Encyclopedia Astronautica
October 25


October 25 Chronology


1671 October 25 - .
  • Giovanni Cassini's Discovery of Saturn Moon Iapetus - . Nation: Italy.

1911 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher,.

1924 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Petrovich Makeyev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles..

1932 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Dr Lev Nikolayevich Smirenny - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1986. Medical Doctor. Graduated from Moscow Physical-Engineering Institute, 1956. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Chief of a laboratory at IMBP..

1935 October 25 - .
1943 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-069.
  • V-2 4069 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+63 seconds. Flight duration 286 seconds..

1944 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-257.
1945 October 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wac. Launch Vehicle: WAC A. LV Configuration: WAC A 9.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: Night launch, the nose failed to eject. Last development flight..

1945 October 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Wac. Launch Vehicle: WAC A. LV Configuration: WAC A 10.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA OR. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: Emergency launch when the parachute igniter fired..

1950 October 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. LV Configuration: Lark 225.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi). Summary: The first Lark missile launched by Air Force from Cape Canaveral, the last of the three missiles launched in 1950 at the LRPG..

1954 October 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 813M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 October 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 4 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-2 . Summary: Aborted powered flight attempt; became 4th glide flight..

1956 October 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17. LV Configuration: X-17 R-12 4203-12.
  • Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1957 October 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike.
  • GE RV Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1957 October 25 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 October 25 - .
  • Stever Committee report on the civilian space program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. The Stever Committee, which had been set up on January 12, submitted its report on the civilian space program to NASA. Among the recommendations:
    • A vigorous, coordinated attack should be made upon the problems of maintaining the performance capabilities of man in the space environment as a prerequisite to sophisticated space exploration.
    • Sustained support should be given to a comprehensive instrumentation development program, establishment of versatile dynamic flight simulators, and provision of a coordinated series of vehicles for testing components and subsystems.
    • Serious study should be made of an equatorial launch capability.
    • Lifting reentry vehicles should be developed.
    • Both the clustered- and single-engine boosters of million-pound thrust should be developed.
    • Research on high-energy propellant systems for launch vehicle upper stages should receive full support.
    • The performance capabilities of various combinations of existing boosters and upper stages should be evaluated, and intensive development concentrated on those promising greatest usefulness in different categories of payload.

1958 October 25 - . 19:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300 AA10.02.
  • Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi).

1959 October 25 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267434.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 October 25 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300 AA10.184C.
  • Utah ne probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi).

1960 October 25 - .
  • Saturn flight schedule plans - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Included in the current Saturn flight schedule were: mid-1961, begin first-stage flights with dummy upper stages; early 1963, begin two-stage flights; late 1963, begin three-stage flights; early 1964, conclude ten-vehicle research and development flight test program.

1960 October 25 - .
  • Convair, General Electric, and Martin selected to prepare Apollo spacecraft feasibility studies - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. NASA selected three contractors to prepare individual feasibility studies of an advanced manned spacecraft as part of Project Apollo. The contractors were Convair/Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation, General Electric Company, and The Martin Company.

1960 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Marianne Merchez - . Nation: Belgium. Summary: Belgian physician cosmonaut, 1992-1995. Was married to astronaut Maurizio Cheli..

1960 October 25 - .
  • Apollo Initial Study Contracts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: From 16 bids, Convair, General Electric, and Martin selected to conduct $250,000 study contracts. Meanwhile Space Task Group Langley undertakes its own studies, settling on Apollo CM configuration as actually built by October 1960..

1961 October 25 - . LV Family: Nova; Saturn V.
  • Saturn static test stand site selected. - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Summary: NASA selected Pearl River site in southwestern Mississippi, 35 miles from Michoud plant in New Orleans, for static test facility for Saturn and Nova-class vehicles, completed facility to operate under direction of Marshall Space Flight Center..

1961 October 25 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AB3.351.
  • AS&E-2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1962 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar Mayak-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 63S1. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • 1MS - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: MS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: 1MS. COSPAR: F621025A.

