Born: 1913-06-24. Died: 1999-12-17.
Wikipedia: Vladimir I. Yazdovskiy (June 24, 1913, Ashgabat - Dec. 17, 1999, Moscow) - the founder of Soviet space biology and medicine, doctor of medical sciences, professor, laureate of USSR State Prize (1952), member of the International Academy of Astronautics, winner (Grand Gold Medal) International Aeromedical Academy (Brussels, Liege), Honorary Academician of the Academy of Cosmonautics. KE Tsiolkovsky, colonel of medical service. Proof of the possibility of human space flight and oversaw the creation of biomedical support of Yuri Gagarin and other cosmonauts of the first group.
Born June 24, 1913 in Ashgabat in the family collegiate councilor Ivan Viktorovich Yazdovskiy, whose father came from the Polish nobility city Libava. Shortly after the birth of Vladimir family moved to Petrograd, then in Yelabuga. In Yelabuga Vladimir and his brother Michael (b.1915) graduated with honors from the School of I and II stage (a nine), worked on agricultural works at his mother's relatives at Elabuga. In Yelabuga in 1921 of a cerebral hemorrhage father died with a history of diabetes.
The family moved to Samarkand, where Vladimir received (1933), higher technical education, he worked as an engineer in the water industry. I decided to become a physician and moved to Tashkent, where he entered (1937) in medical school.
In 1941, with honors, Stalin scholarship, graduated from the Tashkent Medical Institute, has prepared a master's thesis on neurosurgery. In November 1941 he volunteered for the front. He served in the army in the Great Patriotic War as chief of medical service 289th Attack Air Division.
After the war was transferred to the Moscow Scientific Research Testing Institute of Aviation Medicine of the USSR Ministry of Defense (renamed in 1959 in Scientific Research Experimental Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine). During the service from 1947 to 1964. He was promoted from chief of the laboratory to the deputy head of the Institute for Science (1960-1964) and Head of the (space medicine).
In 1948, on the recommendation of AN Tupolev SP Korolev proposed Yazdovskiy lead biomedical research on rockets. He developed the methodology and research program for animal space flight approved by the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1949. In 1951, under his leadership, the first successful launches of animals were made on the geophysical missile R-2A. The world's first successful flight, with dogs Tsygana and Dezika, took them to a height of 100 km on 22 July 1951. For their biomedical support Yazdovskiy, VI Popov, AD Seryapin and AV Pokrovsky were awarded the Stalin Prize in 1952. These flights proved possible to stay safe space altitudes of living organisms in a sealed cabin.
Under the leadership of Yazdovskiy an extensive program of biological studies of the upper atmosphere and outer space was conducted. He studied the biological and medical problems using launches single-stage geophysical rockets with animals to heights of 212 - 473 km. In experiments he determined the effect of weightlessness and high acceleration. This prepared the Soviet Union for the launch of Sputnik-2 with the dog Laika (3 November 1957), and orbital flights of (Belka and Strelka, August 19, 1960 and the spring of 1961). These studies demonstrated the ability to safely fly men into space.
In 1959 Yazdovskiy headed special studies on health safety for manned flights. He established the medical and technical requirements for hermetically sealed cabin of the spacecraft, tested the space suit, personal protective equipment, life support system, and landing ejection seat in the Vostok vehicle. He created an effective system of remote monitoring astronaut health and work systems to ensure safety. These studies served as the basis for a final decision on the possibility of human flight in a spaceship "Vostok"
In 1960 Yazdovskiy develops scientific doctrine of biological and medical research, space exploration, led the development of the system of selection, training, training of candidates for cosmonauts and space flight medical support. It becomes the first professor in the specialty "space biology and medicine." Included in Korolev created the Council of Chief Designers, responsible for biomedical support operations.
The research team, led by Yazdovskiy, carried out medical training Yuri Gagarin and other cosmonauts First Squad.
