Encyclopedia Astronautica
September 20


September 20 Chronology


1923 September 20 - .
  • Birth of John E Naugle - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physicist, at NASA 1959-1981, developed projects to study the magnetosphere..

1944 September 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-217.
1949 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 II-9. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1951 September 20 - . 16:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-A-1 USAF 19.
  • Aeromed 2 Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi). Biological research. Launched at 0931 local time. Reached 70.8 km. USAF made first successful recovery of animals from a rocket flight when an instrumented monkey (Yorick aka Albert VI) and 11 mice survived an Aerobee flight to an altitude of 70.8 km from Holloman AFB.

1954 September 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 2802T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 September 20 - .
  • X-1E Flight 12 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 11. Brief engine power only; flight aborted, unspecified engine malfunction..

1956 September 20 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C. LV Configuration: Jupiter C RS-27. FAILURE: Early cut-off due to human error in tanking ..
  • Jupiter C re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 1,097 km (681 mi). First Jupiter C (a three-stage ABMA-JPL Redstone missile) was launched at Cape Canaveral, Fla., attained an altitude of 1096 km and traveled 5,300 km downrange. The first three-stage re-entry missile, was fired at 0145 hours EST from AMR. This missile attained an estimated range of 3,335 ST miles, an altitude of 682 ST miles, and reached Mach 18 velocity. The primary objective of the firing was the propulsion and separation tart of a multi-stage vehicle. The missile was a four-stage configuration with the last stage inactive. The first stage was an elongated Redstone missile, the second and third stages were up of 11 and 3 six-inch scaled SERGEANT rockets, respectively. The payload consisted of approximately 20 pounds of instrumentation attached to the inactive fourth stage. The flight was successful and the sequence of operations occurred as programmed. This vehicle could have obtained sufficient velocity to place it in orbit, if the last stage had been activated. First deep penetration of space. Serial number coding for early Redstones and related vehicles used the following substitution cipher: 1234567890 = HUNTSVILLEX

1957 September 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18 105.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Summary: Complete USAF Thor IRBM first successfully launched from Cape Canaveral. Dummy Warhead sent to 1800 km range..

1957 September 20 - . 10:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 4. LV Configuration: Kappa 4 K-4-1.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1958 September 20 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1959 September 20 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.03II. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DRTE.02 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 September 20 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury Atlas launch vehicle 67-D delivered to Cape Canaveral - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Summary: The Atlas launch vehicle 67-D was delivered to Cape Canaveral for the Mercury-Atlas 2 (MA-2) reentry test mission..

1960 September 20 - .
  • Birth of James Anthony 'Jim' Pawelczyk - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physiologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90. Candidate Payload Specialist for STS-90 Neurolab..

1960 September 20 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 AA3.142.
  • Thermal / CR Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1961 September 20 - .
  • Space Task Group seek temporary operational quarters in Houston - . Nation: USA. Summary: Robert R. Gilruth and other officials of the Space Task Group surveyed the Houston, Texas, area to seek temporary operational quarters while the permanent installation was being constructed..

1962 September 20 - . 04:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark-2 SL108.
  • Electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi).

1962 September 20 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 420.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 September 20 - .
  • President Kennedy suggested Russian-American cooperation in space - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kennedy. Program: Apollo. President John F. Kennedy, during an address before the United Nations General Assembly, suggested the possibility of Russian-American "cooperation" in space. Though not proposing any specific program, Kennedy stated that, "in a field where the United States and the Soviet Union have a special capacity - the field of space - there is room for new cooperation, for further joint efforts in the regulation and exploration of space. I include among these possibilities," he said, "a joint expedition to the moon. . . . Surely we should explore whether the scientists and astronauts of our two countries - indeed, of all the world - cannot work together in the conquest of space, sending some day in this decade to the moon, not the representatives of a single nation, but the representatives of all humanity." Additional Details: President Kennedy suggested Russian-American cooperation in space.