1962 October 25 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. Launch Vehicle: Exos. LV Configuration: Exos CRL AA13.195.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 669 km (415 mi).

1962 October 25 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun AA6.444.
  • Firefly III ENID Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1962 October 25 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AC3.138.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Mon / XR / RPA Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1963 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • VAO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 October 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 224D / Agena D S01A 4703.
  • Agena D - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1963-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 678 . COSPAR: 1963-041B. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 116 km (72 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 88.41 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • KH 7-03 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 3. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1963-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 677 . COSPAR: 1963-041A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1965 October 25 - .
  • Gemini 6 mission canceled. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 6. The Gemini VI mission was canceled when Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) 5002 suffered what appeared to be a catastrophic failure shortly after separating from the Atlas launch vehicle. The Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle was launched from complex 14 at 10:00 a.m., e.s.t. When the two vehicles separated at 10:05, all signals were normal. But approximately 375 seconds after liftoff, vehicle telemetry was lost and attempts to reestablish contact failed. The Gemini VI countdown was held and then canceled at 10:54 a.m., because the target vehicle had failed to achieve orbit. In accordance with Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD) procedures and NASA management instructions - both of which specified investigation in the event of such a failure - Major General Ben I. Funk, SSD Commander, reconvened the Agena Flight Safety Review Board, and NASA established a GATV Review Board.

1965 October 25 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton.
  • L1 manned circumlunar mission taken from Chelomei, given to Korolev. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK; LK-1. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Concentration of Forces of Industrial Design Organisations for the Creation of Rocket-Space Complex Means for Circling the Moon--work on the UR-500K-L1 program' was issued. As a result of a presentation to the Military Industrial Commission, Afanasyev backed Korolev in wresting control of the manned circumlunar project from Chelomei. The Chelomei LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft was cancelled. In its place, Korolev would use a derivative of the Soyuz 7K-OK, the 7K-L1, launched by Chelomeiís UR-500K, but with a Block D translunar injection stage from the N1. He envisioned launch of the unmanned 7K-L1 into low earth orbit, followed by launch and docking of a 7K-OK with the 7K-L1. The crew would then transfer to the L1, which would then be boosted toward the moon. This was the original reason for the development of the 7K-OK.

1965 October 25 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Vesta. LV Configuration: Vesta 002.
  • FU-123 test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1965 October 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5301 / Agena D 5002. FAILURE: Exploded 6 minutes after takeoff. Failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gemini 6 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA-2. Mass: 3,261 kg (7,189 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6; Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1965-10-25 . COSPAR: F651025A. Summary: The Agena target vehicle failed to reach orbit. Gemini 6, awaiting launch, was cancelled. In the ashes of this setback, the idea of launching Gemini 6 to rendezvous with Gemini 7 was born..

1966 October 25 - .
  • MSFC distributed its research and development plan for the OWS. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop. The development plan defined objectives and basic criteria for the project and established a plan for its technical management (chiefly through MSFC's Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Division). Officially, the Workshop had won approval for the Saturn/Apollo Applications 209 mission, which was a backup for Apollo-Saturn 209. Primary purpose of SAA-209 was activation of the spent S-IVB stage into a habitable space structure for extended Earth-orbit missions. Additional Details: MSFC distributed its research and development plan for the OWS..

1966 October 25 - . 09:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C SL321.
  • Electron ne / T Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1966 October 25 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 SL322.
  • Electron ne / T Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1966 October 25 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.195GA-GI.
  • Meteoroids Meteorites mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1966 October 25 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.181AI.
  • D-Region Probe Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1967 October 25 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Cora. LV Configuration: Cora G3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1967 October 25 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. Launch Complex: Arecibo VB. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AG07.638.
  • Arecibo cal Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1967 October 25 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3B. LV Configuration: Titan IIIB 3B-11.
  • OPS 4995 - . Payload: KH-8 no. 09 / Agena D. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-8. Decay Date: 1967-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3012 . COSPAR: 1967-103A. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 111.5000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1968 October 25 - .
  • Death of Ivan Istochnikov. Reported died aboard Soyuz 2, 25 October 1968. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Istochnikov. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut, reported lost aboard Soyuz 2, an unmanned spacecraft that was the docking target for Soyuz 3. Actually an elaborate 1998 modern art exercise by Joan Fontcuberta. Casual Internet surfers took it to be a real person..

