Encyclopedia Astronautica
March 27


March 27 Chronology


1912 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Werner Sieber - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1913 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Ivanovich Nosov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Chief of launch command of Baikonur 1955-1958. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe..

1913 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Guenther Haukohl - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1943 March 27 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 3 flight 2. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: BI-1. Summary: Maximum Speed - 800 kph. Unofficial world speed record.The aircraft crashed into the ground, killing the pilot. Plans for production were abandoned. Rocketplane testing in the USSR only resumed with the testing of German designs after the war..

1943 March 27 - .
1944 March 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17019.
1945 March 27 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Mortsel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burgsteinfurt Site 117 (Strönfeld), rocket fired. Impacted Antwerpsestraat/Lieven Gevaetstraat, Mortsel, causing 23 casualties, 62 injured, 29 houses destroyed..

1953 March 27 - .
  • Ministry of Defence Industry created. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On renaming the Ministry of Armaments to the Ministry of Defence Industry' was issued..

1955 March 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1994T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 March 27 - .
  • Khrushchev becomes premier of Soviet Union as Bulganin resigns - . Nation: USSR.

1958 March 27 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • ARPA assigned space project role. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower; McElroy. President Eisenhower gave his approval to the plans for outer space exploration announced by Secretary of Defense Neil H. McElroy. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was to undertake several space projects including the launching of certain earth satellites and five space probes as a part of this country's contribution to the IGY program. The Air Force Ballistic Missile Division was authorized by ARPA to carry out three lunar probes with a Thor-Vanguard system, and lunar probes utilizing the Jupiter-C rocket were assigned to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.

1959 March 27 - .
  • Instructions for the marking of vehicles launched for the NASA. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Dr. T. Keith Glennan, the NASA Administrator, provided instructions for the marking of vehicles launched for the NASA, including the Mercury spacecraft. He stated that policy would be to paint UNITED STATES in bold block form..

1959 March 27 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 162.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1960 March 27 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 42.1 N x 179.7 E. Launch Platform: VOKV. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1961 March 27 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8. LV Configuration: Kappa 8 K-8-5.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1962 March 27 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.103CA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1963 March 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts Nelyubov, Anikeyev and Filatyev were arrested drunk and disorderly by the militia at Chkalovskiy station. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nelyubov; Anikeyev; Filatyev. This was not the first time. The VVS hierarchy wants them all dismissed from the cosmonaut corps. Gagarin says that only Filatyev should be fired. Kamanin would prefer to see all three go, but cannot afford to lose 25% of his flight-ready cosmonauts. He would hope to at least keep Nelyubov, who was a candidate for the third or fourth Vostok flights, but did not perform well on the centrifuge.

1963 March 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC32B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 419A.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 March 27 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-22. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude due to a loss of the power circuit of the pneumatic valves of the attitude control and stabilization system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 27 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 3. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 772 . COSPAR: 1964-014A. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-27..

1964 March 27 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-3. LV Configuration: Scout X-3 S127R.
  • Ariel 2 - . Payload: UK 2 (UK-C). Mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: DSIR. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Ariel. Decay Date: 1967-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 771 . COSPAR: 1964-015A. Apogee: 1,349 km (838 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1964 March 27 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.3 N x 114.9 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-45-72.
  • X-15A Optical Degradation Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 6158 kph. Maximum Altitude - 30937 m. Secret reconn camera test..

1965 March 27 - .
  • Test Series I on Apollo spacecraft 001 completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Test Series I on spacecraft 001 was completed at WSTF Propulsion Systems Development Facility. Vehicle and facility updating in progress consisted of activating the gimbal subsystem and installing a baffled injector and pneumatic engine propellant valve. The individual test operations were conducted satisfactorily, and data indicated that all subsystems operated normally. Total engine firing time was 765 seconds.

1965 March 27 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 12.2 S x 78.8 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.182GI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP27 - - Latitude: 12.18 S - Longitude: 78.75 W..

1965 March 27 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-9.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi).

1965 March 27 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 14.0 S x 77.8 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.175GE.
  • B field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP28 - - Latitude: 14.00 S - Longitude: 77.83 W..

1966 March 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-38. FAILURE: The booster failed during ascent. The launcher and payload broke up on impact with the ground.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Molniya-1 s/n 5 Failure - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 5. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. COSPAR: F660327A.

1966 March 27 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.165IM.
  • Rehbar 12 (Grenades) Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1967 March 27 - .
  • Engineers and scientists to be allowed to become cosmonauts. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 270-105 'On Preparation of Cosmonaut-Testers and Cosmonaut Researchers --formation of group of research and test-cosmonauts to support future missions' was issued..

