPAR: 1985-023F. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,427 km (886 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 1637 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 283. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15619 . COSPAR: 1985-023C. Apogee: 1,488 km (924 mi). Perigee: 1,465 km (910 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.50 min.
  • Cosmos 1638 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 284. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15620 . COSPAR: 1985-023D. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,456 km (904 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.
  • Cosmos 1636 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 282. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15618 . COSPAR: 1985-023B. Apogee: 1,494 km (928 mi). Perigee: 1,474 km (915 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.60 min.
  • Cosmos 1639 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 285. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15621 . COSPAR: 1985-023E. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 115.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1641 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 287. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15623 . COSPAR: 1985-023G. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 1642 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 288. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 15624 . COSPAR: 1985-023H. Apogee: 1,478 km (918 mi). Perigee: 1,399 km (869 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 114.60 min.

1986 March 21 - . LV Family: Energia. Launch Vehicle: Energia.
  • First Energia full thrust test - . Nation: USSR. Program: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. This was to be the first 20 second Energia main engine firing test. It was terminated at 2.58 seconds when the automatic control system detected a slow spool up of an engine turbine. In a the first attempt at a full-duration test helium leaks contaminated electro-hydraulic systems, leading to a situation where the tanks could not be drained. An engineering brigade had to work on the fuelled booster for 55 minutes, attach another helium tank, which led to successful de-fuelling of the vehicle.

1986 March 21 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1736 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1986-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 16806 . COSPAR: 1986-024B. Apogee: 995 km (618 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1987 March 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. Launch Vehicle: Peacekeeper. LV Configuration: Peacekeeper FTM-17.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C GL A19.427.
  • COPE II (POLAR ARC) Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 07:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Taurus Tomahawk NASA 34.14UE.
  • COPE II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.220UE.
  • COPE II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1988 March 21 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Pershing. Launch Vehicle: Pershing 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 March 21 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 734. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • PEM-1 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1990 March 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT139GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1992 March 21 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1993 March 21 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1994 March 21 - .
  • Teledesic cellular satellite system anounced by Gates/McCaw. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Teledesic. Summary: Cost was estimated at $ 9 billion for 840 Ka band low earth orbit satellites..

1995 March 21 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.120UE.
  • PIMS Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1996 March 21 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D3.
  • IRS-P3 - . Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23827 . COSPAR: 1996-017A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: LEO .

1997 March 21 - .
  • Mir News 351: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-3; Mir EO-23. Gradually the passes of Mir for our area shifted to the night hours, but nevertheless a lot of radio traffic could be monitored since the last Mir-report. This traffic revealed that the only system for the production of oxygen is the solid fuel oxygen generator. The crew co-ordinates the use of the so called 'shashki' (disks) with TsUP and daily abt 3 of those 'cartridges' are 'burnt'. In the beginning they still tried to activate the only operational Elektron to generate oxygen from 'technical' water, but possibly the gas-analysers reported that the quality of the production did not reach the desired standards and they had to stop these attempts. They seem to have enough 'shashki' until the arrival of new supplies but they cannot use all available cartridges. They got orders to refrain from the use of those produced in the years after the decay of the Soviet Union.

    Progress-M34: The launch of this badly needed freighter is on schedule for 6.04.1997. It is not sure whether or not spare parts (filters a.s.o.) are ready before that launch. The Progress-M34 will also have to deliver a new Antares transmitter for communications via the now only available Altair (nr. 2) satellite.

    Communications: The present position of Altair-2 is over 94 degrees East. For docking operations of Soyuz-TM ships and shuttles, but also for the communications during EVA-s and the morale of the crew a position more to West, for instance in the slot of Altair-1 (Cosmos-2054) would be more suitable.

