Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
Manned
Category of spacecraft, including spacecraft designed to have crews aboard, as well as logistics spacecraft designed to resupply them with consumables and spare parts.



Subtopics

Manned Spaceflight A list of all manned spaceflights .. defined as a suborbital flight over 100 km altitude, or an orbital flight that launched, even if it did not attain orbit. A flight is defined as the same persons going into space and returning together; therefore astronauts who were on a particular launch, but returned to earth on a different spacecraft from other crewmembers on the same launch, are considered a different 'flight' and listed separately.



1943 January 10 - .
1943 February 10 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gruzdev. Payload: BI-1 # 2 flight 2. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gruzdev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: BI-1. Maximum Speed - 675 kph. Maximum Altitude - 2190 m. Date estimated..

1943 March 11 - .
1943 March 14 - .
1943 March 21 - .
1943 March 27 - .
  • BI-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Bakhchivangi. Payload: BI-1 # 3 flight 2. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bakhchivangi. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: Russian Rocket Fighters. Spacecraft: BI-1. Maximum Speed - 800 kph. Unofficial world speed record.The aircraft crashed into the ground, killing the pilot. Plans for production were abandoned. Rocketplane testing in the USSR only resumed with the testing of German designs after the war..

1944 December 13 - .
  • X-1 manned supersonic rocket aircraft begun. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. In an AAF-NACA conference, Air Force representatives indicated strong preference for use of rocket engines instead of jets in X-1 research airplane project..

1946 January 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 1 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 1. First glide flight of AAF-NACA XS-1 rocket research airplane (No.1 of the original three X-1's built), by Jack Woolams, Bell Aircraft test pilot, at Pinecastle Army Air Base, Fla..

1946 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 2 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 2. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 3 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 3. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 4 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 4. Gear retracted, left wing damaged. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 5 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 5. Nosewheel retracted on landing runout. Landing-gear door damaged. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 7 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 7. Longitudinal and directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 6 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 6. Static directional stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 9 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 9. Rate of roll investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 February 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 8 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 8. Dynamic stability check. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 March 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 10 - . Crew: Woolams. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Woolams. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 10. Static longitudinal stability investigation. At Pinecastle AAF, Florida..

1946 October 7 - .
  • X-1 moved to Edwards. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. First of three XS-1 (later X-1) rocket research airplanes moved from Bell Aircraft's Niagara Falls plant to Muroc, Calif..

1946 October 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 11 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 1. Glide flight, pilot familiarization..

1946 October 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 12 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 2. Glide flight..

1946 October 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 13 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 3. Glide flight, small check..

1946 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 14 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 4. Glide flight, check of fuel-jettison system..

1946 December 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 15 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 5. First XS-1 powered flight. Mach 0.79 at 10675 m. Minor engine fire. At Edwards AFB, California..

1946 December 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 16 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 6. Familiarization powered flight..

1947 January 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 17 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 7. Buffet boundary investigation. Mach 0.80 at 10675 m..

1947 January 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 18 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 8. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb. Plane reached mach 0.82..

1947 January 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 19 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 9. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb. Telemetry failure..

1947 January 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 20 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 10. Buffet boundary investigation. Full-power climb..

1947 January 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 21 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 11. Accelerated stalls. Partial power due to engine igniters. Mach 0.75..

1947 January 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 22 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 12. Buffet boundary investigation. Mach 0.7..

1947 February 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 23 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 13. Machmeter calibration..

1947 February 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 24 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 14. Buffet boundary investigation..

1947 February 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 25 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 15. Accelerated stalls..

1947 February 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 26 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 16. Flight aborted after drop because of low engine-chamber pressure..

1947 April 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 27 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 11. Glide flight and stall check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 28 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 12. Nosewheel damaged. First powered flight of XS-1 # 1 aircraft. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 29 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 13. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 April 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 30 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 14. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 31 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 15. Handling qualities check. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 32 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 16. Buffet-boundary investigation. Aileron-damper malfunction..

1947 May 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 33 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 17. Buffet-boundary investigation. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 34 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 18. Buffet-boundary investigation. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 May 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 35 - . Crew: Johnston, Alvin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnston, Alvin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 17. Pilot familiarization flight. Mach 0.72, 8 g pullout..

1947 May 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 36 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 18. Airspeed calibration flight to mach 0.72. End of Bell contractor program..

1947 June 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 37 - . Crew: Goodlin. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goodlin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Bell flight 19. Demonstration flight for Aviation Writers Association. At Muroc Dry Lake, California..

1947 August 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 38 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF glide flight 1. Pilot familiarization..

1947 August 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 39 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF glide flight 2. .

1947 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 40 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF glide flight 3. .

1947 August 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 41 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF powered flight 1. Mach 0.85..

1947 September 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 42 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 2. About mach 0.89. Telemeter failure required repeat of this flight..

1947 September 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 43 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 3..

1947 September 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 44 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 4. Mach 0.91. Stability and control investigation..

1947 September 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 45 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 5. Mach 0.92. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation..

1947 September 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 46 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA acceptance flight. Number 4 cylinder burned out..

1947 October 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 47 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 6. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation..

1947 October 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 48 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 7. Airspeed calibration flight. Plane attained mach 0.925..

1947 October 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 49 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 8. Stability and control investigation. Plane attained mach 0.997..

1947 October 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 50 - first supersonic manned flight - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 9. World's first supersonic flight in level or climbing flight was made by Capt. Charles E. Yeager (USAF) at Muroc, Calif., in a rocket-powered NACA-USAF research plane, Bell XS-1XS-1 # 1 attained mach 1.06 at 13,115 m, approximately 1126 kph..

1947 October 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 51 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA glide-familiarization flight for NACA pilot. Stall check. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1947 October 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 52 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 10. Electric power failure. No rocket ignition..

1947 October 28 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 53 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 11. Telemetry failure..

1947 October 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 54 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 12. Telemetry failure..

1947 October 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 55 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 13..

1947 November 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 56 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 14..

1947 November 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 57 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 15..

1947 November 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 58 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 38. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 16. Mach 1.35 at 14823 m..

1947 December 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 59 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA powered flight 1. Familiarization. Mach 0.84. No telemetry record..

1947 December 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 60 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 2. Familiarization. Mach 0.8..

1948 January 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 61 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 3. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.74..

1948 January 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 62 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 4. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Mach 0.83..

1948 January 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 63 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 5. Pilot familiarization..

1948 January 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 64 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 6. Turns and pull-ups to buffet. Sideslips. Mach 0.76..

1948 January 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 65 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 17. Airspeed calibration. Mach 0.9..

1948 January 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 66 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 7. Stabilizer effectiveness investigation. Mach 0.82 at 8845 m..

1948 January 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 67 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 18. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.2..