1963 September 20 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NE3.151.
  • SX solar spectrum Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1965 September 20 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 was completed in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 7. Inspection of GLV-7 by the vehicle acceptance team began September 27 and ended October 1, with the vehicle found acceptable. GLV-7 was deerected October 5 and formally accepted by the Air Force October 15. Stage I was airlifted to Cape Kennedy October 16, followed by stage II October 18. Both stages were placed in storage pending the launch of the Gemini VI mission.

1965 September 20 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 2. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena D006.
  • USAF D006 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 September 20 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Test / ionosphere / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi).

1965 September 20 - . 16:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.236UE.
  • Auroral electrons Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1965 September 20 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barbados. Launch Complex: Barbados HARP. LV Family: Martlet. Launch Vehicle: Martlet 2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: HARP. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1966 September 20 - .
  • M2 Flight 7 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Summary: Maximum Speed - 677 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 211 sec..

1966 September 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 571 (63-068).
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 September 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 624. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 September 20 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 624. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 September 20 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.176UG.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1966 September 20 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D. LV Configuration: Atlas Centaur D AC-7 / Centaur D 194D.
  • Surveyor 2 - . Payload: Surveyor SC-2. Mass: 292 kg (643 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2425 . COSPAR: 1966-084A. Soft lunar landing attempt failed. Surveyor II was launched from Cape Kennedy at 8:32 a.m. EDT. The Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle placed the spacecraft on a nearly perfect lunar intercept trajectory that would have missed the aim point by about 130 kilometers. Following injection, the spacecraft successfully accomplished all required sequences up to the midcourse thrust phase. This phase was not successful because of the failure of one of the three vernier engines to ignite, causing eventual loss of the mission. Contact with the spacecraft was lost at 5:35 a.m. EDT, September 22, and impact on the lunar surface was predicted at 11:18 p.m. on that day.

1966 September 20 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk-12 Sandia 152-99.
  • LRL BOX-7 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1966 September 20 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2A Agena D 477 / Agena D SS-01B 1628.
  • KH-4A 1035 - . Payload: KH-4A s/n 1035 / Agena D 1628 / OPS 1703. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-4A. Decay Date: 1966-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2427 . COSPAR: 1966-085A. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 85.1000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: KH-4A. All cameras operated satisfactorily. First mission flown with pan geometry modification..

1967 September 20 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Proposed sequence of Apollo missions leading to a lunar landing mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204; Apollo 11; Apollo 12; Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. MSC proposed to the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight a sequence of missions leading to a lunar landing mission. The sequence included the following basic missions:

    • A - Saturn V/unmanned CSM development
    • B - Saturn IB/unmanned LM development
    • C - Saturn IB/manned CSM evaluation
    • D - Saturn V/manned CSM and LM development (A dual Saturn IB mission would be an alternative to the Saturn V for mission D)
    • E - CSM/LM operations in high earth orbit
    • F - Lunar orbit mission
    • G - Lunar landing mission (like Apollo 11)
    • H - Lunar landing mission (Apollo 12, 13, and 14)
    • I - Reserved for lunar survey missions (not used)
    • J - Lunar landing missions, upgraded hardware (Apollo 15, 16, and 17)

1967 September 20 - . LV Family: N1; UR-700.
  • Review of N1 progress. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Pashkov; Smirnov; Ustinov. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Spiral OS; LK-700. The booster was supposed to be launched by 1966, but there is no way it will be finished this year, and it is highly questionable it will even get off the ground in 1968. The N1 tanks are pressurised to 2 atmospheres, and can go up to three atmospheres in an emergency. In the enormous MIK assembly hall are three N1's - one 'iron bird' ground test model and two flight vehicles. The first roll out of the mock-up will take place in 1967, and the first launch attempt is still expected in 1968 (the first launch will not be attempted until the second and third stages complete stand tests. There is no test stand for the first stage, it will be fired for the first time in flight). An explosion would destroy the pad, requiring several years of repairs. There are two pads, but even that would not be a guarantee of the availability of the rocket due to the poor expected initial reliability. The N1 project is costing 10 billion roubles, not including considerable investment required by the military. To Kamanin the whole thing is a boondoggle, showing the necessity for development of lighter air-launched boosters. He believes there are many mistakes in design and construction, but Mishin, Pashkov, Smirnov, and Ustinov support these doubtful projects of Korolev and Mishin, instead of technically sound projects such as Chelomei's UR-700 or MiG's air-launched spacecraft. If Mishin thinks the current Proton/L1 reliability is only 0.6, then that of the completely unproved N1/L3 must be even less...

