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Military surveillance sat
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

KH-1 American military surveillance satellite. First US film reconnaissance satellite, and first polar orbiting satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1959 - 1960.

Samos American military surveillance satellite. First generation photo surveillance; return of camera and film by capsule; program still partially classified, evidently due to embarrassment.

KH-2 American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 9 m. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1960 - 1961.

KH-5 American military surveillance satellite. US mapping satellite. Carried one frame camera, with a focal length of 76 mm, and a ground resolution of 140 m. Reconnaissance, photo (Area survey) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1963 - 1964.

KH-3 American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Double Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1961 - 1962.

Zenit-2 satellite Russian military surveillance satellite. The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (low resolution, film return type), ELINT satellite built by OKB-1 for GRU, Russia. Launched 1961 - 1970. Used Zenit bus.

KH-4 American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'Mural' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1962 - 1963.

KH-6 American military surveillance satellite. US reconnaissance satellite, lashed together to meet an emergency requirement for close-up imaging of a suspected Soviet ICBM site near Tallinn. Reconnaissance, photo satellite built by Lockheed (prime); Kodak (camera) for USAF, USA. Launched 1963.

KH-7 American military surveillance satellite. US reconnaissance satellite. Still classified. Camera believed to have ground resolution of 0.46 m. Film returned in two capsules. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by General Electric for USAF, USA. Launched 1963 - 1967.

KH-4A American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-1' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 2.7 m. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1963 - 1969.

Zenit-4 Russian military surveillance satellite. Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2. Reconnaissance, photo (high resolution, film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1963 - 1970. Used Zenit bus.

TGR Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1963. Two new directions were pursued in the Soviet Union for space optical reconnaissance systems in the mid-1960's: automated systems with television transmission of pictures, and manned systems.

KH-8 American military surveillance satellite. Longest-lived and last US film-return reconnaissance satellite. Ground resolution 0.5 m. Film returned in two capsules. Typical life 50 days. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1966 - 1969.

KH-4B American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-3' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 1.8 m. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1967 - 1972.

Zenit-2M satellite Russian military surveillance satellite. 1 Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1968 - 1979. Used Zenit bus.

Zenit-4M Russian military surveillance satellite. Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1968 - 1974. Used Zenit bus.

Yantar-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. Survey reconnaissance satellite project of KB Yuzhnoye worked on 1964-1967.

Yantar-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. High resolution reconnaissance satellite project worked on by KB Yuzhnoye 1964-1967. Was to have been derived from Soyuz-R manned spacecraft.

Zenit-4MK Russian military surveillance satellite. Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1969 - 1977. Used Zenit bus.

Yantar-3KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1969. Survey reconnaissance satellite system studied in 1969. Not put into production.

Yantar-1KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1970. Survey reconnaissance satellite project worked on by Kozlov from 1967, succeeding Yantar-1. To be launched on Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle.

KH-9 American military surveillance satellite. Popularly known as 'Big Bird'. Titan 3C-class film-return reconnaissance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo satellite built by Lockheed (prime); Perkin-Elmer (cameras) for USAF, USA. Launched 1971 - 1986.

Zenit-4MT Russian military surveillance satellite. Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1971 - 1982. Used Zenit bus.

JSSW Chinese military surveillance satellite. Mysterious early Chinese satellite, orbited by the cancelled FB-1 launch vehicle. Technology, Reconnaissance? satellite, China. Launched 1973 - 1976.

Yantar-2K Russian military surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1974 - 1983. Used Yantar Bus, main reentry module, 2 small reentry capsules.

FSW Chinese military surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 1974 - 1987.

Zenit-4MKT Russian military surveillance satellite. The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1985. Used Zenit bus.

Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1976 - 1984. Used Zenit bus.

KH-11 American military surveillance satellite. Also known as Kennan, Program 1010. Used systems developed for KH-10 Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Reconnaissance, electro-optical satellite built by Lockheed => Lockheed Martin for NRO, USA. Launched 1976 - 2013. Used Bus-1.

Yantar-4K2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1991. Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite, using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus. Boost by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle would have allowed 22 film return capsules to be used over a 180 day mission. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB > TsSKB-Progress for GRU, Russia. Launched 1981 - 2002. Used Yantar Bus, main reentry module, 2 small reentry capsules.

Yantar-6K Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Extremely high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. A draft project was completed in May 1977, but the decision was made to keep the basic Yantar-2K satellite bus instead.

Yantar-6KS Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Electro-optical imaging operational high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969.

Zenit-4MKM Russian military surveillance satellite. A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1977 - 1980. Used Zenit bus.

Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth.

Yantar-2K-M Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1980. Planned upgrade of Yantar-2K. Not put into production.

Yantar-1KFT Russian military surveillance satellite. Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. Area Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1981 - 2005. Used Yantar Bus, Zenit reentry module.

Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (data transmitting) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1982 - 1990. Used Yantar Bus.

Yantar-4KS2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1983. The Yantar-4KS2 was a heavy military optical reconnaissance satellite, required to have the same capabilities as the KH-11/Crystal reconnaissance satellite of the United States.

Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 1 Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1984 - 1994. Used Zenit bus.

Energia Control Sat Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1984. This satellite would consist of a 33 metric ton equipment bus and a 17 metric ton rocket stage. It would be placed in a 600 km / 97 degree orbit for arms control and environment monitoring.

Orlets-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (film return) satellite operated by GRU, Russia. Launched 1994 - 2000.

Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. Reconnaissance, photo (film return) satellite operated by GRU, Russia. Launched 1989 - 2006.

Improved Crystal American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed.

Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 1995 - 1998. Used OPSAT-1000 Bus.

Helios 1A-1B French military surveillance satellite. Helios 1A an 1B were advanced French military surveillance satellites which were widely believed to have 1 meter resolution capability. Reconnaissance, electro-optical satellite built by ATrospatiale, Matra Marconi for DGA, France. Launched 1995 - 1999. Used the SPOT Mk.2 bus.

Arkon-1 Russian military surveillance satellite.

MTI American military surveillance satellite. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U. Experimental satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DoE, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2000. Used the BCP-600 bus.

SA-200 The Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster.he Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster.

TES Indian military surveillance satellite. TES was an imaging satellite equipped with cameras and instruments to test military reconnaissance satellite technology. Earth Observing, Technology satellite for ISRO, India. Launched 2001. Used IRS-1 Bus.

Ofeq 5 Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 2002-2010. Used OPSAT-2000 Bus.

IGS Japanese military surveillance satellite. Launched in optical and radar versions.

Helios 2 French military surveillance satellite. French military surveillance satellite series which began service in 2004. Reconnaissance, electro-optical satellite built by Astrium for DGA, France. Launched 2004 - 2009. Used the SPOT Mk.3 bus.

Tacsat ORS American military surveillance satellite. The Tactical Satellite / Operationally Responsive Satellite program's objective was to demonstrate techniques to dramatically shorten the development time for small satellites. Technology, imaging satellite built by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL); MicroSat Systems (bus) for Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), USA. Launched 2006. Used the Road Runner Bus (NGMB, Next Generation Multifunctional Bus). Launched 2006.



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