1948 January 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 68 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 8. Attempted high-speed run aborted at mach 0.83, drop in chamber pressure..

1948 January 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 69 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 9. High-speed run to mach 0.925 at 11590 m. Cylinders 2 and 3 failed to fire..

1948 January 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 70 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 19. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.1..

1948 February 24 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 71 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1.

    AF flight 20. Engine fire after launch forced jettisoning of propellants, completed as a glide flight. However Fitz-Gerald reached 12.1 km and reached Mach 1.10 before the engine was shut off, in the process becoming the second person to break the sound barrier.


1948 March 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 72 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 10. High-speed run to mach 0.943 at 12200 m..

1948 March 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 73 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 11. First NACA supersonic flight. First civilian supersonic flight. Mach 1.065. Nosewheel failed to extend for landing. Minor damage..

1948 March 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 74 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 21. Attained mach 1.25 in dive..

1948 March 22 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 75 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 12. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 1.12..

1948 March 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 76 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 44. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 22. Attained mach 1.45 at 12239 m during dive. Fastest flight ever made in original XS-1 aircraft..

1948 March 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 77 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 13. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.90..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 79 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 45. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 23. Engine shutdown after launch. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 March 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 78 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 14. Stability and loads investigation. Plane attained mach 1.1..

1948 April 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 80 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 15. Engine failed to ignite. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight..

1948 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 81 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 46. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 24. Pilot-check flight. Mach 1.1, during 4-cylinder run at 12505 m..

1948 April 7 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 82 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 47. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 25. Glide flight only..

1948 April 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 83 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 26. Familiarization flight..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 85 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 49. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 27. Powered pilot-check flight..

1948 April 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 84 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 16. Stability and loads investigation. Mach 0.89..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 87 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 28. Pressure distribution survey. Only cylinders 2 and 4 ignited..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 86 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 17. Stability and loads investigation. Plane's nosewheel collapsed on landing. Moderate damage..

1948 April 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 88 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 51. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 29. Aborted because of inconsistent rocket operation. Reached mach 0.9..

1948 April 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 89 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 52. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 30. Pressure distribution survey. Attained mach 1.18..

1948 May 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 90 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 53. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 31. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.15..

1948 May 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 91 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 54. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 32. Stability and control and buffeting investigation. Mach 0.92..

1948 May 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 92 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 55. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 33. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.08..

1948 May 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 93 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 56. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 34. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.05..

1948 June 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 94 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 57. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 35. Left main gear door opened in flight. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1948 November 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 95 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 38. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 18. Stability and control. Mach 0.9. Number 4 cylinder failed to fire..

1948 November 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 96 - . Crew: Hoover. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 39. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoover. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 19. Stability and control. Also pressure-distribution survey. Mach 0.98..

1948 November 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 97 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 40. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 20. Pilot familiarization. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution..

1948 November 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 98 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 41. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 21. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Mach 0.88..

1948 November 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 99 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 42. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 22. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. .

1948 December 1 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 100 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 58. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 36. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 101 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 43. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 23. Check on handling qualities and pressure distribution. Plane exceeded mach 1 briefly..

1948 December 13 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 102 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 59. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 37. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1..

1948 December 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 103 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 38. Wing and tail loads during supersonic flight at high altitudes. Mach 1.09..

1949 During the Year - .
  • Tsien Passenger Spaceplane - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Tsien Spaceplane 1949. Tsien Hsue-shen proposed a 22,000 kg single stage winged rocket that would carry ten passengers from New York to Los Angeles in 45 minutes..

1949 January 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 104 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 61. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 39. Rocket takeoff from the ground..

1949 March 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 105 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 62. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 40. Familiarization flight. Mach 1.23 at 10675 m. Small engine fire due to loose igniter..

1949 March 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 106 - . Crew: Boyd. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Boyd. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 41. Familiarization flight. Inflight engine fire and shutdown..

1949 March 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 107 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 42. Familiarization flight. Mach 1.22 at 12200 m..

1949 March 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 108 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 65. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 43. Check of pressure suit for altitude operation. Mach 1.24 at 14640 m. Rocket fire and automatic engine shutdown..

1949 April 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 109 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 44. Accelerated stall check at transonic speeds. Mach 1.1 at 12200 m..

1949 April 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 110 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 45. Altitude attempt. Only 2 cylinders fired..

1949 May 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 111 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 46. Partial engine malfunction, faulty engine ignition plug..

1949 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 112 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 69. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight. Engine chamber exploded, jamming rudder. Everest landed safely..

1949 May 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 113 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 44. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 24. Check on airplane instrumentation. Mach 0.88 at 12200 m..

1949 May 13 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 114 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 45. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 25. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Mach 0.91..

1949 May 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 115 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 46. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 26. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Mach 0.91. Stabilizer found more effective than the elevator during pull-ups at mach 0.91..

1949 June 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 116 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 47. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 27. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls and pull-ups around mach 0.91..

1949 June 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 117 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 28. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 July 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 118 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 49. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 29. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.91. Number 2 cylinder failed to fire..

1949 July 19 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 119 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 30. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.91. Number 2 cylinder failed to fire..

1949 July 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 120 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 48. Altitude attempt. Attained 20388 m altitude..

1949 July 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 121 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 51. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 31. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 August 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 122 - . Crew: Champine. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 52. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Champine. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 32. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Rolls, pull-ups, check of stabilizer effectiveness..

1949 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 123 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 71. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 49. Altitude attempt. Attained 21930 m altitude..

1949 August 25 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 124 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 50. First use of partial pressure suit to save life of pilot during flight at high altitude. X-1 # 1 lost cockpit pressurization about 21000 m. Everest made safe emergency descent..

1949 September 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 125 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 53. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 33. Pilot familiarization. Mach 0.9..

1949 October 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 126 - . Crew: Fleming. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 73. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fleming. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 51. Pilot familiarization..

1949 October 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 127 - . Crew: Johnson. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 52. Pilot familiarization..

1949 November 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 first supersonic flight. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. It was powered by both a Westinghouse J-34 turbojet engine and a Reaction Motors, Inc. rocket motor..

1949 November 29 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 128 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 75. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 53. High-altitude wing-tail loads investigation..

1949 November 30 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 129 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 54. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 33. Mach 0.91..

1949 December 2 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 130 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 76. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 54. High-altitude wing-tail loads investigation..

1950 January 1 - . Launch Vehicle: MKR.
  • Design of 8,000 km range winged missile begun - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Navaho. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. In parallel with the R-5 Korolev OKB NII-88 begins design of 8,000 km range winged missile..

1950 February 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 131 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 77. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 55. Wing-and-tail-loads investigation..

1950 April 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 132 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 78. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 56. Lateral stability and control investigation..

1950 May 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 133 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 79. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 57. Buffeting, wing and tail loads..

