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TIROS
ESSA 9
ESSA 9
Credit: Manufacturer Image
TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of American polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system.

AKA: Television Infrared Observation Satellite. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-04-01. Last Launch: 1966-02-28. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Height: 0.48 m (1.57 ft).

TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series, and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series, and later the NOAA series. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). Spacecraft: Body mounted solar cells. Payload: TIROS spacecraft carried low resolution television and infrared cameras.

Family: Earth, Earth weathersat, Medium earth orbit. Country: USA. Spacecraft: TIROS, TOS, ITOS, CEPE, Tiros N, Advanced Tiros N. Launch Vehicles: Thor, Delta, Thor Able, Thor Able II, Atlas E, Thor Delta, Atlas F, Thor Delta B, Thor Delta C, Thor Delta E, Thor Delta E1, Thor Delta N, Thor Delta N6, Delta 0300, Delta 2310, Delta C, Titan II SLV, Delta 7320-10C. Launch Sites: Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Cape Canaveral LC17B, Cape Canaveral LC17A. Agency: NASA, NASA Greenbelt, ESSA, NOAA, RCA, Lockheed. More at: 6988, 13278. Bibliography: 2, 279, 4164, 4165, 4166, 4167, 4168, 4169, 4170, 4171, 4172, 4173, 4174, 4175, 4176, 4177, 4178, 6.


Photo Gallery

Tiros 1Tiros 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1958 September 4 - .
  • The Transit and TIROS satellite programs were initiated with booster responsibilities assigned to AFBMD. - . Spacecraft: Transit, Tiros, . Transit was a navigation satellite, while TIROS (Television Infrared Observation Satellite) was to take television pictures of cloud cover and transmit meteorological information for relay to ground stations..

1959 February 20 - .
  • As requested by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), AFBMD forwarded its development plans for the Transit navigation satellite and TIROS weather satellite programs to Headquarters USAF. - . Spacecraft: Transit, Tiros, .

1959 Apr - .
  • The Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) meteorological satellite program was transferred from the Defense Department (AFBMD) to NASA for use in the national meteorological satellite prog - . Spacecraft: Tiros, .

1960 April 1 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able II.
  • Tiros 1 - . Payload: Tiros A (A-1). Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 29 . COSPAR: 1960-Beta-2. Apogee: 696 km (432 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.30 min.

    A Thor/Able II booster placed NASA's Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) weather satellite into the most accurate orbit yet achieved by any U.S. satellite. TIROS I opened a new era in meteorology by transmitting nearly 23,000 pictures of global cloud cover from 450 miles in space and providing the first glimpse of global cloud structure data. TIROS I completed 1,302 orbits before its operational life ceased on 29 June 1960. TV and Infrared Observation Satellite; returned 22952 cloud cover photos. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1960 November 23 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta.
  • Tiros 2 - . Payload: Tiros B (A-2). Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. Decay Date: 2014-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 63 . COSPAR: 1960-Pi-1. Apogee: 610 km (370 mi). Perigee: 547 km (339 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1961 July 12 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta.
  • Tiros 3 - . Payload: Tiros C (A-3). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 162 . COSPAR: 1961-Rho-1. Apogee: 790 km (490 mi). Perigee: 723 km (449 mi). Inclination: 47.9000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1961 September 28 - .
  • Tiros 2 rocket test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Tiros. Pair of spinup rockets on Tiros II successfully fired after more than 10 months in orbit..