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.

1968 October 25 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1969 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 October 25 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Resolute Bay. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 3B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IIIB AKF-3B-50.
  • Soft X-ray survey X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1971 October 25 - .
  • Death of Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yangel. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher,.

1971 October 25 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
  • Starute,Datasonde Meteorological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1972 October 25 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 526 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 61. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1973-04-06 . Decay Date: 1973-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6254 . COSPAR: 1972-084A. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1972 October 25 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1973 October 25 - . 03:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4A. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVA CRL A16.313-02.
  • VLF Propagation Ionosphere VLF mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi).

1974 October 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 44 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Max. speed flight. Maximum Speed - 1873 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21990 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1974 October 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT28GM operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1974 October 25 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 691 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7483 . COSPAR: 1974-082A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 October 25 - .
1975 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90?/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational test? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 October 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 863 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9499 . COSPAR: 1976-106A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100U 15A16.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 25 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/1?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53746-309.
  • Cosmos 960 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-O. Decay Date: 1980-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10430 . COSPAR: 1977-103A. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi). Perigee: 502 km (311 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 870. Possible ELINT satellite..

1977 October 25 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Vertikal-4.
  • Vertikal'-6 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1978 October 25 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1979 October 25 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1981 October 25 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk Polar 6.
  • Ferdinand 51 Auroral mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NDRE. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1982 October 25 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1983 October 25 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Aries. LV Configuration: Aries GL A24.260.
  • ELC-I (infrared limb) Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi).

1985 October 25 - .
  • Death of Viktor Petrovich Makeyev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Makeyev. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles..

1985 October 25 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1699 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16198 . COSPAR: 1985-101A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1985 October 25 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 332-02.
  • Cosmos 1700 - . Payload: Luch s/n 11L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1986-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 16199 . COSPAR: 1985-102A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Experimental retransmission of telephone and telegraph data in the centimetre band. First launch in Altair/SR system for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. First tests with Mir were conducted on 29 March 1986 using Mirís large aft antenna communicating with Cosmos 1700 stationed in geosynchronous orbit at 95 degrees East. In September 1986 Cosmos 1700 ceased operating and drifted off its geosynchronous orbit position. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1985-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 85.03 deg E drifting at 0.142 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.37E drifting at 0.157E degrees per day.

1985 October 25 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.90CS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1986 October 25 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 335-02.
  • Raduga 19 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 30L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1993-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17046 . COSPAR: 1986-082A. Apogee: 36,353 km (22,588 mi). Perigee: 36,252 km (22,525 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,462.60 min. Stationed at 36 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1986-1991; 34 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 19 performed an end-of-life maneuver in September, 1993. As of 28 August 2001 located at 160.57 deg E drifting at 6.520 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.63W drifting at 6.529W degrees per day.

1988 October 25 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1977 - . Payload: Oko #59. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 19608 . COSPAR: 1988-096A. Apogee: 33,805 km (21,005 mi). Perigee: 6,559 km (4,075 mi). Inclination: 67.7000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 116 degree longitude of ascending node..

1989 October 25 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1992 October 25 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • RSLP AST-DT 2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1995 October 25 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 N. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.106UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1997 October 25 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-131.
  • USA 135 - . Payload: DSCS III B-13. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Valley Forge. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 25019 . COSPAR: 1997-065A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Summary: Geosynchronous. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option..
  • Falcon Gold - . Nation: USA. Agency: Lockheed. Manufacturer: USAF Colorado Springs. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Falcon Gold. Decay Date: 1998-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 25020 . COSPAR: 1997-065B. Apogee: 34,457 km (21,410 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 26.2000 deg. Period: 185.80 min. Summary: US Air Force Academy experiment to demonstrate use of GPS navigation in geosynchronous orbit..