1950 May 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 134 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 80. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 58. Buffeting, wing and tail loads..

1950 May 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 136 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 81. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 59. Last flight of XS-1 No. 1 rocket research airplane, for RKO motion picture "Test Pilot," which was turned over to the National Air Museum at the Smithsonian on August 28th..

1950 May 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 135 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 55. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 34. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls..

1950 May 17 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 137 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 56. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 35. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls. Mach 1.13 at 12810 m..

1950 May 26 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 138 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 57. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 36. Spanwise pressure distribution, stability and control. Pull-ups and rolls. Mach 1.20. Nosewheel collapsed on landing..

1950 August 9 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 139 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 58. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 38. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Mach 0.98..

1950 August 11 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 140 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 59. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 39. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. .

1950 September 21 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 141 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 60. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 40. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Also drag investigation. Pull-ups. Mach 0.90..

1950 October 4 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 142 - . Crew: Griffith. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 61. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Griffith. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 41. For pressure distribution and stability and control data. Check of stabilizer effectiveness. Also drag investigation. Pull-ups..

1951 April 6 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 143 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 62. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 42. Flight for RKO film Jet Pilot. Slight engine fire but no damage..

1951 April 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 144 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 43. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.07..

1951 April 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 145 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 64. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 44. Plane and instrument check..

1951 May 15 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 146 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 65. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 45. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 0.90..

1951 June 11 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 test flight. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Navy D-558-II Douglas Sky-rocket, flown by test pilot William Bridgeman, set a new unofficial airplane speed and altitude record at Edwards AFB, Muroc Dry Lake, Calif.; speed estimated at more than 1,200 mph; altitude estimated 70,000 feet..

1951 July 12 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 147 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 46. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Aileron rolls at mach 1.07..

1951 July 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 148 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 67. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 47. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Abrupt rudder fixed aileron rolls left and right, from mach 0.70 to mach 0.88..

1951 July 24 - .
  • X-1D Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1D flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1D. Bell flight 1. Glide flight for familiarization. Nose landing gear broken on landing. Following repairs, plane turned over to the Air Force..

1951 July 31 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 149 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 68. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 48. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August 3 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 150 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 69. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 49. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness..

1951 August 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 151 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 70. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 50. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups..

1951 August 10 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 152 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 71. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 51. Wing loads and aileron effectiveness. Elevator and stabilizer pull-ups, clean stalls..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 reaches record altitude. - . Crew: Bridgeman. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bridgeman. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. William Bridgeman flew the D-558-II Skyrocket to 79,494 feet, highest altitude attained by a human being to date..

1951 August 22 - .
  • X-1D Flight 2 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1D flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1D. AF flight 1. Launch aborted, but X-1D suffered low-order explosion during pressurization for fuel jettison. Plane jettisoned from B-50. X-1D exploded on impact with desert. Everest managed to get into B-50 bomb bay before drop..

1951 August 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 153 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 52. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.16 at 13420 m during four-cylinder run..

1951 September 5 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 154 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 73. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 53. Fuselage pressure distribution survey. Number 1 cylinder failed to fire. Stabilizer pull-ups at mach 1.07..

1951 October 23 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 155 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 74. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. NACA flight 54. Engine cut out after two ignition attempts; propellants jettisoned and flight completed as glide flight. Plane subsequently grounded because of possibility of fatigue failure of nitrogen spheres..

1951 November 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • XS-1 No. 3 destroyed in ground explosion. - . Crew: Cannon. Payload: XS-1 # 3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cannon. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Planned captive flight with B-50 for propellant jettison test. XS-1 (No. 3) rocket research airplane and its B-29 "mother" airplane were destroyed on the ground by postflight explosion and fire. Pilot Cannon was injured..

1953 February 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 2 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 2. Planned as powered flight, but completed as glide flight following propellant-system difficulties..

1953 February 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 1 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 1. Pilot familiarization. Fuel jettison test. Glide flight only..

1953 February 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 3 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 3. First powered flight. False fire warning..

1953 March 26 - .
  • X-1A Flight 4 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 4. Plane demonstrated successful 4-cylinder engine operation..

1953 April 10 - .
  • X-1A Flight 5 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 5. Pilot noted low-frequency elevator buzz at mach 0.93, did not proceed above this speed, pending buzz investigation..

1953 April 25 - .
  • X-1A Flight 6 - . Crew: Ziegler. Payload: X-1A flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Bell flight 6. Buzz again noted at mach 0.93. Turbopump overspeeding caused pilot to terminate power and jettison remaining fuel..

1953 May 12 - .
  • X-2 explodes in air - . Crew: Ziegler. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ziegler. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 .

    During a Bell captive-carry flight test over Lake Ontario, X-2 number 46-675 suddenly exploded, killing Bell test pilot Jean Ziegler and observer Frank Wolko. The EB-50A mothership managed to land, although damaged. Only after several other mysterious X-plane losses was the cause found to be a rocket engine gasket made of Ulmer leather, which decomposed and became explosively unstable after sustained exposure to liquid oxygen.


1953 August 21 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • D-558 record altitude. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: D-558-1. Spacecraft: D-558-2. Flying Douglas D-558-II (No. 2) Skyrocket research aircraft which had been launched from a B-29 Superfortress at an altitude of 34,000 feet, Lt. Col. Marion E. Carl, USMC, attained an altitude of 83,235 feet at Edwards AFB, Calif..

1953 November 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 7 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 1. Reached mach 1.15. Familiarization purposes..

1953 December 2 - .
  • X-1A Flight 8 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 2. Mach 1.5..

1953 December 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 9 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 3. First high-mach flight attempt by X-1A. Mach 1.9 attained at 18300 m during slight climb..

1953 December 12 - .
  • X-1A Flight 10 - . Crew: Yeager. Payload: X-1A flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Yeager. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 4. Plane attained mach 2.44, but met violent instability above mach 2.3. Tumbled 15250 m, wound up in subsonic inverted spin. Yeager recovered to upright spin, then normal flight at 7625 m..

1954 March 21 - .
  • X-1A Flight 11 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 5. Date estimated..

1954 April 4 - .
  • X-1A Flight 12 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 6. Date estimated..

1954 April 11 - .
  • X-1A Flight 13 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 7. Date estimated..

1954 April 25 - .
  • X-1A Flight 14 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 8. Date estimated..

1954 May 14 - .
  • X-1A Flight 15 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 9. Date estimated..

1954 May 28 - .
  • X-1A Flight 16 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 10. X-1A attained 26564 m, un-official world altitude record for manned aircraft..

1954 June 4 - .
  • X-1A Flight 17 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 11. X-1A reached 27374 m. Encountered same instability Yeager had, but at mach 1.97. Murray recovered after tumbling 6100 m down to 20130 m..