1962 February 8 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta.
  • Tiros 4 - . Payload: Tiros D (A-9). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 226 . COSPAR: 1962-Beta-1. Apogee: 812 km (504 mi). Perigee: 693 km (430 mi). Inclination: 48.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Returned 32593 cloud cover photos. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1962 June 19 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta.
  • Tiros 5 - . Payload: Tiros E (A-50). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 309 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Alpha-1. Apogee: 880 km (540 mi). Perigee: 580 km (360 mi). Inclination: 58.1000 deg. Period: 99.40 min. Returned 58226 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1962 September 18 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta.
  • Tiros 6 - . Payload: Tiros F2 (A-51). Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 397 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Psi-1. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 631 km (392 mi). Inclination: 58.3000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Returned 66674 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 June 19 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Tiros 7 - . Payload: Tiros G (A-52). Mass: 135 kg (297 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. Decay Date: 1994-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 604 . COSPAR: 1963-024A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 58.2000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Returned over 150000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 December 21 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta B.
  • Tiros 8 - . Payload: Tiros H (A-53). Mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 716 . COSPAR: 1963-054A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 667 km (414 mi). Inclination: 58.5000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Returned more than 100,000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1965 January 22 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Tiros 9 - . Payload: Tiros I (A-54). Mass: 138 kg (304 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 978 . COSPAR: 1965-004A. Apogee: 2,563 km (1,592 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1965 July 2 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • Tiros 10 - . Payload: Tiros OT1. Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 1430 . COSPAR: 1965-051A. Apogee: 807 km (501 mi). Perigee: 722 km (448 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1966 February 3 - . 07:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C.
  • ESSA 1 - . Payload: Tiros OT3. Mass: 138 kg (304 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 1982 . COSPAR: 1966-008A. Apogee: 806 km (500 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 99.70 min. Environmental Survey Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1966 February 28 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E.
  • ESSA 2 - . Payload: Tiros OT2. Mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TIROS. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 2091 . COSPAR: 1966-016A. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,355 km (841 mi). Inclination: 101.3000 deg. Period: 113.50 min. Environmental Survey Satellite; carried APT cameras. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1966 October 2 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E.
  • ESSA 3 - . Payload: TOS A. Mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 2435 . COSPAR: 1966-087A. Apogee: 1,486 km (923 mi). Perigee: 1,387 km (861 mi). Inclination: 100.9000 deg. Period: 114.60 min. Environmental Survey Satellite 3; replace ESSA 1. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1967 January 26 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E.
  • ESSA 4 - . Payload: TOS B. Mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 2657 . COSPAR: 1967-006A. Apogee: 1,440 km (890 mi). Perigee: 1,326 km (823 mi). Inclination: 102.0000 deg. Period: 113.40 min. Replaced ESSA 2. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1967 April 20 - . 11:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E.
  • ESSA 5 - . Payload: TOS C. Mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 2757 . COSPAR: 1967-036A. Apogee: 1,422 km (883 mi). Perigee: 1,355 km (841 mi). Inclination: 102.0000 deg. Period: 113.50 min. Replaced ESSA 3. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1967 November 10 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • ESSA 6 - . Payload: TOS D. Mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 3035 . COSPAR: 1967-114A. Apogee: 1,485 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,409 km (875 mi). Inclination: 102.1000 deg. Period: 114.80 min. Returned cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1968 August 16 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • ESSA 7 - . Payload: TOS E. Mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 3345 . COSPAR: 1968-069A. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,431 km (889 mi). Inclination: 101.9000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1968 December 15 - . 17:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N.
  • ESSA 8 - . Payload: TOS F. Mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 3615 . COSPAR: 1968-114A. Apogee: 1,464 km (909 mi). Perigee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Inclination: 102.0000 deg. Period: 114.60 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1969 February 26 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta E1.
  • ESSA 9 - . Payload: TOS G. Mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TOS. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 3764 . COSPAR: 1969-016A. Apogee: 1,505 km (935 mi). Perigee: 1,425 km (885 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 115.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1970 January 23 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6.
  • ITOS 1 - . Payload: Tiros M. Mass: 309 kg (681 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4320 . COSPAR: 1970-008A. Apogee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Perigee: 1,434 km (891 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