1967 March 27 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.28UE.
  • UNH neutrons Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1968 March 27 - .
  • Death of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin at Novoselovo, Russia. Crash of MiG-15 trainer. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Gagarin is killed together with instructor pilot Sergin on a flight in a UTI MiG-15 trainer. Gagarin was being requalified as a jet pilot after being denied flight status by the leadership for a long time. At that time the mean flight hours between fatal accidents hours for Soviet jet fighters were: MiG-15, 18,440 hours; MiG-17, 11,460 hours; MiG-19, 4,475 hours; MiG-21, 4,422 hours; Su-7, 2,245 hours; Su-11, 2,100 hours. Gagarin's UTI MiG-15 s/n 612739 was built at the Vodokhod factory in Czechoslovakia and delivered on 19 March 1956. It had a 2100 hour airframe life, and had flown 1113 hours. It had two overhauls to date: one on 13 July 1962, after 13,834 'mil' hours, and the second on 30 March 1967, after 36,986 'mil' hours. It should have had a 500 hour life after the second overhaul, had flown only 62 hours since then, and had 438 hours left.

1968 March 27 - .
  • Vulkan Engineering Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Fartushny. Summary: The group was selected to provide engineer to operate Vulkan space welding system..

1968 March 27 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5B. LV Configuration: Black Brant VB AAF-VB-04.
  • Auroral fluxes Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1968 March 27 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 2B. LV Configuration: Dragon 2B D-252.
  • FU-171 VLF / Ions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1968 March 27 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1969 March 27 - .
  • Gagarin remembered - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin. Summary: Day of remembrance of Gagarin on the anniversary of his death in a plan crash..

1969 March 27 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: UK S23. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3E-667.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 March 27 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena V138D.
  • ARPA V138D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 March 27 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 240-01. FAILURE: T+51s payload shroud failed. Second stage continued but third stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: S.
  • M-69 s/n 521 - . Payload: M-69 s/n 521. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-69. Decay Date: 1969-03-27 . COSPAR: F690327A. Summary: Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars, together with a landing probe..

1969 March 27 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 27 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 March 27 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur SLV-3C. LV Configuration: SLV-3C Centaur AC-19 / Centaur D-1A 5105C.
  • Mariner 7 - . Payload: Mariner 69-2. Mass: 412 kg (908 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Program: Mariner. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mariner 6-7. USAF Sat Cat: 3837 . COSPAR: 1969-030A. Mars flyby 5 August 1969; returned 126 images of Martian surface. Mariner 7 was launched on a direct-ascent trajectory to Mars 31 days after Mariner 6. On 8 April 1969 a midcourse correction was made by firing the hydrazine moter for 7.6 seconds. On 8 May Mariner 7 was put on gyro control to avoid attitude control problems which were affecting Mariner 6. On 31 July telemetry from Mariner 7 was suddenly lost and the spacecraft was commanded to switch to the low-gain antenna. It was later successfully switched back to the high-gain antenna. It was thought that leaking gases, perhaps from the battery which later failed a few days before encounter, had caused the anomaly.

    At 09:32:33 GMT on 2 August 1969 Mariner 7 bagan the far-encounter sequence involving imaging of Mars with the narrow angle camera. Over the next 57 hours, ending about 5 hours before closest approach, 93 images of Mars were taken and transmitted. The spacecraft was reprogrammed as a result of analysis of Mariner 6 images. The new sequence called for the spacecraft to go further south than originally planned, take more near-encounter pictures, and collect more scientific data on the lighted side of Mars. Data from the dark side of Mars were to be transmitted directly back to Earth but there would be no room on the digital recorder for backup due to the added dayside data. At closest approach, 05:00:49 GMT on 5 August, Mariner 7 was 3430 km above the martian surface. Over this period, 33 near-encounter images were taken. About 19 minutes after the flyby, the spacecraft went behind Mars and emerged roughly 30 minutes later. X-band occultation data were taken during the entrance and exit phases. Science and imaging data were played back and transmitted over the next few days. The spacecraft was then returned to cruise mode which included engineering and communications tests, star photography TV tests, and UV scans of the Milky Way and an area containing comet 1969-B. Periodic tracking of the spacecraft in its heliocentric orbit was also done.

    Science Results

    The total data return for Mariners 6 and 7 was 800 million bits. Mariner 7 returned 93 far and 33 near encounter images. Close-ups from the near encounter phases covered 20% of the surface. The spacecraft instruments measured UV and IR emissions and radio refractivity of the Martian atmosphere. Images showed the surface of Mars to be very different from that of the Moon, in some contrast to the results from Mariner 4. The south polar cap was identified as being composed predominantly of carbon dioxide. Atmospheric surface pressure was estimated at between 6 and 7 mb. Radio science refined estimates of the mass, radius and shape of Mars.