Yazdovskiy supervised medical training and safety of space flight of the "Vostok" and "Voskhod". At the same time they laid foundations for future space missions, developed the basics of advanced life support systems in the flights of long duration, to explore the possibility of human live and work in these conditions,.
From 1964 to 1968 he worked in Yazdovskiy Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), the Ministry of Health head of sector and deputy director for science, where solve difficult problems to ensure health of astronauts during long flights to the orbiting space station. He then worked for 25 years at the Institute "Bioengineering" (Head of Laboratory, Chief Scientist), where he developed advanced biological life support systems for future long-duration space flights.
According to experts, a deep and comprehensive knowledge Yazdovskiy in various fields of biology, medicine, engineering, as well as his organizational skills helped bring to research problems of space biology and medicine the country's leading scientists in various specialties. He worked for the successful interaction of cosmic design offices with the leadership of the Air Force, the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health and specialists of universities.
Yazdovskiy initiated the publication in our country scientific information, translated and original works on space biology and medicine.
He engaged in the popularization of knowledge. He was a member of the Scientific Council of the Museum and the Society "Knowledge", editor of "Space Biology and Medicine" VINITI of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Author of over 270 scientific papers. Under the leadership of Yazdovskiy made dozens of master's and doctoral theses.
He was awarded six medals, including the Order of Lenin, the Red Banner of Labour, two Orders of the Patriotic War II degree, the Red Star, Friendship of Peoples, more than 30 medals for labor, combat and scientific services. LaureateGreat Gold Medal of the International Academy of aeromedical (1962) for unique research on the basis of the possibility of human space flight and biomedical support.
Very popular Yazdovskiy monograph "On the trail of the Universe", released by the "Word" in 1996 (Moscow, 288 pp.), On the contribution of space biology and medicine to space exploration. The book is of considerable interest to scientists biologists, physicians, chemists, engineers, designers, who plan to engage in the development of manned space flight and the development of the cosmos.Family
Vladimir Ivanovich and his wife Tamara Petrovna (1 January 1925 - 26 March 2010), two daughters Alla and Svetlana, and son Victor. All of them are doctors.
Grandchildren: Olga, Igor, Pauline, Helen Alexander.Memory
He died December 17, 1999 in Moscow. Urn containing the ashes buried at the cemetery Troekurov (plot number 9)
The State Scientific Research Testing Institute of Military Medicine of the Defense Ministry (the successor of the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine) after the death of the scientist in 1999, a memorial plaque was dedicated to Yazdovskiy as the founder of Russian space biology and medicine.
Scientific heritage of the scientist develops his disciples and followers. It is recognized that indomitable energy, high efficiency and creative passion Yazdovskiy contributed to the establishment of a new science "Space biology and space medicine"
Korolev, Yazdovskiy, Gallay, Feoktistov, Makarov, and Alekseyev spend over three hours editing the 'Instructions to Cosmonauts'. This is the first flight manual in the world for a piloted spacecraft, including instructions for all phases of flight and emergency situations. Korolev, Keldysh, Bushuyev, and Voskresenskiy want the instructions to be simply 'put on suit, check communications, observe functioning of the spacecraft'. Korolev is motivated by his belief that on this single-orbit flight everything should occur automatically. Kamanin, Yazdovskiy, Gallay, and Smirnov are categorically against such a passive role for the cosmonaut. They argue that the cosmonauts know the equipment and must be capable of manually flying the spacecraft after releasing the electronic logical lock. They need to observe the instruments, report on their status by radio, and make journal entries. The emotions of the cosmonaut during high-G's and zero-G must be understood in order to fully prepare the cosmonauts that will follow. After long debate, Korolev and Keldysh give in. The agreed first edition of the flight manual is signed by Korolev and Kamanin. The next Vostok 3KA launch is set for 9 March.
