Encyclopedia Astronautica
October 20


October 20 Chronology


1911 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Willi Mrazek - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville..

1914 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Kurt A Lindner - . Nation: Czech Republic; . Summary: German-American engineer. Member of the von Braun's Rocket Team, became director of the Guidance and Control Laboratory of the Research and Development Division at Huntsville..

1916 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Martin Summerfield - . Nation: USA. Summary: American scientist. Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet in 1943; American inventor of regenerative cooling for liquid rocket engines. Left in 1944 for theoretical studies and academia, teaching at Princetone 1949-1994..

1944 October 20 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1945 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Ivanovich Kozlov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996..

1947 October 20 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 04T.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Summary: Range achieved 231.4 km. Tore loose from launch stand; flew 180 km left of planned target..

1951 October 20 - . LV Family: R-11; R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-3; R-3A.
  • MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. - . Nation: USSR. The R-3 3000 km range missile and R-3A subscale technology demonstrator were cancelled. As a replacement work was to start on the R-5 and R-11. The missiles originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - road-mobile or sub-launched missiles of shorter range with lighter warheads that could be launched from forward areas and reach enemy targets.

1953 October 20 - .
  • Test Pilot Walter P. Jones dies at age of 29 -- Crash of the YF-89D prototype interceptor - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jones, Walter. Summary: American test pilot, flew the D-558-1, D-558-2, X-4, and X-5..

1953 October 20 - .
1953 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 620.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 20 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun N-C 13.
  • UM AM6.31 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1957 October 20 - . Launch Site: Eniwetok. Launch Platform: Balloon. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Farside.
  • Shot 5 Test/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 5,000 km (3,100 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 2.5 S x 161.4 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. LV Configuration: Loki Rockoon SUI 88.
  • II5.64F Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 2.8 S x 161.5 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. LV Configuration: Loki Rockoon SUI 89.
  • II5.65F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 20 - . 20:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 6.6 S x 162.2 W. Launch Platform: AGB-4. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Loki Rockoon. LV Configuration: Loki Rockoon SUI 90.
  • II5.66F Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 October 20 - . 22:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun ABM6.207.
  • Ionospheric Te Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1959 October 20 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee AJ10-34. LV Configuration: Aerobee AJ10-34 AA2.240C.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1960 October 20 - . Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • DF-1 launch preparations - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Summary: Tsien goes to Jiuquan to supervise preparations for launch of the first Chinese-built R-2..

1960 October 20 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. LV Configuration: Jupiter IRBM CM-217.
  • LST test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Jupiter missile Live System Test 217, the first to be fired under simulated tactical conditions using GSE prescribed for the Jupiter deployed to NATO I, was fired from AMR at 1102 hours EST. The missile successfully accomplished all primary and secondary missions. The nose cone impacted 1.1 nm over and 0.2 nm right of the pre-determined target 962.5 nm downrange.

1960 October 20 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmdale Omni DZ. Launch Pad: 34.7 N x 118.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-14-27.
  • X-15A Stability/Control test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 16 km (9 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 2059 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16398 m..

1961 October 20 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • R-16 accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-16 into armaments' was issued..

1961 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kola Peninsula Launch Area. Launch Pad: 70.0 N x 40.0 E. Launch Platform: ZULUV?. Launch Vehicle: R-13.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 October 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1.
  • Cosmos 11 - . Payload: DS-A1 s/n 1. Mass: 315 kg (694 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: DS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DS-A1. Completed Operations Date: 1962-10-28 . Decay Date: 1964-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 441 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Theta-1. Apogee: 858 km (533 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 48.9000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Carried military experiments to test communications and navigation equipment needed for command and control of Soviet nuclear forces (later used on the Uragan navigation satellites). Also conducted operational monitoring of cosmic rays, radiation from nuclear tests, and natural and artifically-produced radiation belts.

1962 October 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Castor-Recruit.
  • CHECKMATE Nuclear test - . Nation: USA. Agency: AEC. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi). Test of the Los Alamos XW-50X1 60 kiloton nuclear warhead. Launch vehicle was a solid propellant XM-33 Strypi rocket with a Recruit booster stage. The warhead detonated at an altitude of 147 km, 66 km from Johnston Island. Observers on the island saw a green and blue circular region surrounded by a red ring. This faded in less than a minute. Blue-green streamers and pink striations developed that lasted half an hour. At this yield, even with the high altitude, extensive disruption of communications were not reported.