1970 March 27 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.405IE/II.
  • ISRO 10.36 Plasma / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1970 March 27 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LE1. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DSV-2J. LV Configuration: Thor DSV-2J 152.
  • AFP-437 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,074 km (667 mi).

1970 March 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 328 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4355 . COSPAR: 1970-022A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 March 27 - . 13:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas 2 NASA 15.64UE.
  • ISRO-12.05 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1971 March 27 - .
  • Gagarin exhibit at Space City Museum. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: t is three years since Gagarin's death. Exhibits at the space centre museum commemorating the cosmonaut include Vostok spacecraft and MiG-15UTI aircraft of the types he flew; three automobiles he owned; films, etc..

1971 March 27 - . 02:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NRL NB3.245.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 March 27 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 401 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5086 . COSPAR: 1971-023A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 27 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1972 March 27 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 8 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 670. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1972-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5912 . COSPAR: 1972-021A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Venus atmospheric probe. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. Descent speed was reduced from 41,696 km/hr to about 900 km/hr by aerobraking. The 2.5 meter diameter parachute opened at an altitude of 60 km, and a refrigeration system was used to cool the interior components. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing. The probe confirmed the earlier data on the high Venus surface temperature and pressure returned by Venera 7, and also measured the light level as being suitable for surface photography, finding it to be similar to the amount of light on Earth on an overcast day.

1972 March 27 - . 10:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Nike Javelin.
  • Cs cloud Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Wallops. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1973 March 27 - .
1973 March 27 - .
  • Almaz Engineer Cosmonaut Training Group 2 selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Yuyukov. Summary: The group was selected to provide flight engineers for planned Almaz military space station missions..

1973 March 27 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.205-1.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1973 March 27 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Paiute Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Paiute Tomahawk CRL A10.216-3.
  • ICECAP 73B Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi).

1973 March 27 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.146GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1974 March 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Columbia fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 March 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 722 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7709 . COSPAR: 1975-021A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 27 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-268.
  • Intercosmos 13 - . Payload: DS-U2-IK s/n 5. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Program: DS. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-IK. Completed Operations Date: 1975-06-21 . Decay Date: 1980-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7710 . COSPAR: 1975-022A. Apogee: 1,689 km (1,049 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Summary: Upper atmospheric experiments. Study of dynamic processes in the earth's magnetosphere and polar ionosphere and investigation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves..

1976 March 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena SAMSO-38.
  • ABRES Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF; Sandia. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1976 March 27 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.176GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1976 March 27 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.194GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1977 March 27 - . 03:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-210. LV Configuration: S-210JA-28.
  • NO / O3 / Ne Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1978 March 27 - . 10:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.215GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

1979 March 27 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHOK. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 March 27 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 PVM-19.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1980 March 27 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65098-311.
  • Cosmos 1169 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-1. Decay Date: 1983-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11741 . COSPAR: 1980-023A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 466 km (289 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..

1980 March 27 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 8 - . Payload: Progress s/n 108. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 29.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . Decay Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11743 . COSPAR: 1980-024A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Mar 1980 20:01:00 GMT. Undocked on 25 Apr 1980 08:04:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Apr 1980 06:54:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.0 days. Total docked time 26.50 days.

1981 March 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1982 March 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1985 March 27 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.98UL.
  • Auroral Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1986 March 27 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1987 March 27 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1989 March 27 - .
  • Contact lost with Phobos 2 probe - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and entered Mars orbit on January 29, 1989. Contact with the vehicle was lost on March 27, 1989 shortly before the final phase of the mission during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 meters of Phobos' surface and release its two landers. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.

1990 March 27 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2063 - . Payload: Oko #62. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20536 . COSPAR: 1990-026A. Apogee: 35,210 km (21,870 mi). Perigee: 5,329 km (3,311 mi). Inclination: 67.8000 deg. Period: 721.50 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 317 degree longitude of ascending node..

1991 March 27 - . 22:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1992 March 27 - .
  • Death of James E Webb at Washington, DC. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Summary: American manager, NASA Adminstrator 1961-1968. A savvy political operator and manager, he was singularly responsible for NASA being able to achieve the goal of landing a man on the moon by 1970..

1992 March 27 - . 07:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Zingst. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • MMR06-M Zingst launch 58 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi). Summary: Successful. Earth impacted at 4317 seconds. Reached 72.9 km. .

1995 March 27 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion NASA 31.113UU.
  • CWAS 38 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1996 March 27 - . 06:34 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-76-1 - . Crew: Godwin; Clifford. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Godwin; Clifford. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-76; Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Attached MEEP materials exposure experiment to outside of Mir (retrieved on STS-86)..