1954 June 18 - .
  • X-1A Flight 18 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 12. Date estimated..

1954 July 2 - .
  • X-1A Flight 19 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 13. Date estimated..

1954 July 9 - .
  • X-15 project begun. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A.

    NACA met with USAF and Navy BuAer representatives to propose the X-15 as an extension of the cooperative rocket research aircraft program. The NACA proposal was accepted as a joint effort and a memorandum of understanding was signed on December 23 naming NACA as technical director of the project, with advice from a joint Research Airplane Committee.


1954 July 16 - .
  • X-1A Flight 20 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 14. Date estimated..

1954 July 30 - .
  • X-1A Flight 21 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 15. Date estimated..

1954 August 5 - .
  • X-2 Flight 1 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . First glide flight of the second X-2, number 46-674, after delivery to Edwards AFB a month earlier. Damaged on landing..

1954 August 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 22 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 16. Date estimated..

1954 August 19 - .
  • X-1A Flight 23 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 17. Date estimated..

1954 August 26 - .
  • X-1A Flight 24 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1A flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. AF flight 18. Murray attained 27584 m. Air Force then turned X-1A over to NACA..

1954 August 29 - .
  • X-1B Flight 1 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 2. Cabin-pressure regulator malfunction causes inner canopy to crack; only low-speed, low-altitude maneuvers made..

1954 September 24 - .
  • X-1B Flight 2 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: X-1B flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 1. Glide flight, because of turbopump over-speeding..

1954 October 6 - .
  • X-1B Flight 3 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: X-1B flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 2. Glide flight, aborted power flight because of evidence of high lox-tank pressure..

1954 October 8 - .
  • X-1B Flight 4 - . Crew: Murray. Payload: X-1B flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Murray. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 3. First powered flight..

1954 October 13 - .
  • X-1B Flight 5 - . Crew: Stephens. Payload: X-1B flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Stephens. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 4..

1954 October 19 - .
  • X-1B Flight 6 - . Crew: Childs. Payload: X-1B flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Childs. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 5..

1954 October 26 - .
  • X-1B Flight 7 - . Crew: Hanes. Payload: X-1B flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hanes. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 6..

1954 November 4 - .
  • X-1B Flight 8 - . Crew: Harer. Payload: X-1B flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Harer. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 7..

1954 November 26 - .
  • X-1B Flight 9 - . Crew: Holtoner. Payload: X-1B flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Holtoner. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 8..

1954 November 30 - .
  • X-1B Flight 10 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1B flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 9..

1954 December 2 - .
  • X-1B Flight 11 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-1B flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. AF flight 10. Mach 2.3 at 19825 m..

1955 March 8 - .
  • X-2 Flight 2 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Second glide flight. Propellant system check. Minor damage on landing..

1955 April 6 - .
  • X-2 Flight 3 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Third glide flight. Damaged on landing. Following flight, plane returned to Bell plant for extensive modifications to landing gear system to prevent further landing accidents and for installation of its rocket engine..

1955 July 20 - .
  • X-1A Flight 25 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. NACA flight 1. Familiarization. Walker attained mach 1.45 at 13725 m. Noted severe aileron buzz at mach 0.90 to 0.92..

1955 August 8 - .
  • X-1A Flight 26 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1A flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1A. Planned at NACA flight 2. Shortly before launch from B-29, X-1A suffered low-order explosion, later traced to detonation of Ulmer leather gaskets. Walker exited into B-29 bomb bay..

1955 October 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 4 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Aborted powered flight attempt; became 4th glide flight..

1955 November 18 - .
  • X-2 Flight 5 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . First powered flight. Mach 0.992 at 10,675 m. Slight fire damage from engine bay fire..

1955 December 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 1 - . Payload: X-1E flight 1. Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. Captive flight..

1955 December 12 - .
  • X-1E Flight 2 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 1. Glide flight for pilot check-out and low speed evaluation..

1955 December 15 - .
  • X-1E Flight 3 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 2. First powered flight. Engine ran at excessive pressure, 4 overspeeds of turbopump and 2 automatic shutdowns. Power terminated by pilot..

1956 February 1 - .
  • USAF RFP - Manned Ballistic Rocket Research System - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. USAF issues request for industry proposals for Project 7969 Manned Ballistic Rocket Research System. Two year study period..

1956 March 24 - .
  • X-2 Flight 6 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Second powered flight, mach 0.91..

1956 April 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 4 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 3. Mach 0.85 at 9150 m. Damping characteristics good; number 1 cylinder failed to fire..

1956 April 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 7 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . 3d powered flight, mach 1.4 at 15250 m..

1956 April 30 - .
  • X-1E Flight 5 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 4. Turbopump did not start; no engine operation..

1956 May 1 - .
  • X-2 Flight 8 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Fourth powered flight, mach 1.683 at 16,378 m..

1956 May 11 - .
  • X-1E Flight 6 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 5. Wind-up turns to Clmas from mach 0.69 to 0.84; also control pulses..

1956 May 11 - .
  • X-2 Flight 9 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Fifth powered flight, mach 1.8 at 18,300 m..

1956 May 22 - .
  • X-2 Flight 10 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Sixth powered flight, mach 2.53 at 17.803 m..

1956 May 25 - .
  • X-2 Flight 11 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Seventh powered flight; pilot checkout, mach 1+..

1956 June - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • First studies by Korolev OKB of manned spacecraft - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. First studies by Korolev and Feoktistov of manned spacecraft. The first stage would be suborbital ballistic flights (like the US Mercury-Redstone flights) from Kapustin Yar using IRBM's. First flights not planned until 1964 - 1967..

1956 June 7 - .
  • X-1E Flight 7 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 6. Mach 1.55 at 13725 m. Longitudinal and lateral trim changes in transonic region found annoying to pilot..

1956 June 18 - .
  • X-1E Flight 8 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 7. Mach 1.74 at 18300 m. Damaged on landing..

1956 July 12 - .
  • X-2 Flight 12 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Eighth powered flight, premature engine shutdown..

1956 July 23 - .
  • X-2 Flight 13 - . Crew: Everest. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Everest. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . Ninth powered flight, Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest (USAF) flew the Bell X-2 rocket-powered research plane at a record speed of Mach 2.87, ust over 1,900 mph, at 20,802 m..

1956 July 26 - .
  • X-1E Flight 9 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 8. Subsonic because cylinders 3 and 4 world not fire..

1956 August 3 - .
  • X-2 Flight 14 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . 10th powered flight, mach 2.5+, 26764 m..

1956 August 8 - .
  • X-2 Flight 15 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . 11th powered flight, premature engine shutdown..

1956 August 14 - .
  • X-1B Flight 12 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 1. Pilot check; nose landing gear failed on landing, minor damage..