1963 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Julie Payette - . Nation: Canada. Summary: Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-127. Engineer. Second Canadian female astronaut..

1964 October 20 - .
  • Cosmonaut meeting at OKB-1 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Yegorov; Feoktistov; Korolev; Keldysh; Tyulin; Mozzhorin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The traditional meeting with the crew is followed by a smaller group in Korolev's office. Numerous toasts are drunk to the crew, to future victories in space, and... "on to the moon". From 18:00 to 20:00 the cosmonauts are prepared by Keldysh, Tyulin, Pashkov, Skuridin, Mozzhorin, Rumyanets, and others in allowable answers for the next day's press conference. Kamanin wants the crew to be free to answer questions about the physical characteristics of the booster and spacecraft (thrust, weight, dimensions, and so on) but Keldysh and Tyulin prohibit it strongly.

1964 October 20 - .
  • Final UR-200 launch. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Kosmoplan. Summary: The rocket had already been cancelled after the fall of Khrushchev..

1964 October 20 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 October 20 - . 02:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,129 km (701 mi).

1965 October 20 - . LV Family: UR-700. Launch Vehicle: UR-700.
  • Draft project work on UR-700/LK-700 approved. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: LK-700. Summary: Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On approval of work on the draft project of the UR-700/LK-700 lunar complex' was issued..

1965 October 20 - .
  • First coordination meeting on the S-IVB Orbital Workshop and related Apollo Applications Program activities. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab; MORL. MSC and MSFC program officials and engineers held their first coordination meeting on the S-IVB Orbital Workshop and related Apollo Applications Program experiment activities. Among the most significant results of this meeting was a request by Houston for inclusion of an artificial gravity experiment as part of the S-IVB command and service module concept of the Workshop. MSFC officials undertook to define the feasibility of such an experiment, examining several possible technical approaches (including cables a concept that MSC found less shall appealing). MSFC investigators also sought help from LaRC, where considerable work along this line had been done as part of that Center's MORL study program.

1965 October 20 - .
  • NASA accepted first flight Apollo spacecraft 009 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Apollo spacecraft 009, first of the type that would carry three astronauts to the moon and back, was accepted by NASA during informal ceremonies at North American. Spacecraft 009 included a CM, SM, launch escape system, and adapter. It went to Cape Canaveral for integration with the first Saturn IB (Saturn IB and SIVB stages received August 1965). The spacecraft was stacked on the launch vehicle on 26 December.

1965 October 20 - .
  • Leonov and Belyayev accused - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Belyayev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Representatives from the Central Committee believe that, when Leonov and Belyayev discussed their spacewalk with US representatives visiting Moscow, this was used by the Americans to accelerate preparations for their own spacewalk from Gemini 4..

1965 October 20 - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier/551. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Flight test 1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NMC. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1965 October 20 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC SL306.
  • LUX Solar AC4 Solar x-ray and ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1965 October 20 - . 18:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-33.
  • Power Box - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Summary: Operational missile test. Some lists give launch date as 10 October..

1965 October 20 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.146DS.
  • Comet study / Solar Ultraviolet astronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-2 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Palma-2 operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 20 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8. LV Configuration: Kappa 8 K-8-14.
  • Ionosphere / fields / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 191 km (118 mi).

1966 October 20 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-40.
  • Molniya 1-04 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2501 . COSPAR: 1966-092A. Apogee: 39,689 km (24,661 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 714.40 min. Summary: Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons..

1966 October 20 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-20.
  • Gyro-plasma probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi).

1966 October 20 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-04.
  • Cosmos 130 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2502 . COSPAR: 1966-093A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 October 20 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1967 October 20 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC157. Launch Vehicle: RT-20P. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Mobile launcher test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 October 20 - . 10:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Resolute Bay. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 3. LV Configuration: Black Brant III AKF-3-26.
  • Ionosphere / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1968 October 20 - .
  • Soyuz 2/3 QA coordination issues. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei; Ustinov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Coordination problems between the ministries in preparation of the Soyuz spacecraft. VVS and MAP have managers assigned for quality control of each system, while MOM (Afanasyev) counterpart staff are disorganised. Yet again conflicts have to be appealed to 'Cardinal' Ustinov.

