Encyclopedia Astronautica
September 21


September 21 Chronology


1901 September 21 - .
  • Birth of Lee Alvin DuBridge - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physicist. President of Caltech 1946-1969; Science Adviser to Presidents Truman and Nixon..

1913 September 21 - .
  • Birth of Milton B Ames - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, at NASA in leadership positions, 1936-1972..

1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 batteries 1./485 and 2./485 move to a new launch site at Hoek van Holland. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1945 September 21 - .
  • Birth of Bjarni Valdimar Tryggvason - . Nation: Canada; Iceland. Summary: Icelandic-Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85. CSA; Alternate Payload Specialist to MacLean for STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 and Test of the Canadian Space Vision System..

1948 September 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 25R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1949 September 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon.
  • X-3 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1950 September 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 141 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 40. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Also drag investigation. Pull-ups. Mach 0.90..

1954 September 21 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: Hermes. Launch Vehicle: Hermes A-3B. LV Configuration: Hermes A-3B 4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: GE. Apogee: 36 km (22 mi).

1955 September 21 - .
  • Bomi contract extended as Special Reconnaissance System 118P. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar; Bomi. Summary: The Bomi contract of the Bell Aircraft Company was extended as a study for the Special Reconnaissance System 118P..

1955 September 21 - .
  • Birth of Richard James 'Rick' Hieb - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-49, STS-65..

1956 September 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Terrapin. LV Configuration: Terrapin M1. FAILURE: Second stage did not ignite..
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; NSA. Apogee: 16 km (9 mi). Summary: First Terrpain launch attempt..

1956 September 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Terrapin. LV Configuration: Terrapin M2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; NSA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi). Summary: First successful flight of a Terrapin sounding rocket at Wallops Island, which consisted of a Deacon and T55 rocket and carried a payload of 3 kg to a 120 km altitude..

1957 September 21 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 September 21 - .
  • Effects of sustained acceleration on the pilot's ability to control a vehicle. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Between September 21 and October 10, 1959, a research program was carried out by the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory to measure the effects of sustained acceleration on the pilot's ability to control a vehicle. Various side-arm controllers were used, and it appeared that the three-axis type (yaw, roll, and pitch) was the most satisfactory. Later this configuration was extensively evaluated and adopted for use in the control system of the Mercury spacecraft.

1959 September 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A1. LV Configuration: Polaris A1X-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1960 September 21 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Blue Scout Jr. LV Configuration: Blue Scout Jr D-1.
  • Blue Scout first launch, with Radiation Probe (HETS) payload. - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 26,700 km (16,500 mi). Summary: USAF Blue Scout rocket fired from Cape Canaveral placed instrumented payload 16,600 miles above the earth, the first of 11 such tests, but no data were received due to radio malfunction..

1960 September 21 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun OB6.05. FAILURE: Failure.
  • H2O / ne Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1961 September 21 - .
  • D. Brainerd Holmes appointed NASA's Director of Manned Space Flight Programs. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holmes, Brainard. As general manager of Radio Corporation of America's Major Defense Systems Division, Holmes had been project manager of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. Congressman G. P. Miller (D.-Calif.) succeeded the recently deceased Congressman Overton Brooks of Louisiana as chairman of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics.

1961 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A E15003-03.
  • R-7A II-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7A readiness verification test..

1962 September 21 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: RAM. Launch Vehicle: RAM B. LV Configuration: RAM B RAM B-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • RAM B-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1963 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 September 21 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 631. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3P-38.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 September 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1108.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Barbados. Launch Complex: Barbados HARP. LV Family: Martlet. Launch Vehicle: Martlet 2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: HARP. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 04:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Barbados. Launch Complex: Barbados HARP. LV Family: Martlet. Launch Vehicle: Martlet 2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: HARP. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Barbados. Launch Complex: Barbados HARP. LV Family: Martlet. Launch Vehicle: Martlet 2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: HARP. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barbados. Launch Complex: Barbados HARP. LV Family: Martlet. Launch Vehicle: Martlet 2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: HARP. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-B. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-58.
  • Bold Guy operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 September 21 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Coronie. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.225IA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi).