1997 March 27 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: TK-20?. LV Family: R-39. Launch Vehicle: Rif.
  • Arms control - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1998 March 27 - .
  • Mir News 414: Mir-routine - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Progress-M38 has been regularly used to support the attitude control of the Mir-complex. The crew had to cope with problems with the a.c. (BKV-3) and a cooling loop. The Elektron oxygen generator in the Kvant-1 module could not be used continuously due to a power supply problem. The crew accomplished the repair of the BMP (trace contaminants removal unit).

    The crew asked TsUP to reduce the number of communication sessions via VHF channels, for instance those via the tracking stations in the USA. They regularly had to interrupt their activities in other modules and had to go to the Central Post. They preferred to have not more than 1 session every 3 hours. The head of TsUP, Solovyov, who was about to go on leave, had another opinion. Possibly there is a compromise: the facilities in the USA (Wallops, White Sands and Dryden) might mainly be used by Andy Thomas.

    During a lot of long TV-sessions via Altair-2 much attention was dedicated to the 2nd anniversary of the permanent presence of an American astronaut on board Mir. There also was a session with Spain in which the crew congratulated BMW. Musabayev said that he would be very pleased to take a seat behind the steering wheel of one of their new models.

    There have been a lot of extensive medical checks, for instance E.C.G.-s during physical exercises. Musabayev told TsUP where he and Budarin use to sleep: Budarin near the porthole at the end of module Priroda, which also was the sleeping place of Vinogradov. M. himself sleeps in his cabin in the Base Block, but when it is too hot over there he moves to the SO (docking compartment) of module Kristall.

    Musabayev now and then presses TsUP to review the work planning. In a conversation with TsUP Budarin said the complex is used below its value. This is irritating for the crew: things have not been completed in time.

    Forthcoming spacewalks (EVA's):

    The first EVA will take place on 1.04.1998 between 1320 and 1910 UTC. To be sure that the hatch can be opened without problems Musabayev and Budarin will have to accomplish repair works on the locks of the hatch. If all went according to plan they did this today (Friday, 27.03.1998). The 2nd and 3rd EVA are provisionally planned for 6 and 11.04.1998.

    Some remarks:

    1. The present bad health of my wife might have a negative effect on my monitoring and reporting of Mir-operations in the near future.

    2. A number of my E-mail relations still use my old E-mail address. Thus far E-mails with the old address seem to reach me, but this will not last for ever. So please, if you still use that old address correct this in: cmvdberg@wxs.nl

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1999 March 27 - .
  • Death of Bernhardt L Dorman - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dorman. Summary: Jewish-American engineer. Key Aerojet employee, 1943-1972..

2000 March 27 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-18. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil.
  • (Kura) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Three launches in one day from two submarines..

2000 March 27 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-18. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 March 27 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 TEXUS 37.
  • TEXUS 37 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.206UE.
  • JOULE Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC1. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.131UE.
  • JOULE Auroral/release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC2. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion Improved. LV Configuration: Terrier Improved Orion NASA 41.029UE.
  • JOULE Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

2004 March 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-05.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 28194 . COSPAR: 2004-010A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Military communications satellite. Parked in geostationary orbit at 85.0 deg E, after being placed in unusual subsynchronous drift orbit. Original name Cosmos 2406. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.19E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day..

2004 March 27 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Hyper X. LV Configuration: Hyper X 2.
  • X-43A-2 (Hyper X) - . Nation: USA. Agency: OSC. Apogee: 29 km (18 mi). The second X-43 launch incorporated modifications to the first flight vehicle, including an upgraded control system, redesigned autopilot, off-loaded rocket motor, and improved analytical models. The second flight was launched at 12,200 m instead of the 7600 m altitude of the failed first launch to reduce transonic aerodynamic loads and improve structural and control system margins. An offloaded Orion 50S solid rocket motor reduced maximum dynamic pressure during the flight.

2008 March 27 - . 00:39 GMT - .
2008 March 27 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 11K65M-SL.
  • SAR-Lupe 4 - . Mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 32750 . COSPAR: 2008-014A. Apogee: 502 km (311 mi). Perigee: 471 km (292 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: Fourth of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg, same plane as SAR-Lupe 1..

2010 March 27 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Prithvi. Launch Vehicle: Dhanush.
  • RV - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test launch.

2010 March 27 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Prithvi. Launch Vehicle: Prithvi.
  • RV - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Test launch.

2010 March 27 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA1. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute.
  • NASA 12.067GT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Summary: Test launch.

2010 March 27 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Agni. Launch Vehicle: Agni 1.
  • Agni RV - . Nation: India. Agency: IDRDL. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Test launch.

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