1968 October 20 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 249 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1968-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3504 . COSPAR: 1968-091A. Apogee: 2,075 km (1,289 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 111.30 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 248 target on second orbit. Repeatedly approached Cosmos 248, verifying primary and reserve homing and guidance systems. Destroyed itself in test of on-board destruct system. Counted as a failure by Western observers because that target was not destroyed; but this was not an objective of the test. Left 109 fragments in orbit, of which 54 were still in orbit in 1996.

1969 October 20 - .
  • Weight loss of Soyuz 6-7-8 crew - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Shonin; Kubasov; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov; Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. The medical reports show all the cosmonauts lost 1.5 to 3.5 kg during the flight (with Filipchenko having the greatest loss). However Kamanin plays tennis with Gorbatko, Shonin, and Volkov just two days after the flight. They show no apparent ill effects of zero-G.

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 609. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 20 - . 07:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC SL586.
  • UK SL586 test - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1970 October 20 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 373 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1980-03-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4590 . COSPAR: 1970-087A. Apogee: 1,103 km (685 mi). Perigee: 510 km (310 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Summary: ASAT target. Maneuvered twice to provide target for Cosmos 374 and 375 interceptors..

1970 October 20 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 250-01.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.

1971 October 20 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S89.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 STM-3W.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 October 20 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT110M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 October 20 - . 12:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC14. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-29.
  • LRL ACS-4D X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi).

1973 October 20 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 602 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6885 . COSPAR: 1973-077A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 20 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL A07.105-3.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1975 October 20 - . 13:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1976 October 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1977 October 20 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: KRENKEL'. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1978 October 20 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1979 October 20 - . 07:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-45 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1994-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11589 . COSPAR: 1979-091A. Apogee: 39,615 km (24,615 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 61.7000 deg. Period: 704.70 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1980 October 20 - . 13:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC43. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1981 October 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1982 October 20 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 312-01.
  • Gorizont 6 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 16L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 13624 . COSPAR: 1982-103A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 12.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.60 min. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1982-1984; 140 deg E in 1984-1988; 170 deg W in 1988-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.17 deg W drifting at 0.179 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 146.19W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.

1983 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-11 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 October 20 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 18 - . Payload: Progress s/n 118. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 26.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1983-11-16 04:17:55 . Decay Date: 1983-11-16 04:17:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 14422 . COSPAR: 1983-106A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 22 Oct 1983 11:34:00 GMT. Boosted Salyut to 326 X 356 orbit on 4 Nov 1983. Undocked on 13 Nov 1983 03:08:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Nov 1983 04:18:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.11 days. Total docked time 21.65 days.

1986 October 20 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 3-30 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 41. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1999-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 17038 . COSPAR: 1986-079A. Apogee: 38,570 km (23,960 mi). Perigee: 1,742 km (1,082 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 716.90 min. Replaced Molniya 3-21. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.

1987 October 20 - . 09:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1892 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 63. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 18421 . COSPAR: 1987-088A. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 595 km (369 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.90 min.

1988 October 20 - . 05:59 GMT - .
1988 October 20 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 339-01.
  • Raduga 22 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 34L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19596 . COSPAR: 1988-095A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Stationed at 35 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 34 deg E in 1988-1992; 12 deg E in 1992-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.88 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 67.55E drifting at 0.412W degrees per day.

1988 October 20 - . 20:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.49UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1989 October 20 - . 21:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1990 October 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute SDIO.
  • Firefly 2 Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 456 km (283 mi).

1992 October 20 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2211 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 75. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22182 . COSPAR: 1992-068A. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,402 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 113.90 min. Summary: Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2215 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 79. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22186 . COSPAR: 1992-068E. Apogee: 1,429 km (887 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2216 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 80. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22187 . COSPAR: 1992-068F. Apogee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2214 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 78. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22185 . COSPAR: 1992-068D. Apogee: 1,423 km (884 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2213 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 77. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22184 . COSPAR: 1992-068C. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2212 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 76. Mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22183 . COSPAR: 1992-068B. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.

1993 October 20 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R868.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1995 October 20 - . 11:50 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-20-1 - . Crew: Avdeyev; Reiter. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Reiter. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Sample cassettes installed in ESEF (European Science Exposure Facility)..