1966 September 21 - .
  • Gemini extravehicular activity difficulties cause redesigned forward dome hatch in the S-IVB hydrogen tank. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Orbital Workshop. Prompted by recent operational difficulties involving extravehicular activity during Gemini flights IXA, X, and XI, Deputy Project Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht recommended to Saturn/Apollo Applications Program officials in Washington a redesigned forward dome hatch in the S-IVB hydrogen tank; i.e., one that could be more readily removed. He urged installing a flexible type of airlock seal prior to launch of the stage. These changes, Kleinknecht said, would go far toward minimizing astronaut workload for activating the spent stage once in orbit.

1967 September 21 - .
  • L1 launch delayed to November. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Summary: The L1 in preparation at Area 31 will not be ready for the planned 20 October launch due to delays in qualification of the parachute system at Fedosiya. No launch attempt now expected until November..

1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-7.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Summary: AEC galactic astronomy payload - detected cosmic soft x-rays..

1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk-9 Sandia 152-101.
  • LASL Solar Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi).

1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 September 21 - . 07:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Javelin. Launch Vehicle: Javelin. LV Configuration: Javelin NASA 8.45UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 768 km (477 mi).

1968 September 21 - .
  • Soyuz parachute failure - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK. At the Fedosiya test range a Soyuz parachute test failed when the parachute hatch wouldn't jettison. This was due to an incorrectly inserted safing pin - it was not a spacecraft problem. So the Soyuz was still cleared for manned flight. Aboard Zond 5, the star tracker has completely failed. So the spacecraft will have to make a ballistic re-entry with splashdown in the Indian Ocean planned at 31 deg 58' S, 65 deg 21' E.

1968 September 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.174UG.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1968 September 21 - . 19:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.76GE.
  • B field Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi).

1969 September 21 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NRL NB3.202.
  • Stellar Lyman Alpha Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1970 September 21 - .
  • Luna 16 ascent stage heads for earth. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. At 10:43 the Luna 16 ascent stage fires, thrusting the return capsule with the lunar soil toward the earth. It will land somewhere on Soviet territory within a 1500 km radius of Dzhezkazgan. The 25 cm diameter capsule is equipped with a 10 square meter parachute. It was thought that it would take 10 to 15 launches to perfect this system, but instead it has succeeded on the sixth attempt.

1970 September 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 629. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon. LV Configuration: Poseidon C3P-4.
  • PEM-4 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 September 21 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.327UM.
  • UM Pitot 51 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.355GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.356GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.357GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL A07.017-1.
  • Density Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 439 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5478 . COSPAR: 1971-078A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 September 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.358GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.359GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1971 September 21 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.360GM.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1973 September 21 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 587 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 6832 . COSPAR: 1973-066A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Second flight of Soyuz U launch vehicle. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 September 21 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.20GS.
  • Extreme ultraviolet solar spectrum Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1974 September 21 - .
  • Mariner 10 second flyby of Mercury - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mariner 10. Summary: The second Mercury rendezvous provided another opportunity to photograph the sunlit side of the planet and the south polar region..

1974 September 21 - .
  • Mariner 10, second Mercury Flyby - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Mariner 10.

1974 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Pioner. Launch Vehicle: Pioner.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1974 September 21 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 September 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release/Plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1975 September 21 - .
  • Franco-Soviet space cooperation approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On USSR-France co-operation In space' was issued..

1976 September 21 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3. LV Configuration: Sonda 3 XV-02.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi).

1976 September 21 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 855 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9433 . COSPAR: 1976-095A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1976 September 21 - . 12:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.178GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1977 September 21 - .
  • Nuclear-nonproliferation pact - . Nation: International. Summary: Nuclear-proliferation pact, curbing spread of nuclear weapons, signed by 15 countries, including U.S. and U.S.S.R. .

1977 September 21 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-310. LV Configuration: S-310-4.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1978 September 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1979 September 21 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Oreol 3 - . Payload: AUOS-Z M-A-IK s/n 401. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 12848 . COSPAR: 1981-094A. Apogee: 1,672 km (1,038 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 105.80 min. Carried Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments. Investigation of physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurorae. Carried scientific equipment developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.