    NASA successfully launched the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS I) (TIROS-M) from Vandenberg AFB aboard a two-stage, Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor/Delta (SLV-2K), Thorad/Delta, using six solid-propellaiit, strap-on Thiokol TX 354-5 Castor II motors. This was the first use of the "Super Six" Thor/Delta (DSV-3N-6) booster vehicle that employed the six Castor II motors, three of which ignited 30 seconds after lift-off. Generating nearly 600,000 pounds of thrust, the new launch vehicle could orbit a spacecraft weighing more than twice as much as the previous Tiros Operational Satellites. Improved TIROS Operational Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1970 December 11 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6.
  • NOAA 1 - . Payload: ITOS A. Mass: 306 kg (674 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4793 . COSPAR: 1970-106A. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,423 km (884 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 114.80 min. Built for NASA; operated by NOAA. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..
  • CEPE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Spacecraft Bus: CEPE. Spacecraft: CEPE. USAF Sat Cat: 4794 . COSPAR: 1970-106B. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Inclination: 101.7042 deg. Period: 114.92 min.

1971 October 21 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta N6. FAILURE: Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ITOS B - . Payload: ITOS B. Mass: 308 kg (679 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1972-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 5565 . COSPAR: 1971-091A. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 293 km (182 mi). Inclination: 102.5000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Unusable orbit..

1972 October 15 - . 17:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300.
  • NOAA 2 - . Payload: ITOS D. Mass: 344 kg (758 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 6235 . COSPAR: 1972-082A. Apogee: 1,455 km (904 mi). Perigee: 1,449 km (900 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1973 July 16 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • ITOS E - . Payload: ITOS E. Mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1973-07-16 . Improved TIROS Operational System..

1973 November 6 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300.
  • NOAA 3 - . Payload: ITOS F. Mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 6920 . COSPAR: 1973-086A. Apogee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,501 km (932 mi). Inclination: 102.1000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1974 November 15 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2310.
  • NOAA 4 - . Payload: ITOS G. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 7529 . COSPAR: 1974-089A. Apogee: 1,459 km (906 mi). Perigee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1976 July 29 - . 17:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2310.
  • NOAA 5 - . Payload: ITOS H. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ITOS. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 9057 . COSPAR: 1976-077A. Apogee: 1,523 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,507 km (936 mi). Inclination: 102.3000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1978 October 13 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • Tiros N - . Mass: 734 kg (1,618 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 11060 . COSPAR: 1978-096A. Apogee: 845 km (525 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.70 min.

    An Atlas booster launched a TIROS-N prototype weather satellite designed and funded by NASA for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The launch took place at Vandenberg AFB and was successful. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


1979 June 27 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • NOAA 6 - . Payload: NOAA A. Mass: 723 kg (1,593 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 11416 . COSPAR: 1979-057A. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 785 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1980 May 29 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. FAILURE: Atlas sustainer engine under-thrust resulted in 50 second extended burn time, and spacecraft attempted to separate and fired apogee kick motor while booster was still thrusting.. Failed Stage: P.
  • NOAA B - . Payload: NOAA B. Mass: 1,405 kg (3,097 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. Decay Date: 1981-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11819 . COSPAR: 1980-043A. Apogee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Perigee: 264 km (164 mi). Inclination: 92.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min.

    Unusable orbit; would have been NOAA 7. At engine start up, one of the booster engines suffered an internal fuel leak, causing it to run at about 80% thrust. As a result the booster was low on velocity and heavy on propellant over much of its flight and ran an incredible 50 seconds longer than the nominal burn. The NOAA Advanced TIROS payload was designed with no direct communication with the booster, and unaware of the booster problem, at 375 sec after liftoff attempted to separate with the booster still firing. The booster's continued thrusting defeated the payload's attempt to perform the required pitch maneuver. When the payload fired its apogee kick motor, it blew the top of the booster's liquid oxygen tank off. The spacecraft survived all this, but the resultant orbit was highly elliptical rather than the desired circular sun-synchronous. The mission was a total loss. Officially: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).>