Korolev, Alekseyev, Yazdovskiy, and other engineers lay out the plan for the preparation of the cosmonaut on launch day. The cosmonaut will be put in Nedelin's cottage at Baikonur Area 2 the night before the launch, be awakened five hours before launch, and undergo a physical examination. Kamanin and Korolev will be in the bunker at the launch pad for at least the next two launches. After the launch, Kamanin is to fly to the recovery zone to be present for the landing of the spacecraft.
Carried dog Chernushka, mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, and other biological specimens. Ivanovich was ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Chernsuhka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 9, 1961 8:10 GMT.
Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, which ensure necessary conditions for man's flight. Additional Details: here....
The VVS contingent departs for Tyuratam in three Il-14's. The two with cosmonauts aboard stop at Kuibyshev to give the pilots a look at the recovery zone. Aboard the first aircraft are Kamanin, Gagarin, Nelyubov, and Popovich. Aboard the other are Titov, Bykovsky, and Nikolayev. At the VVS Sanatorium at Privolzhskiy on the Volga the cosmonauts relax, and play ping-pong, chess, and billiards. The cosmonauts, Kamanin, Yazdovskiy, and Karpov sleep together in a single large room. Kamanin finds it a lively group; only Gagarin is pale and quieter than the others. On 7 March his wife had their second daughter and only yesterday he brought them back from the hospital. It was tough on him to then have to leave them on his dangerous secret mission - to be the first man into space.
The launch has been delayed to 24-25 March due to problems with L I Gusev's radio system aboard the spacecraft. A meeting of the cosmonauts at 10:00 reviews landing contingency plans that will bring the capsule down on the territory of the USSR. The best chances for such a landing are on orbits 1, 2, and 16, but it is also possible on orbits 4, 5, 6, and 7. A map will be aboard the capsule to show where and when to ignite the TDU retrorocket for each landing opportunity. Feoktistov was a great help in developing this visual aid. For about an hour Kamanin, Korolev, Yazdovskiy, Karpov, and Azbiyevich discuss long-range plans. Korolev is interested in the VVS position that they should be responsible for all military space activities. The reconnaissance satellite version of Vostok is discussed. Korolev says he plans to send a cosmonaut to the moon by 1965.
Afterwards the cosmonauts develop the radio communications plan for the flight. During the 710-second ascent to orbit, and after landing, they are to use the UHF radio. The HF and UHF radios can be used from orbit, but only over the USSR. Plans for filming the cosmonaut in flight are also discussed.
Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....
Rudnev chairs the meeting, in which Kamanin recommends that Gagarin pilot the first manned spaceflight, with Titov as backup. A discussion follows on whether to have a representative from the FAI at the launch in order to obtain registration of the world record. Marshal Moskalenko and Keldysh are opposed - they don't want anyone from outside at the secret cosmodrome. It is decided to enclose the code to unlock the controls of the spacecraft in a special packet. Gagarin will have to break it open in order to get the code that will allow him to override the automatic system and orient the spacecraft manually for re-entry. An emergency ejection during ascent to orbit is discussed. It is decided that only Korolev or Kamanin will be allowed to manually command an ejection in the first 40 seconds of flight. After that, the process will be automatic. There is embarrassment when Moskalenko confronts Yazdovskiy: 'so why are you here, when you're a veterinarian and only handle dogs?' Kamanin has to explain that Yazdovskiy is actually a medical doctor. After the meeting, Kamanin reviews Titov's training in the spacecraft, which has gone well.