1982 September 21 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1983 September 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT96GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1983 September 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT97GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1984 September 21 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D176.
  • Galaxy 3 - . Payload: HS 376. Mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15308 . COSPAR: 1984-101A. Apogee: 35,931 km (22,326 mi). Perigee: 35,885 km (22,297 mi). Inclination: 5.7000 deg. Period: 1,442.30 min. Geostationary at 3.5 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 94 deg W in 1984-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 138.23 deg E drifting at 1.543 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.04W drifting at 1.587W degrees per day.

1985 September 21 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • PWN-8B Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1986 September 21 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: USHAKOV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1987 September 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SENT-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 September 21 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1990 September 21 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1992 September 21 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion Sounding Rocket. LV Configuration: Orion NASA 30.40UP.
  • CSOAR Aeronomy / education mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1994 September 21 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.111GE.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 September 21 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 381-02.
  • Cosmos 2291 - . Payload: Potok no. 8 s/n 19L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. USAF Sat Cat: 23267 . COSPAR: 1994-060A. Apogee: 35,829 km (22,263 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Cosmos 2291 quickly moved to 80 degrees E, joining Cosmos 2085 as a replacement for Cosmos1961. Thus, at the end of 1994 the Potok constellation had been restored to its normal 4·sateellite complement: Cosmos 2085 and 2291 at 80 degrees E and Cosmos 1888 and 2172 at 13.5 degrees W. Cosmos 2291 continued at 80 deg E in 1994-1995; then it was moved to 14 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 62.64 deg W drifting at 0.324 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 112.35W drifting at 0.417W degrees per day.

1998 September 21 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: RH. Launch Vehicle: RH-560/300 Mk II.
  • DEOS F07 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO; DLR. Apogee: 425 km (264 mi).

2000 September 21 - . LV Family: CZ-NGLV. Launch Vehicle: CZ-NGLV-320.
  • Chinese Rocket Plans - . Nation: China. Chief Designer of Chinese rockets Long Lehao described China's three-phase future space launcher plan. Phase 1, 2001-2003: Modify existing launchers to increase their reliability and payload capacity. Phase 2, by 2005: Develop non-toxic, non-polluting launchers, and increase low-Earth-orbit launch capacity to over 20 tonnes and geosynchronous transfer orbit capacity from the current 5.5 tonnes to about 14 tonnes. Phase 3: Develop a recoverable launch vehicle with lower launch costs.

2000 September 21 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: Shahab. Launch Vehicle: Shahab 3. LV Configuration: Shahab-3D. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2000 September 21 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2G. LV Configuration: Titan II SLV 23G-13 / M68B-39 + M68B-96.
  • NOAA 16 - . Payload: NOAA-L. Mass: 1,476 kg (3,254 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 26536 . COSPAR: 2000-055A. Apogee: 867 km (539 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 98.7930 deg. Period: 102.06 min. Launch attempt on September 20 scrubbed. The NOAA polar orbit weather satellite, an Advanced Tiros N with a suite of imaging and sounding instruments. The two-stage Titan II launch vehicle, serial 23G-13, put NOAA-L into a suborbital -2500 x 800 km x 98.0 deg trajectory. The spacecraft's Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor fired at apogee to circularize the sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km.