1956 August 31 - .
  • X-1E Flight 10 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 9. Mach 2.0 at 18300 m. Sideslips, pulses, rolls..

1956 September 7 - .
  • X-2 Flight 16 - . Crew: Kincheloe. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kincheloe. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 . 12th powered flight. Capt. Iven C. Kincheloe (USAF) set new unofficial altitude record for manned flight at Edwards AFB, Calif., piloting a Bell X-2 rocket-powered aircraft to a height of 38,491 m, top speed Mach 1.7..

1956 September 7 - .
  • X-1B Flight 13 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 3. Speed run to 17080 m and mach 1.8. Limited heating data gathered..

1956 September 14 - .
  • X-1E Flight 11 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 10. Mach 2.1 at 18910 m. Stabilizer, rudder, and aileron pulses..

1956 September 18 - .
  • X-1B Flight 14 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 4. Glide flight, due to erratic engine start..

1956 September 20 - .
  • X-1E Flight 12 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 11. Brief engine power only; flight aborted, unspecified engine malfunction..

1956 September 27 - .
  • X-2 reaches Mach 3. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2.

    After having been launched from a B-50 bomber over the Mojave Desert in California, Capt. Milburn G. Apt (USAF), flying an X-2 rocket-powered plane on its 13th powered flight, set a record speed of 2,094 mph, or Mach 3.196. In the course of the flight the aircraft crashed and the pilot was killed.


1956 September 27 - .
  • X-2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Apt, Milburn. Payload: X-2 # 1 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Milburn. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-2 .

    After having been launched from a B-50 bomber over the Mojave Desert in California, Capt. Milburn G. Apt (USAF), flying an X-2 rocket-powered plane on its 13th powered flight, set a record speed of 3,377 kph, or Mach 3.196 at 19,977 m. Subsequent loss of control from inertial coupling led to the destruction of the aircraft and the death of the pilot.


1956 September 28 - .
  • X-1B Flight 15 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 5. Three-chamber engine run to 18300 m to obtain heating data..

1956 October 1 - .
  • X-15 follow-on work begun. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. NACA scientists initiated examination of the need for a follow-on manned-rocket research vehicle to the X-15, following ARDC inquiries concerning a boost-glide vehicle..

1956 October 3 - .
  • X-1E Flight 13 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 12. Only 60-sec rocket operation; intermittent pump operation. Flight aborted, turbopump and engine replaced..

1956 November 20 - .
  • X-1E Flight 14 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 13. No engine operation, ignition failure due to lack of manifold pressure..

1957 January 3 - .
  • X-1B Flight 16 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 6. Mach 1.94 aerodynamic heating investigation (end of heating program)..

1957 February 14 - .
  • X-15 follow-on studied. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    NACA established "Round Three" Steering Committee to study feasiblity of a hypersonic boost-glide research airplane. "Round Three" was considered as the third major flight research program which started with the X-series of rocket-propelled supersonic research airplanes, and which considered the X-15 research airplane as the second major program. The boost-glide program eventually became known as DynaSoar.


1957 April 23 - .
  • X-15 first public details announced. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Details of X-15 rocket research airplane were publicly revealed for the first time..

1957 April 25 - .
  • X-1E Flight 15 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 14. Mach 1.71 at 20435 m. Aileron and rudder pulses..

1957 May 15 - .
  • X-1E Flight 16 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 15. Mach 2.0 at 22,265 m. Aileron pulses and rolls, sideslips, and wind-up turns. Plane severely damaged upon landing..

1957 May 22 - .
  • X-1B Flight 17 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 7. Control pulses at mach 1.45 at 18300 m. Flight for instrumentation check..

1957 June 7 - .
  • X-1B Flight 18 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 8. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 24 - .
  • X-1B Flight 19 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 9. Supersonic maneuvers to mach 1.5 at 18300 m to determine the dynamic and static stability and control characteristics..

1957 June 30 - .
  • First serious manned winged spacecraft design - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: VKA Myasishchev M-48. Myasishchev OKB-23 sketches first serious manned winged spacecraft design..

1957 July 11 - .
  • X-1B Flight 20 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 10. Aborted after launch, indication of open landing-gear door. Propellants jettisoned, completed as a glide flight..

1957 July 19 - .
  • X-1B Flight 21 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 11. Mach 1.65 at 18,300 m. Control pulses, sideslips, and 2 g wind-up turn..

1957 July 29 - .
  • X-1B Flight 22 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 12. Enlarged wing tips installed to simulate wing tips to be used with reaction controls. Mach 1.55 at 18,300 m..

1957 August 8 - .
  • X-1B Flight 23 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1B flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 13. Stability and control investigation. Mach 1.5 at 18300 m, accelerated maneuvers, control pulses, and pull-ups..

1957 August 15 - .
  • X-1B Flight 24 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 14. Pilot check. Nose landing gear failed on landing, minor damage..

1957 September 19 - .
  • X-1E Flight 17 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 16. Planned mach number not attained, loss of power during pushover from climb..

1957 October 8 - .
1957 October 14 - .
  • Dynasoar selected as X-15 follow-on. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. USAF and NACA reviewed preliminary studies dating from 1954 on a boost-glide research vehicle to follow the X-15; all studies were combined into a single plan which was accepted by the Air Force and later designated as Dyna-Soar..

1957 November 27 - .
  • X-1B Flight 25 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 15. First reaction-control flight..

1958 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Work begun on Vostok spacecraft and third stage - . Nation: Russia. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

1958 January 15 - .
  • Eleven proposals for Project 7969 initial manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. The Air Force received 11 unsolicited industry proposals for Project 7969, and technical evaluation was started. Observers from NACA participated..

1958 January 16 - .
  • X-1B Flight 26 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 16. Low-altitude, low-mach reaction-control investigation..

1958 January 23 - .
  • X-1B Flight 27 - . Crew: Armstrong. Payload: X-1B flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1B. NACA flight 17. Reaction-control investigation. Mach 1.5 at 16775 m. Last NACA flight..

1958 May 1 - .
  • Korolev OKB cancels suborbital manned flights - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Ustinov. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

    Decision to move directly to early manned flights in orbit. Korolev, after a review with engineers, determines that planned three stage versions of the R-7 ICBM could launch a manned orbital spacecraft. Korolev advocates pursuit of manned spaceflight at the expense of the military's Zenit reconnsat program, putting him in opposition to Ustinov.


1958 May 14 - .
  • X-1E Flight 19 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 18. First flight with ventral fins; longitudinal and lateral stability and control maneuvers. Engine airstart made at 21,350 m..

1958 May 20 - .
  • Dynasoar NACA-USAF MOU. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. NACA-USAF Memorandum of Understanding signed, "Principles for Participation of NACA in Development and Testing of the Air Force System 464L Hypersonic Boost Glide Vehicle (Dyna-Soar I).".