1998 October 25 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 660.
  • Progress M-40 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 239. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-26; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 103.25 days. Decay Date: 1999-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25512 . COSPAR: 1998-062A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.63 min. Docked with the rear (+X, Kvant) docking port of the Mir station on October 27. Delivered fuel, dry cargo, and the Znamya-2.5 solar illumination experiment. This was a follow-on to the earlier Znamya-2 experiment on Progress M-15 in 1992. The 25 m diameter Znamya reflector, which would unfold from the nose of the Progress, was to reflect sunlight over a 6 km area onto selected cities. Znamya-2.5 was developed by the Space Regatta Consortium, led by RKK Energia. Energia had long studied such space mirrors as a means of providing lighting to Siberian towns. The project was opposed by environmentalists and astronomers, who feared light pollution. Progress M-40 undocked on February 4, 1999 at 09:59 GMT, but the attempted deployment of the Znamya-2.5 reflector was thwarted when it snagged on a rendezvous system antenna. After two more failed attempts to deploy the antenna the experiment was abandoned. Progress M-40 fired its engines at 10:16 GMT on February 5, braked out of orbit, and burned up over the Pacific Ocean.
  • Spoutnik-41 - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF; VVS. Manufacturer: AFR. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: PS Model. Decay Date: 1999-01-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 25533 . COSPAR: 1998-062C. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 313 km (194 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. On a space walk from Mir on November 10, Padalka and Avdeyev hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite at around 19:30 GMT. Spoutnik-41, also designated RS-18, was another scale model of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, launched 41 years ago. It carried a small transmitter and was sponsored by Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia. A similar model was launched in 1997 for the fortieth anniversary of Sputnik. On that occasion, two flight models were carried to Mir but only one was launched. The second Spoutnik-40 flight model was still aboard Mir as of 1998. The second Spoutnik-40 would perhaps be deployed prior to the abandonment of Mir in 1999.

1999 October 25 - .
  • Death of Rudi Beichel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Related Persons: Beichel. Summary: German-American engineer, on von Braun's team, but left to independently advise US Army on liquid propulsion. Joined Aerojet in 1956, worked on Lox/LH2 Titan I engine conversion, Aerojet large engine studies, and USAF ARES single-stage ICBM..

2001 October 25 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 77013-687.
  • Molniya-3-52 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 26970 . COSPAR: 2001-050A. Apogee: 40,658 km (25,263 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Launch delayed from October 11. The Molniya-3 military communications satellite and Block ML upper stage were inserted into an initial 214 x 617 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit at 1143 GMT. At apogee over the South Pacific, the BOZ ullage motor fired and separated, then the ML main engine ignited and put the Molniya-3 satellite into its 615 x 40659 km x 62.8 deg operational orbit with apogee over the northern hemisphere.

2002 October 25 - .
2006 October 25 - .
  • Cassini, Titan Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2006 October 25 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2008 October 25 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4B.
  • SJ-6-03A - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SJ-6. USAF Sat Cat: 33408 . COSPAR: 2008-053A. Apogee: 603 km (374 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Summary: Third pair in China's SJ military surveillance constellation. It has been suggested that each pair consists of two differing satellites, a smaller minisatellite built by SAST Shanghai and a larger 300-kg CAST-968 bus satellite from DFH..
  • SJ-6-03B - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SJ-6. USAF Sat Cat: 33409 . COSPAR: 2008-053B. Apogee: 605 km (375 mi). Perigee: 582 km (361 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.50 min.

2008 October 25 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7420-10. LV Configuration: Delta 7420-10 s/n D336.
  • COSMO 3 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Cosmo-SkyMed. USAF Sat Cat: 33412 . COSPAR: 2008-054A. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 622 km (386 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Part of Italy's all-weather military surveillance constellation; carried X-band synthetic aperture radar..

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