The booster is rolled out to the pad at 05:00. At 10:00 the cosmonauts meet with Feoktistov for a last review of the flight plan. Launch is set of 09:07 the next day, followed by shutdown and jettison of the lateral boosters of the first stage at 09:09, and orbital insertion at 09:18. The spacecraft will orient itself toward the sun for retrofire at 09:50. At 10:15 the first command sequence will be uploaded to the spacecraft, followed by the second at 10:18 and the third at 10:25. Retrofire of the TDU engine will commence at 10:25:47. The service module will separate from the capsule at 10:36 as the capsule begins re-entry. The capsule's parachute will deploy at 10:43:43 and at 10:44:12 the cosmonaut's ejection seat will fire. While the cosmonauts go through this, the booster has been brought upright on the pad, the service towers raised, and all umbilical connections made. Korolev, Yazdovskiy, and the others make a final inspection at the pad prior to the commencement of the countdown. At 13:00 Gagarin meets a group of soldiers, NCO's, and officers. After this Kamanin and the cosmonauts go to the cottage formerly occupied by Marshal Nedelin, where they will spend the last night before launch. They eat 'space food' out of 160 g toothpaste-type tubes for lunch - two servings of meat puree and one of chocolate sauce. Gagarin's blood pressure is measured as 115/60, pulse 64, body temperature 36.8 deg C. He then subjects to placement of the biosensors he will wear during the flight, and baseline measurements are taken for an hour and twenty minutes. He is very calm through all this. At 21:30 Korolev comes to the cottage, says good night to the cosmonauts, then goes back out to check on launch preparations. Gagarin and Titov go to bed after this. Kamanin stays up a while in the next room, listening to them talk to one another in the dark.
Everyone is up at the dacha on the Volga at 06:00 and are ready to leave shortly thereafter. Now the weather in Moscow is expected to be fine. At 10:40 an Il-18 takes off for Moscow with Gagarin's party. This consists of Gagarin, Agaltsov, Rytov, Yazdovskiy, several correspondents, and some film operators. 50 km from Moscow seven fighters intercept the transport and form up as an escort, two off each wing, and three trailing. Gagarin calls them on the radio 'Brother fighter pilots - I send you greetings - Yuri Gagarin!' The aircraft formation flies down Lenin Prospekt, Red Square, and then up Gorkiy Street to Vnukovo. There are masses of people everywhere below. At exactly 15:00 the aircraft shuts down its engines 100 m from the reviewing stands. Yuri exits the aircraft and steps into history....
Kamanin, Yazdovskiy, Bushuyev, and Feoktistov fly to Sochi. Korolev arrives on the next flight, and discussions begin on plans for the second Soviet manned spaceflight. Korolev wants a one-day/16-orbit flight, but Kamanin thinks this is too daring and wants a 3 to 4 orbit flight. Korolev rejects this, saying recovery on orbits 2 to 7 is not possible since the solar orientation sensor would not function (retrofire would have to take place in the earth's shadow). But Kamanin believes one day is too big a leap since the effects of sustained zero-G are not known. He finally agrees to a one-day flight, but with the proviso that a manually-oriented retrofire can be an option on orbits 2 to 7 if the cosmonaut is feeling unwell. Korolev reports that the new Sever spacecraft should be ready for flight by the third quarter of 1962. OKB-1 is working hard on the finding solutions to the problems of manoeuvring, rendezvous, and docking in orbit. Kamanin tells Korolev that it would be difficult to recruit and train three-man crews in time to support such an aggressive schedule.
The cosmonauts are prepared by Keldysh, Tyulin, and Korolev for their first big press conference. Yazdovskiy has inserted a paragraph in the official press release about Tereshkova's poor emotional state while in space. He claims she experienced overwhelming emotions, tiredness, and a sharply reduced ability to work and complete all of her assigned tasks. Kamanin takes him aside and asks him not to exaggerate her difficulties during the flight. She only had tasks assigned for the first day. When the flight was extended for a second, and then a third day, there was essentially nothing for her to do. The ground command did nothing to support her during those additional days. She certainly was never tired, never objected, but rather did all she could to complete fully the flight program.
Doctor Yazdovskiy is insisting that Tereshkova is not being truthful about her flight experience. She handed out rations to on-lookers at the landing site in order to cover up the fact she did not eat enough during the flight. Kamanin considers the accusation a stupidity and indicative of the constant war going on between the flight surgeons and the cosmonauts. Tereshkova powerfully denies the accusation and defends herself well.