1958 June 1 - .
  • Start of construction of manned spacecraft - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Myasishchev, Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Vostok.

    Competing manned projects. Korolev OKB-1 proposed Vostok ballistic capsule as quickest way to put a man in space while meeting Zenit project's reconnsat requirements. Under project VKA-23 (Vodushno Kosmicheskiye Apparat) Myasishchev OKB-23 proposed two designs, a faceted craft with a single tail, and a dual tail contoured version. Tsybin OKB-256 proposed seven man winged craft with variable wing dihedral. Contracts awarded to all three OKB's to proceed with construction of protoypes. R-7 booster to be used for suborbital launches.


1958 June 10 - .
  • X-1E Flight 20 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 19. Flight aborted after only 1 cylinder of engine fired. Plane damaged on landing..

1958 June 16 - . Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Dynasoar Phase I contracts announced. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Phase I contracts for the Dyna-Soar boost-glide orbital spacecraft are awarded by the USAF to two teams of contractors: one headed by Boeing (Aerojet, General Electric, Ramo-Wooldridge, North American, and Chance Vought), and one headed by Martin (Bell, American Machine & Foundry, Bendix, Goodyear, and Minneapolis-Honeywell). Under the $ 9 million one-year contracts each team was to refine its design, leading to a competitive down-select.


1958 July 1 - .
  • Korolev letter to Politburo - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. First explanation to leadership of advantages of manned spaceflight..

1958 September 10 - .
  • X-1E Flight 21 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 20. Stability and control investigation with ventral fins..

1958 September 17 - .
  • X-1E Flight 22 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 21. Stability and control with ventral fins and a new stabilizer bell crank permitting greater stabilizer travel..

1958 September 19 - .
  • X-1E Flight 23 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 22. Checkout flight for John McKay..

1958 September 30 - .
  • X-1E Flight 24 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 23. Check of low-speed stability and control..

1958 October 1 - .
  • NASA created - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

    NASA was activated in accordance with the terms of Public Law 85-568, and the nonmilitary space projects which had been conducted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency were transferred to the jurisdiction of the NASA. Concurrently, NACA, after a 43-year tenure, was inactivated, and its facilities and personnel became a part of NASA.


1958 October 7 - .
  • Project Mercury organized. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    NASA formally organized Project Mercury to: (1) place manned space capsule in orbital flight around the earth; (2) investigate man's reactions to and capabilities in this environment; and (3) recover capsule and pilot safely. A NASA Space Task Group organized at Langley Research Center drew up specifications for the Mercury capsule, based on studies by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during the preceding 12 months, and on discussions with the Air Force which had been conducting related studies.


1958 October 15 - .
  • X-15 rollout. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. First of a series of three X-15 experimental rocket-powered manned research aircraft was rolled out at the Los Angeles plant of North American Aviation, Inc., in the joint USAF-USN-NASA program..

1958 October 16 - .
  • X-1E Flight 25 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 24. First flight with elevated chamber pressure; cut short because overcast obscured pilot's view of lakebed..

1958 October 28 - .
  • X-1E Flight 26 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 25. Elevated chamber pressure; good stability and control data gathered..

1958 November 6 - .
  • X-1E Flight 27 - . Crew: McKay. Payload: X-1E flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McKay. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft Bus: XS-1. Spacecraft: X-1E. NACA flight 26. Elevated chamber pressure; low-altitude and low-mach investigation of U-Deta fuel. Last NASA flight..

1958 November 26 - .
  • Project Mercury named. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Project Mercury, U.S. manned-satellite program, was officially named by NASA..

1958 December 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • ABMA Briefing to NASA - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Von Braun briefs NASA on plans for booster development at Huntsville with objective of manned lunar landing. Initally proposed using 15 Juno V (Saturn I) boosters to assemble 200,000 kg payload in earth orbit for direct landing on moon..

1959 January 12 - .
  • McDonnell awarded contract for Mercury project - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. 12 capsules to be built. Other leading contender was Grumman. Original schedule was for manned flights from January - August 1960..

1959 February 15 - .
  • NASA Booster Development Plan for 60's - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. NASA issues plan for development in next decade of Vega (later cancelled as too similar to Agena), Centaur, Saturn, and Nova launch vehicles. Juno V renamed Saturn I..

1959 March 1 - .
  • OKB-1 preliminary work on circumlunar spacecraft - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Sever.

    The first design sketched out was known as Sever (North). The reentry capsule had the same configuration as the ultimate Soyuz design but was 50% larger. By summer 1959 Feoktistov had reduced the size to that of the later Soyuz, while retaining the three-man crew size.


1959 April 2 - .
  • Seven astronauts selected for Mercury project. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carpenter, Cooper, Glenn, Grissom, Schirra, Shepard, Slayton. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    Seven astronauts were selected for Project Mercury after a series of the most rigorous physical and mental tests ever given to U.S. test pilots. Chosen from a field of 110 candidates, the finalists were all qualified test pilots: Capts. Leroy G. Cooper, Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, and Donald K. Slayton, (USAF); Lt. Malcolm S. Carpenter, Lt. Comdr. Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Lt. Comdr. Watler M. Schirra, Jr. (USN); and Lt. Col. John H. Glenn (USMC).


1959 April 27 - .
  • Mercury search and rescue procedures developed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Meeting of DOD working group on Project Mercury search and recovery operations was held at Patrick Air Force Base, with major emphasis placed on the first two ballistic Atlas shots, and command relationships..

1959 November 9 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan I.
  • Contractor selection for Dynasoar and Titan I announced. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Boeing and Martin selected by USAF to develop Dynasoar and Titan I launch vehicle. The compromise project reformulation a week earlier led to this announcement by the Secretary of the Air Force. Boeing was the winner of the DynaSoar design competition on 9 November 1959 - but for the glider and total system only. Martin was selected as an associate contractor for booster development. Dynasoar received the designation WS-620A on 17 November 1959


1959 December 4 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • Mercury Little Joe 2 (LJ-2) - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    LJ-2 was launched from Wallops Island to determine the motions of the spacecraft escape tower combination during a high-altitude abort, entry dynamics without a control system, physiological effects of acceleration on a small primate, operation of the drogue parachute, and effectiveness of the recovery operation. Telemetry was set up to record some 80 bits of information on the flight. The abort sequence was initiated by timers after 59 seconds of elapsed flight time at an altitude of about 96,000 feet and a speed of Mach 5.5. Escape motor firing occurred as planned and the spacecraft was whisked away at a speed of about Mach 6 to an apogee of 53.03 statute miles. All other sequences operated as planned, and spacecraft recovery was effected in about 2 hours from lift-off. The primate passenger, 'Sam,' an American-born rhesus monkey, withstood the trip and the recovery in good condition. All objectives of the mission were met.