    Movements control: On 19.03.1997 during the pass in orbit 63298, Tsibliyev reported a malfunction of an Omega angular rate sensor. At 0448 UTC the SUD (movements control system) showed a failure and the complex came in an inexplicable rotation. Apart from one the gyrodynes were still working, but obviously unable to correct the stations attitude. During the next pass (in orb. 63300, 0856-0906 UTC) the crew got orders to shut down the gyrodynes. The station came in a so called free drift and from there the attitude had to be corrected by steering jets. These events caused a decrease of electrical power due to bad orientation of the solar batteries towards the sun. So for some hours the crew had to restrain power consumption. Next day's radio traffic revealed that the situation was almost under control. The crew worked hard to make another Omega sensor operational and doing so they met a lot of problems with the deployment of cables.

    Jerry Linnenger: In contradiction to the beginning of his mission contacts of Jerry with the American consultative group at TsUP Moscow could not be monitored for some weeks.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1998 March 21 - .
  • China to Launch Lunar and Mars Probes - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Chinese Lunar Base. "China will actively participate in deep space exploration during the 21st century," said Mr Yuan Jiajun, vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Space Technology. China also planned to launch two astrophysical satellites into low earth orbit, one in equatorial orbit and another in polar orbit.

1998 March 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: VLS. Launch Vehicle: VS-40.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1999 March 21 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 388-01.
  • Asiasat 3S - . Payload: HS 601HP. Mass: 3,463 kg (7,634 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Asiasat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Asiasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25657 . COSPAR: 1999-013A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. A replacement for Asiasat 3, placed in the wrong orbit by a Proton launch in 1997, Asiasat 3S carried C and Ku band transponders. The Blok DM3 upper stage placed it a 9,677 km x 35,967 km x 13.1 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit. Asiasat's on-board R4D apogee engine was to be used to raise perigee to geostationary altitude. Mass in transfer orbit was 3,463 kg, down to 2,500 kg after insertion in geostationary orbit. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E from 1999. As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.52 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 105.46E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day.

2000 March 21 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V128 (505).
  • Asiastar - . Mass: 2,778 kg (6,124 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Worldspace. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Worldspace. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 26107 . COSPAR: 2000-016A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Direct Radio Broadcasting satelllite. First night launch of Ariane 5. Worldspace's second digital radio satellite. Joined Afristar in orbit with a mission of providing radio broadcasting to the developing world. Stationed at 105 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 104.96 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 104.99E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.
  • Insat 3B - . Mass: 2,778 kg (6,124 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26108 . COSPAR: 2000-016B. Apogee: 35,987 km (22,361 mi). Perigee: 35,931 km (22,326 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,444.90 min. Replaced the lost Insat 2D and carried a pure telecommunications payload of C, Ku and S band transponders. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 73 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 83.07 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 82.94E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2001 March 21 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135. LV Configuration: MT-135 R1119.
  • Last flight Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi). The Japan Meteorological Agency launched the 1119th MT-135P meteorological sounding rocket from the meteorological observation station in Sanriku-cho, Iwate-ken. This was the final launch of the type. The MT-135P had served for more than thirty years gathering meteorological data in the upper atmosphere since the first launching on July 15, 1970. IHI Aerospace Co., Ltd. has been responsible for design, development and manufacture of the MT-135P.

2001 March 21 - .
2002 March 21 - .
  • Death of Anatoli Pavlovich Fyodorov at Moscow, Russia. Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fyodorov. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992..

2002 March 21 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. Launch Complex: Fort Wingate LC96. Launch Vehicle: Hera. LV Configuration: Hera 21/MBRV-3.
  • PAC-3 OT/DT-1 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SSDC. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

2002 March 21 - . 20:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 678 / ISS-7P.
  • Progress M1-8 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 257. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 95.67 days. Decay Date: 2002-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 27395 . COSPAR: 2002-013A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 379 km (235 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. ISS Servicing mission. Launch delayed from February 15 and 28. The Progress M1-8 resupply spacecraft was flown on ISS mission 7P. It docked with the Zvezda module on the Station at 2058 UTC on March 24. Progress M1-8 undocked from the Zvezda module at 0826 UTC on June 25. The deorbit burn was at 1135 UTC, lowering its orbit from 379 x 398 km x 51.6 deg to 50 x 398 km. The spacecraft reentered over the Pacific at 1213 UTC with debris impact near 46 S 144 W.