1968 September 20 - .
  • Kamanin hold a cosmonaut meeting. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Titov; Beregovoi. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Tereshkova is having political problems. Titov is to go to Mexico, although he still is making errors of judgement which make it questionable whether he can be trusted on foreign tours. Beregovoi is to complete his cosmonaut examinations on 27 September, and then will be certified for flight.

1968 September 20 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 242 - . Payload: DS-P1-I s/n 4. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-I. Completed Operations Date: 1968-11-13 . Decay Date: 1968-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3414 . COSPAR: 1968-079A. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi). Perigee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Operational radar target for the ABM forces..

1968 September 20 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 September 20 - . 19:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.75GE.
  • B field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi).

1968 September 20 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.58IE.
  • Ferdinand 18 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi).

1969 September 20 - .
  • The success of Zond 7 has emboldened Mishin and Tyulin. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Tyulin. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. They want to fly Zond 8 unpiloted in December 1969, to be followed by a two-man L1 lunar flyby in April 1970. This would look bad compared to the Apollo moon landings, but there was no other manned space mission they could offer the leadership in 1970. Of the 15 L1 spacecraft built, only three remain.

1969 September 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1276.
  • ST Olympic TR. B-10 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 September 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon D-39.
  • ISRO 26.01 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1970 September 20 - .
  • Luna 16 lands on moon. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Luna 16 first placed itself into a 106 x 15 km lunar orbit, inclination 71 degrees. After the trajectory was measured and calculations made on earth, it was instructed to make its Phase 1 descent using a timed burn. Phase 2 began at 600 m altitude. From this point the new-design braking rocket was controlled automatically according to height and velocity as measured by radar. At 220 m altitude the main engine shut down, and small braking rockets fired. These were shut down just 2 m above the surface. At 08:18 Luna 16 successfully made a soft landing on the moon. Getting there required 68 communications sessions over nine days of flight. At 10:00 the drill obtains the soil sample and inserts it into the return capsule.

1971 September 20 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.349GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.354GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo. LV Configuration: Cockatoo 1018.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.352GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.350GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.353GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 September 20 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S166C.
  • BIC Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 31,479 km (19,560 mi).

1972 September 20 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Final N1 components arrive at Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: The replacement transformers for the VP53 digital to analogue converters were delivered to Baikonur..

1972 September 20 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-40.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi).

1973 September 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1974 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan. LV Configuration: Spartan ABM PFT-02A.
  • Safeguard M2-245A Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 07:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 685 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7445 . COSPAR: 1974-073A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 September 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-48.
  • Precipitate Electrons Ionosphere / x-ray / ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 19:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 20 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 September 20 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1976 September 20 - .
  • Start Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 September 20 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 955 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 13. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10362 . COSPAR: 1977-091A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1977 September 20 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-02.
  • Ekran 2 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10365 . COSPAR: 1977-092A. Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.

1978 September 20 - .
  • Start acoustic test, forward RCS - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1978 September 20 - . 02:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.28UL.
  • Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1978 September 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 598. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TA.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 September 20 - . 05:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur SLV-3D. LV Configuration: SLV-3D Centaur AC-53 / Centaur D-1AR 5033.
  • HEAO 3 - . Payload: HEAO C. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: HEAO. Decay Date: 1981-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11532 . COSPAR: 1979-082A. Apogee: 503 km (312 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 43.6000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: High Energy Astronomy Observatory; cosmic, gamma ray measurements. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1979 September 20 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.57UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1980 September 20 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Vehicle: Aries. LV Configuration: Aries NASA 24.03CH.
  • LCXT X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi).