1959 December 9 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • Goett Committee - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Committee formed to recommend post-Mercury space program. After four meetings, and studying earth-orbit assembly using Saturn II or direct ascent using Nova, tended to back development of Nova..

1960 February 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Lunar Program Based on Saturn Systems - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing. Study issued by Huntsville of lunar landing alternatives using Saturn systems. Huntsville transferred from Army to NASA. Vought study on modular approach to lunar landing. Internally NASA decides on lunar landing as next objective after Mercury..

1960 March 1 - .
  • 20 Cosmonaut candidates report for Vostok training - . Nation: Russia. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

1960 April 12 - .
  • First production Mercury capsule delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. First production model of McDonnell-built Mercury capsule was delivered to NASA..

1960 April 25 - .
  • USAF authorizes FSD of Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1960 April 27 - .
  • Dynasoar passes first design review. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Completion of technical review of Dyna-Soar program announced by the Air Force..

1960 May 9 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island.
  • Beach Abort 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    First production model of Project Mercury spacecraft was successfully launched from NASA Wallops Station to test escape, landing, and recovery systems. Known as the "beach abort" shot, the Mercury capsule reached 775 m before parachute landing and pickup by Marine helicopter returned it to Wallops' hangar 17 minutes after launch.


1960 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 1 - . Payload: Vostok 1KP. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1,979.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 34 . COSPAR: 1960-Epsilon-1. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min.

    The Soviet Union launched a Vostok 1KP prototype manned spacecraft (without heat shield; not recoverable) into near-earth orbit. Called Sputnik IV by the Western press. On May 19, at 15:52 Moscow time, the spacecraft was commanded to retrofire. However the guidance system had oriented the spacecraft incorrectly and the TDU engine instead put the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Soviet scientists said that conditions in the cabin, which had separated from the remainder of the spacecraft, were normal.
    Officially: Development and checking of the main systems of the space ship satellite, which ensure its safe flight and control in flight, return to Earth and conditions needed for a man in flight.


1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-07-23 . First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket..

1960 August 19 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 2 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 2. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.09 days. Decay Date: 1960-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 55 . COSPAR: 1960-Lambda-1. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min.

    The Soviet Union launched its second unmanned test of the Vostok spacecraft, the Korabl Sputnik II, or Sputnik V. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Strelka and Belka, in addition to a gray rabbit, rats, mice, flies, plants, fungi, microscopic water plants, and seeds. Electrodes attached to the dogs and linked with the spacecraft communications system, which included a television camera, enabled Soviet scientists to check the animals' hearts, blood pressure, breathing, and actions during the trip. After the spacecraft reentered and landed safely the next day, the animals and biological specimens were reported to be in good condition.
    Officially: Development of systems ensuring man's life functions and safety in flight and his return to Earth.


1960 October 1 - .
  • Ongoing winged manned spacecraft project cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev, Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: VKA. Spacecraft: VKA-23 Design 1. In reduction of military-industrical complex, Myasishchev and Tsybin design bureaus are closed and work stopped on the three prototype winged manned spacecraft already built..

1960 November 1 - .
  • Chelomei R winged manned spacecraft project starts - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Myasishchev, Tsybin. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Raketoplan, SAINT, SAINT II.

    Immediately after cancellation of similar projects at Myasishchev and Tsybin bureaus, Chelomei's new bureau is assigned to build equivalent of US Dynasoar / Saint II. Winged manned spacecraft for interception, inspection, and destruction of US satellites up to 290 km altitude. Two man crew, 24 hour mission duration, large aft drag brakes.


1960 December 1 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 3 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 3. Mass: 4,563 kg (10,059 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.99 days. Decay Date: 1960-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 65 . COSPAR: 1960-Rho-1. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    The Soviet Union launched its third spaceship satellite, Korabl Sputnik III, or Sputnik VI. The spacecraft, similar to those launched on May 15 and August 19, carried the dogs Pcheka and Mushka in addition to other animals, insects, and plants. Deorbited December 2, 1960 7:15 GMT. Burned up on reentry due to steep entry angle (retrofire engine did not shut off on schedule and burned to fuel depletion).
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.


1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. FAILURE: The third stage engine RO-7 failed just after ignition, 425 seconds in to flight.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-12-20 .

    Unable to reach orbital velocity, the Vostok prototype separated while the third stage was still firing. While the ejection seat failed to operate, the capsule did make a hard landing in severe winter conditons in Siberia. It was recovered after some time, and the dogs Kometa and Shutka were alive. As a result of this flight the ejection seat was developed with a heat shield designed to protect the pilot in the event of a launch vehicle failure up to shut down of the first stage. Additional Details: here....


1960 December 26 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • First segmented solid motor test. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Successful firing of a solid-propellant rocket motor using "building block" method was announced by NASA..

1961 January 13 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • USAF changes Dynasoar launch vehicle to Titan II - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1961 February 13 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Beginning of Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. First formal NASA/McDonnell discussions on Mercury Mark II (Gemini)..

1961 March 9 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 4 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 1. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mozzhorin, Yazdovskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 91 . COSPAR: 1961-Theta-1. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Carried dog Chernushka, mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, and other biological specimens. Ivanovich was ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Chernsuhka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 9, 1961 8:10 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, which ensure necessary conditions for man's flight. Additional Details: here....


1961 March 25 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 5 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 2. Mass: 4,695 kg (10,350 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Gagarin, Goreglyad, Kamanin, Karpov, Keldysh, Kirillov, Korolev, Nelyubov, Nikolayev, Popovich, Titov, Voskresenskiy, Yazdovskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 95 . COSPAR: 1961-Iota-1. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

    Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....


1961 March 28 - .
  • USAF/NASA Dynasoar review. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. USAF Dyna-Soar System Project Office personnel visited NASA headquarters for review of technical and management programs..

1961 April 12 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 1 - . Call Sign: Kedr (Cedar ). Crew: Gagarin. Backup Crew: Nelyubov, Titov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 3. Mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin, Karpov, Keldysh, Korolev, Moskalenko, Nelyubov, Rudnev, Titov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0750 days. Decay Date: 1961-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 103 . COSPAR: 1961-Mu-1. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Three press releases were prepared, one for success, two for failures. It was only known ten minutes after burnout, 25 minutes after launch, if a stable orbit had been achieved.

    The payload included life-support equipment and radio and television to relay information on the condition of the pilot. The flight was automated; Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship. The combination to unlock the controls was available in a sealed envelope in case it became necessary to take control in an emergency. After retrofire, the service module remained attached to the Sharik reentry sphere by a wire bundle. The joined craft went through wild gyrations at the beginning of re-entry, before the wires burned through. The Sharik, as it was designed to do, then naturally reached aerodynamic equilibrium with the heat shield positioned correctly.