1995 October 20 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-73.
  • STS-73 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bowersox; Coleman; Leslie; Lopez-Alegria; Rominger; Sacco; Thornton. Payload: Columbia F18 / Spacelab LM / EDO. Mass: 15,250 kg (33,620 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Coleman; Leslie; Lopez-Alegria; Rominger; Sacco; Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-73. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.91 days. Decay Date: 1995-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 23688 . COSPAR: 1995-056A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia). Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)..
  • EDO - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1995-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 23688 . COSPAR: 1995-056xx. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • Spacelab USML-2 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1995-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 23688 . COSPAR: 1995-056xx. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

1996 October 20 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-3 (43).
  • FSW-2 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 03. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 24634 . COSPAR: 1996-059A. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi). Perigee: 121 km (75 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 87.00 min. Summary: Final launch in the FSW series. Landed in China on November 4 after 15 days in orbit..

1997 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - .
1998 October 20 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-130.
  • USA 140 - . Payload: UHF F/O F9. Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: UHF. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25501 . COSPAR: 1998-058A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 3.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. The orbit at burnout of the Centaur was 286 km x 25866 km x 27.0 degree. Modification of the orbit to a geostationary 38,300 km circular x 0.0 degree inclination was accomplished by the Marquardt R-4D liquid propellant motor on the HS-601 spacecraft. The satellite carried UHF and EHF transponders for naval communications, and a Ka-band Global Broadcast Service video relay package. Launch mass of 3200 kg dropped to 1550 kg once geostationary orbit was reached. UHF F/O F9 was placed over the Atlantic Ocean in geosynchronous orbit at 174 deg W in 1998; 22 deg W in 1999. Additional Details: USA 140.

1999 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/2. Launch Pad: LC175/pad?. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 October 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-140 MLV-9.
  • USA 153 - . Payload: DSCS III B-11. Mass: 1,235 kg (2,722 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 26575 . COSPAR: 2000-065A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Military Communications satellite. Launch delayed from October 12 by spacecraft problem. The US Air Force Defense Satellite Communications System satellite was placed by the Centaur upper stage into a 148 km x 898 km x 29.3 deg parking orbit. A second burn put it into a 218 km x 35,232 km x 26.0 deg transfer orbit. The DSCS III B-11 IABS-8 apogee stage, with two Primex R4D liquid apogee engines, circularised the orbit at geostationary altitude on October 21 and then separated from the DSCS.

2003 October 20 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #03-53 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duque; Foale; Kaleri; Lu; Malenchenko. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS Cervantes; ISS EO-8. New residents arrived at the International Space Station Monday with the ISS Soyuz 7 spacecraft docking to the Station at 2:16 a.m. CDT (0716 GMT, 11:16am Moscow time). The arrival of Expedition 8 and a European Space Agency visiting researcher initiated a week of intense science operations and handover activities for the newest station crew, which will stay aboard the complex for nearly 200 days. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #03-53.

2004 October 20 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: Shahab. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 3.
  • - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: Missile demonstration flight. Stretched Shahab-3 launched into Dasht-E-Kavir desert..

2005 October 20 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/2. Launch Pad: LC175/pad?. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: UR-100NU.
  • OT Kura - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2006 October 20 - .
2007 October 20 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat Ts15000-022.
  • Globalstar FM66 - . Mass: 450 kg (990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 32266 . COSPAR: 2007-048A. Apogee: 932 km (579 mi). Perigee: 914 km (567 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 103.50 min. Summary: Last of the first generation Globalstar satellites, launched to replenish the constellation. The Fregat stage made three burns to deploy the satellites into circular orbit, and then deorbit itself to a reentry over the Pacific Ocean..
  • Globalstar FM67 - . Mass: 450 kg (990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 32265 . COSPAR: 2007-048B. Apogee: 935 km (580 mi). Perigee: 925 km (574 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 103.60 min.
  • Globalstar FM68 - . Mass: 450 kg (990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 32264 . COSPAR: 2007-048C. Apogee: 930 km (570 mi). Perigee: 915 km (568 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 103.50 min.
  • Globalstar FM70 - . Mass: 450 kg (990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Globalstar. Manufacturer: Palo Alto. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Globalstar. USAF Sat Cat: 32263 . COSPAR: 2007-048D. Apogee: 931 km (578 mi). Perigee: 911 km (566 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 103.40 min.

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