2003 March 21 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #03-12 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Budarin; Pettit. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-6. Summary: Expedition 6 crewmembers on the International Space Station this week continued science investigations and made repairs and upgrades to their orbital home. They also studied plans for the second spacewalk of their mission.. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #03-12.

2007 March 21 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein OM. LV Family: Falcon. Launch Vehicle: Falcon 1. LV Configuration: Falcon 1 2. FAILURE: Liquid oxygen slosh in the second stage created an oscillation, putting the stage in an uncontrollable roll, starving the engine from propellant.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • DemoFlight 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. COSPAR: F20070321. An oscillation appeared in the upper stage control system 90 seconds into the burn. This instability grew and after 30 seconds induced a roll torque that exceeded the control capability of the second stage roll control thrusters. The propellants were centrifuged away from the outlets, causing flame-out of the Kestrel engine. LOX slosh was believed to be the primary contributor to this instability. Second stage slosh baffles would be included in future boosters to prevent reoccurence of the problem.

2007 March 21 - . 04:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minotaur. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur 2. LV Configuration: Minotaur 2 TLV-5.
  • FTX-02 SBR Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2008 March 21 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 03/21/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Behnken; Doi; Eyharts; Foreman; Love; Malenchenko; Reisman; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-2; ISS EO-16-3; STS-122; STS-123. STS-123-1J/A Flight Day (FD) 11/12.

    Crew sleep/wake cycle today: Sleep 5:00am -1:30pm; wake 1:30pm -4:00am tomorrow.

    EVA-4 was completed successfully by Bob Behnken & Mike Foreman in 6h 24m, accomplishing most of its objectives.
    During the spacewalk, Behnken (EV1) & Foreman (EV2) -

    Demonstrated an on-orbit heat shield repair technique using the T-RAD (Tile Repair Ablator Dispenser) to demonstrate an Orbiter tile repair DTO (Development Test Objective) in space. (The spacewalkers tested STA-54, a pink putty-like material consisting of two compounds that are mixed together in a pressure-driven applicator gun just before they exit the nozzle. With Foreman working the applicator, the test was completed nominally, and the test samples were stowed in the TSA (Tool Stowage Assembly in the Orbiter PLB (Payload Bay) for return and analysis; results looked good);
    Removed RPCM (Remote Power Controller Module) S02B-D on the S0 truss and replaced it with a new unit. (Since the RPCM controls CMG-2 (Control Moment Gyroscope #2), circuitry had to be powered down and the CMG-2 removed from the steering law beforehand. After the successful R&R, the spacewalkers attempted several times to reconfigure the Z1 patch panel, a pre-requisite for powering the new RPCM, but were unable to do so due to tough-to-reach connectors which could not be unmated. The patch panel reconfiguration currently remains incomplete, but there are no impacts to current operations);
    Inspected the Z1 truss toolbox for MMOD (Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris) damage and noticed several 'pits'. (Video imagery will be assessed by specialists);
    Released Node-2 Port ACBM (Active Common Berthing Mechanism) launch locks in preparation for berthing the JEM (Japanese Experiment Module) module 'Kibo' on Flight 1J next May;
    Removed the remaining SPDM OTCM-2 (Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator/ORU Tool Changeout Mechanism #2) thermal covers, reconfigured some of the wrist blankets and flaps, and inspected the Shoulder Roll joint of SPDM Arm #2 for possible MLI (Multi-Layered Insulation) interference. None was seen. (WVS (Wireless Video System) helmet cam video was also obtained for ground analysis.)
    Additionally, two get-ahead tasks were completed: Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 03/21/08.


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