2000 September 21 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: UK S31. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 DASO-7.
  • 90ss - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 September 21 - . 18:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Taurus 2110. LV Configuration: Taurus 2110 T6. FAILURE: A problem a few seconds after first stage separation caused the rocket to go off course; it recovered and the remainder of the stages fired, but final cutoff velocity was too low to reach a sustainable orbit.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Orbview-4 - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Orbview. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orbview. COSPAR: F010921A. Launch delayed from June 27, July 18/22, August 12/21 and September1. The Orbital Sciences Taurus 2110 failed to remain in orbit. A problem a few seconds after first stage separation caused the T6 rocket to go off course; the rocket recovered and the remainder of the stages fired, but final cutoff velocity was too low to reach a sustainable orbit. The Castor 120 zero stage was on course but the Orion 50S first stage motor went off course. The satellites separated from the final stage as planned but burned up in the earth's atmosphere northeast of Madagascar before completing the first orbit. The final orbit was about 75-80 km x 425-430 km x 97 deg. The primary payload was the OrbView-4 imaging satellite. OrbView-4, built by Orbital, was a 368 kg box-shaped spacecraft carrying a 1-m resolution panchromatic camera and an 8-m resolution 200-channel hyperspectral imager with a 0.45-meter aperture. It was to be used by the US Air Force.
  • QuikTOMS - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Microstar. COSPAR: F010921B. The QuikTOMS satellite was a NASA-GSFC project carrying the TOMS-5 ozone mapper. QuikTOMS used a 168 kg double Microstar bus and was to have replaced TOMS instruments on a delayed Russian weather satellite and the failed ADEOS. The loss of QuikTOMS put a hole in NASA's attempts to monitor the ozone layer.
  • SBD - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SBD. COSPAR: F010921C. SBD, the Orbital Sciences' Special Bus Design. The 73 kg satellite was a test version of an enlarged Microstar bus. It would have remained attached to the third stage, together with two Celestis burial canisters containing cremated human remains, and an experimental third stage avionics box.
  • Celestis-4 - . Mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Orbimage. Manufacturer: OSC. Program: Celestis. Class: Burial . Type: Burial satellite. Spacecraft: Celestis. COSPAR: F010921D. Summary: Celestis-4 consisted of two Celestis burial canisters containing cremated human remains. After the launch vehicle failure Celestis guaranteed a relaunch of back-up remains..

2003 September 21 - .
  • Galileo ends mission and is commaned to burn up in Jupiter's atmosphere. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Galileo. USAF Sat Cat: 20298 . Although the antenna failed to deploy, NASA developed workarounds and the spacecraft cruised the Jovian system for eight years. Its propellant then depleted, it was maneuvered to enter the Jovian atmosphere on September 21, 2003, at 18:57 GMT. Entry was at 48.2 km/s from an orbit with a periapsis 9700 km below the 1-bar atmospheric layer. The spacecraft continued transmitting at least until it passed behind the limb of Jupiter at 1850:54 GMT, at which point it was 9283 km above the 1-bar level, surprising Galileo veterans who feared it might enter safemode due to the high radiation environment. On its farewell dive, it had crossed the orbit of Callisto at around 1100 on September 20, the orbit of Ganymede at around 0500 on September 21, Europa's orbit at about 1145, Io's orbit at about 1500, Amalthea's orbit at 1756, and the orbits of Adrastea and Metis at 1825. Galileo was destroyed to prevent the possibility that its orbit would eventually be perturbed in such a way that it would crash on and biologically contaminate Europa, which was considered a possible place to search for life. Light travel time from Jupiter to Earth was 52 min 20 sec at the time of impact, and the final signal reached Earth at 1943:14 GMT.

2003 September 21 - .
  • Galileo, Jupiter Impact - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Galileo.

2004 September 21 - .
  • Death of Johann G Tschinkel - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Related Persons: Tschinkel. Summary: German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida..

2006 September 21 - . 10:21 GMT - .
2010 September 21 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 501. LV Configuration: Atlas AV-025.
  • USA 215 - . Payload: NROL-41. Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Lacrosse. USAF Sat Cat: 37162 . COSPAR: 2010-046A. Apogee: 1,105 km (686 mi). Perigee: 1,102 km (684 mi). Inclination: 123.0000 deg. Summary: Believed to be a surveillance radarsat, in an unusual retrograde, higher altitude orbit than previous versions..

2010 September 21 - . 13:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion.
  • NASA 41.082NP - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Summary: Carried SubTEC-III technology experiment..

2011 September 21 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • SES 2 - . Payload: Orbital Star 2.4. Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 37809 . COSPAR: 2011-049A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite with 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders, and a US Air Force infrared surveillance sensor experiment..
  • Arabsat 5C - . Nation: Arab States. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 37810 . COSPAR: 2011-049B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: C-band/Ka-band communications satellite for television broadcast to Arab countries..

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