1982 September 20 - .
  • International Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: India. Related Persons: Malhotra; Sharma. Summary: Training group of Indian 'guest cosmonauts' for a propaganda flight to the Salyut space station..

1983 September 20 - . 16:51 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.56GS.
  • SERTS-1 Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi).

1984 September 20 - . 20:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1985 September 20 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart LOKI DATASONDE /PWN-.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1986 September 20 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1989 September 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Space Launch Complex 6 placed on mothball status. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1990 September 20 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT141GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1990 September 20 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 3-39 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 54. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2009-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 20813 . COSPAR: 1990-084A. Apogee: 39,142 km (24,321 mi). Perigee: 1,209 km (751 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1991 September 20 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion DLR A-NO-191.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1991 September 20 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion DLR A-NO-192.
  • Turbo-Metal Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1992 September 20 - .
1993 September 20 - . 03:51 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-14-2 - . Crew: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-14. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed installation of Rapana truss..

1993 September 20 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D1. FAILURE: Software error caused vehicle to go off course.. Failed Stage: G.
  • IRS-1E - . Payload: IRS-1E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. COSPAR: F930920A.

1994 September 20 - .
1995 September 20 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R937.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1999 September 20 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A. LV Configuration: Viper 3A TR-S-16 Sphere.
  • TRAMP-99 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2000 September 20 - .
  • Cosmonaut Gherman Stepanovich Titov dies at age of 65 -- Heart attack in a sauna. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 2. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil..

2000 September 20 - .
2001 September 20 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 01-31 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Culbertson; Dezhurov; Jett; Tyurin. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-3. The International Space Station's Expedition Three crew - Commander Frank Culbertson, Pilot Vladimir Dezhurov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin - spent this week outfitting and activating the station's latest addition, a four-ton Russian airlock and docking port named Pirs that arrived at the orbiting complex Sunday. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 01-31.

2002 September 20 - . 02:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF04. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 GT180GM.
  • GT180GM Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2003 September 20 - .
  • Crusader X engine tests. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Crusader X. Summary: Micro-Space (Denver, Colorado, USA) conducted flight testing of their low thrust, liquid fuel launch system for the 6th and 7th times. Ground support and launch systems have been perfected..

2004 September 20 - .
2004 September 20 - . 10:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F01.
  • GSAT-3 / Edusat - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 28417 . COSPAR: 2004-036A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gsat-3 / Edusat was the first Indian satellite built exclusively for the educational sector. It was mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for India. Edusat was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit by its launch vehicle. Edusat was to reach geostationary orbit by firing, in stages, its on board Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). In geostationary orbit the satellite was to be co-located with Kalpana-1 and Insat-3C satellites at 74 deg East longitude.

    Compared to earlier satellites in the Insat series, Edusat used several new technologies. The spacecraft was built around the I-2K standardised spacecraft bus. It had a multiple spot beam antenna with a 1.2 m reflector to direct Ku band spot beams, a dual core bent heat pipe for thermal control, high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and an improved thruster configuration for optimised propellant use for orbit and orientation maintenance. The satellite used radiatively cooled Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers and a dielectrically loaded C-band demultiplexer for its communication payloads. Edusat carried five Ku-band transponders providing spot beams, one Ku-band transponder providing a national beam and six Extended C-band transponders with a national coverage beam. It was to join the Insat system that already provided more than 130 transponders in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-band for a variety of telecommunication and television services.

    First operational flight of launch vehicle. Launch delayed from July, August and September 10. Dry mass 820 kg. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.92E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


2004 September 20 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion Improved. LV Configuration: Terrier Improved Orion NASA 41.042UE.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2006 September 20 - .
2006 September 20 - .
  • Death of Dean E Wooldridge - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wooldridge. Summary: American engineer, co-founder of TRW in 1953, director of TRW STL 1962-on..

2011 September 20 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M.
  • Cosmos 2473 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Garpun. USAF Sat Cat: 37806 . COSPAR: 2011-048A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: First launch of the Garpun military communications and data relay satellite, built by Reshetnev..

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