1981 June 23 - . 10:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F.
  • NOAA 7 - . Payload: NOAA C. Mass: 1,405 kg (3,097 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 12553 . COSPAR: 1981-059A. Apogee: 847 km (526 mi). Perigee: 828 km (514 mi). Inclination: 98.9000 deg. Period: 101.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1983 March 28 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 8 - . Payload: NOAA E. Mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 13923 . COSPAR: 1983-022A. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 793 km (492 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Carried search and rescue package. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1984 December 12 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 9 - . Payload: NOAA F. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 15427 . COSPAR: 1984-123A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 833 km (517 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1986 September 17 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 10 - . Payload: NOAA G. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 16969 . COSPAR: 1986-073A. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 795 km (493 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1988 September 24 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 11 - . Payload: NOAA H. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 19531 . COSPAR: 1988-089A. Apogee: 854 km (530 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Carried search & rescue package. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1991 May 14 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 12 - . Payload: NOAA D. Mass: 1,416 kg (3,121 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 21263 . COSPAR: 1991-032A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 805 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1993 August 9 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 13 - . Payload: NOAA I. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 22739 . COSPAR: 1993-050A. Apogee: 860 km (530 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1994 December 30 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E.
  • NOAA 14 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 23455 . COSPAR: 1994-089A. Apogee: 861 km (534 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.8800 deg. Period: 102.02 min.

1998 May 13 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • NOAA 15 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N . USAF Sat Cat: 25338 . COSPAR: 1998-030A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.20 min.

    NOAA K carried a new microwave sensor in addition to the standard optical/near-infrared radiometers and imagers and the SARSAT search and rescue package. It was the first NOAA launch to use the Titan 23G launch vehicle, a refurbished ICBM. Titan 23G-12 placed NOAA K into a suborbital trajectory 6 minutes after launch. A Star 37XFP solid motor on the satellite fired at apogee to put NOAA K in orbit.


2000 September 21 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • NOAA 16 - . Payload: NOAA-L. Mass: 1,476 kg (3,254 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 26536 . COSPAR: 2000-055A. Apogee: 867 km (539 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 98.7930 deg. Period: 102.06 min.

    Launch attempt on September 20 scrubbed. The NOAA polar orbit weather satellite, an Advanced Tiros N with a suite of imaging and sounding instruments. The two-stage Titan II launch vehicle, serial 23G-13, put NOAA-L into a suborbital -2500 x 800 km x 98.0 deg trajectory. The spacecraft's Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor fired at apogee to circularize the sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km.


2002 June 24 - . 18:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II SLV.
  • NOAA 17 - . Payload: NOAA-M. Mass: 1,475 kg (3,251 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tiros N. Spacecraft: Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 27453 . COSPAR: 2002-032A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.4000 deg. Period: 101.10 min.

    Launch delayed from August 2001. The refurbished Titan 2 missile put the NOAA M satellite on a suborbital trajectory of about -2500 x 820 km x 98 deg. at 1829 UTC. At 1837 UTC the NOAA M propulsion module fired its ATK/Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor for the orbit insertion burn, followed by a hydrazine trim burn to put the satellite in an 807 x 822 km x 98.8 deg operational orbit. NOAA M became NOAA 17 on entering service with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the primary morning weather satellite, supplementing the NOAA 16 afternoon satellite. Built by Lockheed Martin, NOAA M carried weather imagers and microwave and infrared sounders, as well as a SARSAT search-and-rescue package. It had an on-orbit mass of 1475 kg.


2005 May 20 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10C.
  • NOAA 18 - . Payload: NOAA-N. Mass: 1,420 kg (3,130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 28654 . COSPAR: 2005-018A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Delayed from June 30, 2004, February 12, March 10 and 19, May 11, 12, 13 and 14..

2009 February 6 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10C.
  • NOAA 19 - . Payload: NOAA-O. Mass: 1,420 kg (3,130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Advanced Tiros N. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 33591 . COSPAR: 2009-005A. Apogee: 867 km (538 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.10 min.


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