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Yazdovskiy, Vladimir Ivanovich
Russian space medicine pioneer, studied the biological effects of spaceflight in suborbital dog flights in the 1950's, the supported the Soviet manned space program. Deputy Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Space medicine pioneer.

Born: 1913-06-24. Died: 1999-12-17.

Wikipedia: Vladimir I. Yazdovskiy (June 24, 1913, Ashgabat - Dec. 17, 1999, Moscow) - the founder of Soviet space biology and medicine, doctor of medical sciences, professor, laureate of USSR State Prize (1952), member of the International Academy of Astronautics, winner (Grand Gold Medal) International Aeromedical Academy (Brussels, Liege), Honorary Academician of the Academy of Cosmonautics. KE Tsiolkovsky, colonel of medical service. Proof of the possibility of human space flight and oversaw the creation of biomedical support of Yuri Gagarin and other cosmonauts of the first group.

Born June 24, 1913 in Ashgabat in the family collegiate councilor Ivan Viktorovich Yazdovskiy, whose father came from the Polish nobility city Libava. Shortly after the birth of Vladimir family moved to Petrograd, then in Yelabuga. In Yelabuga Vladimir and his brother Michael (b.1915) graduated with honors from the School of I and II stage (a nine), worked on agricultural works at his mother's relatives at Elabuga. In Yelabuga in 1921 of a cerebral hemorrhage father died with a history of diabetes.

The family moved to Samarkand, where Vladimir received (1933), higher technical education, he worked as an engineer in the water industry. I decided to become a physician and moved to Tashkent, where he entered (1937) in medical school.

In 1941, with honors, Stalin scholarship, graduated from the Tashkent Medical Institute, has prepared a master's thesis on neurosurgery. In November 1941 he volunteered for the front. He served in the army in the Great Patriotic War as chief of medical service 289th Attack Air Division.

After the war was transferred to the Moscow Scientific Research Testing Institute of Aviation Medicine of the USSR Ministry of Defense (renamed in 1959 in Scientific Research Experimental Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine). During the service from 1947 to 1964. He was promoted from chief of the laboratory to the deputy head of the Institute for Science (1960-1964) and Head of the (space medicine).

In 1948, on the recommendation of AN Tupolev SP Korolev proposed Yazdovskiy lead biomedical research on rockets. He developed the methodology and research program for animal space flight approved by the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1949. In 1951, under his leadership, the first successful launches of animals were made on the geophysical missile R-2A. The world's first successful flight, with dogs Tsygana and Dezika, took them to a height of 100 km on 22 July 1951. For their biomedical support Yazdovskiy, VI Popov, AD Seryapin and AV Pokrovsky were awarded the Stalin Prize in 1952. These flights proved possible to stay safe space altitudes of living organisms in a sealed cabin.

Under the leadership of Yazdovskiy an extensive program of biological studies of the upper atmosphere and outer space was conducted. He studied the biological and medical problems using launches single-stage geophysical rockets with animals to heights of 212 - 473 km. In experiments he determined the effect of weightlessness and high acceleration. This prepared the Soviet Union for the launch of Sputnik-2 with the dog Laika (3 November 1957), and orbital flights of (Belka and Strelka, August 19, 1960 and the spring of 1961). These studies demonstrated the ability to safely fly men into space.

In 1959 Yazdovskiy headed special studies on health safety for manned flights. He established the medical and technical requirements for hermetically sealed cabin of the spacecraft, tested the space suit, personal protective equipment, life support system, and landing ejection seat in the Vostok vehicle. He created an effective system of remote monitoring astronaut health and work systems to ensure safety. These studies served as the basis for a final decision on the possibility of human flight in a spaceship "Vostok"

In 1960 Yazdovskiy develops scientific doctrine of biological and medical research, space exploration, led the development of the system of selection, training, training of candidates for cosmonauts and space flight medical support. It becomes the first professor in the specialty "space biology and medicine." Included in Korolev created the Council of Chief Designers, responsible for biomedical support operations.

The research team, led by Yazdovskiy, carried out medical training Yuri Gagarin and other cosmonauts First Squad.

Yazdovskiy supervised medical training and safety of space flight of the "Vostok" and "Voskhod". At the same time they laid foundations for future space missions, developed the basics of advanced life support systems in the flights of long duration, to explore the possibility of human live and work in these conditions,.

From 1964 to 1968 he worked in Yazdovskiy Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), the Ministry of Health head of sector and deputy director for science, where solve difficult problems to ensure health of astronauts during long flights to the orbiting space station. He then worked for 25 years at the Institute "Bioengineering" (Head of Laboratory, Chief Scientist), where he developed advanced biological life support systems for future long-duration space flights.

According to experts, a deep and comprehensive knowledge Yazdovskiy in various fields of biology, medicine, engineering, as well as his organizational skills helped bring to research problems of space biology and medicine the country's leading scientists in various specialties. He worked for the successful interaction of cosmic design offices with the leadership of the Air Force, the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health and specialists of universities.

Yazdovskiy initiated the publication in our country scientific information, translated and original works on space biology and medicine.

He engaged in the popularization of knowledge. He was a member of the Scientific Council of the Museum and the Society "Knowledge", editor of "Space Biology and Medicine" VINITI of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Author of over 270 scientific papers. Under the leadership of Yazdovskiy made dozens of master's and doctoral theses.

He was awarded six medals, including the Order of Lenin, the Red Banner of Labour, two Orders of the Patriotic War II degree, the Red Star, Friendship of Peoples, more than 30 medals for labor, combat and scientific services. LaureateGreat Gold Medal of the International Academy of aeromedical (1962) for unique research on the basis of the possibility of human space flight and biomedical support.

Very popular Yazdovskiy monograph "On the trail of the Universe", released by the "Word" in 1996 (Moscow, 288 pp.), On the contribution of space biology and medicine to space exploration. The book is of considerable interest to scientists biologists, physicians, chemists, engineers, designers, who plan to engage in the development of manned space flight and the development of the cosmos.Family

Vladimir Ivanovich and his wife Tamara Petrovna (1 January 1925 - 26 March 2010), two daughters Alla and Svetlana, and son Victor. All of them are doctors.

Grandchildren: Olga, Igor, Pauline, Helen Alexander.Memory

He died December 17, 1999 in Moscow. Urn containing the ashes buried at the cemetery Troekurov (plot number 9)

The State Scientific Research Testing Institute of Military Medicine of the Defense Ministry (the successor of the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine) after the death of the scientist in 1999, a memorial plaque was dedicated to Yazdovskiy as the founder of Russian space biology and medicine.

Scientific heritage of the scientist develops his disciples and followers. It is recognized that indomitable energy, high efficiency and creative passion Yazdovskiy contributed to the establishment of a new science "Space biology and space medicine"

Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Vostok. Bibliography: 474.

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