Born: 1908-06-27. Died: 2004-05-04.
Obituary: Boris Vasiljevich Petrovsky was a patriarch of Soviet surgery, whose name symbolises an era in the development of Soviet medicine and health care. He was a general surgeon who made several major contributions to cardiovascular surgery, transplant surgery, and esophageal surgery. He organized and headed the All-Union Research Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery (now the Russian Scientific Centre for Surgery of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences). After his retirement in 1989 he remained the director emeritus of the institute and died in its intensive care unit. For more than 15 years (1965-80) Petrovsky was minister of health in the former Soviet Union.
Born in the Stavropol region in the south of Russia (near the Caucasus) he became a medical student at Moscow University. Soon after his graduation in 1930 Petrovsky served in the Red Army as a doctor. In 1933 he became a research investigator at the Moscow Institute for Oncology, where his candidate's dissertation (which is equivalent to a PhD thesis) was dedicated to transfusion of blood and blood substitutes in oncology.
Petrovsky served as a military surgeon in wars with Finland (1939-40) and Germany (the Great Patriotic War, 1941-5). During the latter he operated on more than 800 cases of gunshot wounds affecting blood vessels. He summarized this experience in his doctoral dissertation — a second thesis that is needed in Russia for an academic career and for becoming a professor—and also as a book, Surgical Treatment of Vascular Injuries (1949). In 1945 Petrovsky became a deputy director of the Research Institute for Experimental and Clinical Surgery, where he concentrated on esophageal surgery.
In 1948 Petrovsky became a professor of general surgery at the Moscow State Medical Institute N2. In 1949-51 he was sent to Hun- gary, where he became chairman of hospital surgery and director of a surgery clinic at Budapest University. On his return to Moscow Petrovsky was elected chairman of surgery at the Moscow Medical Institute N2 (now Russian State Medical University). In 1956 he became chairman of surgery at the Moscow State Medical Institute N1 (now the Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy).
Petrovsky made several innovations in cardiac surgery—including introducing artificial circulation apparatus and inserting mitral valve prostheses without sutures— and, in 1965, the year he was appointed minister of health, he also performed the first kidney transplant in the Soviet Union.
In his memoirs, Man. Medicine. Life (1995), he recalled being summoned to see Leonid Brezhnev, general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev had a suggestion—that Petrovsky should be minister of health. Petrovsky said he was reluctant to take up the offer and would prefer to continue his career in surgery. But Brezhnev replied that the Politburo had already discussed the issue and approved the appointment. Petrovsky recalled, “I took a pause, thought it over, and then said that I would never go against the will of the Communist Party.” He remained minister of health for more than 15 years — longer than any other minister of health in Soviet history.
As minister, Petrovsky reformed Soviet medical education, supplementing primary specialization called “subordinatura” (in surgery, internal medicine, or obstetrics) during the last (sixth) year of medical school with “internatura”—an additional year, after the medical diploma, of postgraduate specialization at one of the large hospitals. This system has remained in place almost unchanged. Petrovsky supported the idea of the Oath of a Soviet Physician, which was approved by a special decree of the Soviet Parliament in 1971 and introduced to all medical schools in the Soviet Union. It follows the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath with some modifications. According to the Oath of a Soviet Physician, private interests are secondary to public interests. For example, medical graduates promised “to work conscientiously at places where public interests demand” (under the Soviet system graduates were often obliged to work for three years after internatura in remote rural hospitals).
Another of Petrovsky’s achievements was to establish anesthesiology as a specialty. Previously it did not officially exist. He created joint chairs for both anesthesiology and intensive care at all Soviet medical schools. He occupied numerous high ranking positions, including member of the Soviet Parliament. But he used his power mainly to help the All-Union Research Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery to flourish. He remained a director there and continued to work twice a week, despite being minister of health. At the institute Petrovsky launched in 1973 the Soviet Union’s first department of microsurgery, where fingers and hands and shoulders were successfully replanted.
Petrovsky was a romantic and idealistic figure. It has been said that he rejected a draft of a ministerial decree to increase surgeons’ salary with the following comment: “Surgery is a romantic profession. People should not go into it for making money.”
He enjoyed travelling, singing romances, and going to the Bolshoi theatre for ballet. He wrote memoirs and historical papers.
Predeceased by his wife, Ekaterina Mikhailovna, he leaves a daughter.
Korolev dies at age 59 during what was expected to be routine colon surgery in Moscow. The day began for Kamanin with firm plans finally in place for the next three Voskhod and first three Soyuz flights. Volynov and Shonin will be the crew for the first Voskhod flight, with Beregovoi and Shatalov as their back-ups. That will be followed by a female flight of 15-20 days, with the crew begin Ponomaryova and Solovyova, with their back-ups Sergeychik (nee Yerkina) and Pitskhelaura (nee Kuznetsova). Tereshkova will command the female training group. Training is to be completed by March 15. After this Kamanin goes to his dacha, only to be called by General Kuznetsov around 19:00, informing him that Korolev has died during surgery.
Kamanin does not minimise Korolev's key role in creating the Soviet space program, but believes the collectives can continue the program without him. In truth, Kamanin feels Korolev has made many errors of judgment in the last three years that have hurt the program. Mishin, Korolev's first deputy, will take over management of Korolev's projects. Kamanin feels that Mishin is a clever and cultured engineer, but he is no Korolev. Over the next three days the cosmonauts console Korolev's widow.
Korolev's surgery was done personally by Petrovskiy, the Minister of Health. Korolev was told the surgery would take only a few minutes, but after five hours on the operating table, his body could no longer endure the insult, and he passed away.
The VVS General Staff reviews a range of documents, authored by Korolev before his death, and supported by ministers Afanasyev and Petrovskiy. The schedules for the projects for flying around and landing on the moon are to be delayed from 1966-1967 to 1968-1969. A range of other space programs will similarly be delayed by 18 to 24 months. An institute for tests of space technology will be established at Chelomei's facility at Reutov. The IMBP will be made the lead organization for space medicine. Responsibility for space technology development will be moved from MOM to 10 other ministries. 100 million roubles have been allocated for the establishment of new research institutes. Kamanin is appalled, but Malinovskiy favours getting rid of the responsibility for these projects. The arguments over these changes - which reduce the VVS role in spaceflight - will be the subject of much of Kamanin's diary over the following weeks.
Rudenko has reached agreement with Mishin that L1 and L3 crews will also consist of a VVS pilot as commander, and an OKB-1 flight engineer. Kamanin is depressed. Despite the support six marshals (Malinovskiy, Grechko, Zakharov, Krylov, Vershinin and Rudenko), Mishin has won this argument with the support of Ustinov, Serbin, Smirnov, Pashkov, Keldysh, Afanasyev, and Petrovskiy. Later the State Commission meets, for the first time in a long time at Tyuratam. Kerimov chairs the session, with more than 100 attendees, including Mishin, Rudenko, Krylov, Pravetskiy, Kurushin, Ryazanskiy, Mnatsakanian, and Tkachev. All is certified ready,. Launch of the active spacecraft is set for 26 November, and the passive vehicle on 27 November.