    Gagarin ejected after re-entry and descended under his own parachute, as was planned. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Recovered April 12, 1961 8:05 GMT. Landed Southwest of Engels Smelovka, Saratov. Additional Details: here....


1961 April 25 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Mercury MA-3 - . Payload: Mercury SC8. Mass: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-04-25 .

    Mercury-Atlas 3 (MA-3) was launched from Cape Canaveral in an attempt to orbit the spacecraft with a 'mechanical astronaut' aboard. After lift-off, the launch vehicle failed to roll to a 70 degree heading and to pitch over into the proper trajectory. The abort-sensing system activated the escape rockets prior to the launch vehicle's destruction by the range safety officer after approximately 40 seconds of flight that had attained an altitude of 16,400 feet. The spacecraft then coasted up to 24,000 feet, deployed its parachutes, and landed in the Atlantic Ocean 2,000 yards north of the launch pad. The spacecraft was recovered and was found to have incurred only superficial damage; it was then shipped to McDonnell for refitting.


1961 April 28 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Dynasoar launch by Saturn I studied. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Final NASA report on the study proposed for Saturn for use as Dyna-Soar booster was presented to the Air Force..

1961 May 5 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury MR-3 - . Call Sign: Freedom 7. Crew: Shepard. Backup Crew: Grissom. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom, Shepard. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-3. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.0107 days. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made the first United States manned space flight in a Mercury spacecraft launched from Cape Canaveral atop the Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) vehicle. "Freedom 7" completed the suborbital, ballistic flight without incident in this historical first mission of NASA's Project Mercury. Alan Shepard first American in space, less than a month after Gagarin and only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. Only manned flight with original Mercury capsule design (tiny round porthole and periscope a la Vostok). If NASA had not listened to Von Braun, Shepard would have flown on the MR-BD flight of 24 March, beating Gagarin by three weeks and becoming the first man in space (though not in orbit). Shepard's capsule reached an altitude of 115.696 miles, range of 302 miles,and speed of 5,100 miles per hour. He demonstrated control of a vehicle during weightlessness and high G stresses. Recovery operations were perfect; there was no damage to the spacecraft; and Astronaut Shepard was in excellent condition.


1961 May 26 - .
  • Freedom 7 displayed at Paris Air Show. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Freedom 7, Mercury spacecraft in which Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made his space flight on May 5, was a major drawing card at the Paris International Air Show. Details of the spacecraft and of Shepard's flight were related to about 650,000 visitors..

1961 June 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Moon program go-ahead in response to U.S. start - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Korolev, Yangel. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: LK-1, Soyuz A, Soyuz B, Soyuz V.

    Chelomei is informally asked by Khruschev to begin design of a booster and spacecraft for a manned circumlunar mission (UR-500 Proton and LK-1). There is no authorization for a lunar landing program, although Korolev, Yangel, and Chelomei all begin booster designs.


1961 June 13 - .
  • Freedom 7 exhibited in Rome. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Freedom 7 Mercury capsule displayed to approximately 750,000 visitors at the Rassegna International Electronic and Nuclear Fair at Rome, Italy..

1961 June 19 - .
  • X-15 awards. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield, Walker, White, Robert. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Harmon International Aviator's Trophy for 1961 announced as going to three winners for the first time-X-15 rocket research airplane pilots: A. Scott Crossfield, of North American; Joseph A. Walker, of NASA, and Maj. Robert A. White, U.S. Air Force..

1961 June 22 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • First decision on Apollo launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing.

    Meeting with Webb/Dryden, work on Saturn C-2 stopped; preliminary design of C-3 and continuing studies of larger vehicles for landing missions requested. STG push for 4 x 6.6 m diameter solid cluster first stage rejected for safety and ground handling reasons.


1961 July 19 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury MR-4 launch scrubbed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-4. Spacecraft: Mercury. Mercury-Redstone (MR-4) with manned Liberty Bell 7 capsule canceled within minutes of launch because of adverse weather..

1961 July 21 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Mercury MR-4 - . Call Sign: Liberty Bell 7. Crew: Grissom. Backup Crew: Glenn. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glenn, Grissom. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-4. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.0108 days. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

    The Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, manned by Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, boosted by a Redstone rocket, reached a peak altitude of 190.3 km and a speed of 8,335 km per hour. After a flight of 15 minutes and 37 seconds, the landing was made 487 km downrange from the launch site. The hatch blew while still in water, and the capsule sank; Grissom saved, though his suit was filling up with water through open oxygen inlet lines.

    This was the second and final manned suborbital Mercury Redstone flight, and the first flight with trapezoidal window. Further suborbital flights (each astronaut was to make one as a training exercise) were cancelled. An attempt to recover the capsule in very deep water in 1994 not successful. It was finally raised in the summer of 1999.


1961 August 1 - .
  • McDonnell proposal for Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Baseline 10 earth orbit flights; also proposed for docking with Centaur and circumlunar flights by March 1965. NASA not interested - threat to Apollo..

1961 August 5 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Solid motor segment test. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Segmented solid-propellent rocket engine fired by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, generating over 200,000 pounds of thrust in 80-second firing. Developed under NASA contract, center section of engine contained over 55,000 pounds of propellant, the largest single piece yet manufactured in the United States.


1961 August 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 2 - . Call Sign: Oryel (Eagle ). Crew: Titov. Backup Crew: Nelyubov, Nikolayev. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nelyubov, Nikolayev, Titov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1961-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 168 . COSPAR: 1961-Tau-1. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Second manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union successfully launched Vostok II into orbit with Gherman S. Titov as pilot. The spacecraft carried life-support equipment, radio and television for monitoring the condition of the cosmonaut, tape recorder, telemetry system, biological experiments, and automatic and manual control equipment. Flight objectives: Investigation of the effects on the human organism of a prolonged flight in orbit and subsequent return to the surface of the Earth; investigation of man's ability to work during a prolonged period of weightlessness. Titov took manual control of spacecraft but suffered from space sickness. He was equipped with a professional quality Konvas movie camera, with which ten minutes of film of the earth were taken through the porthole. Both television and film images were taken of the interior of the spacecraft. Like Gagarin, Titov experienced problems with separation of the service module after retrofire. Titov was never to fly again, after being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane, which turned out to be a dead-end project. A biography of him by Martin Caidin ('I Am Eagle') made him somewhat more accessible than Gagarin to the West.


1961 August 18 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone MRLV.
  • Further Mercury suborbital flights cancelled. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MR-5. Spacecraft: Mercury. NASA announced that analysis of Project Mercury suborbital data indicated that all objectives of that phase of the program had been achieved, and that no further Mercury-Redstone flights were planned..

1961 August 31 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-3.
  • Chamberlain proposes lunar landing by Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Landing by Gemini using 4,000 kg wet/680 kg empty lander and Saturn C-3 booster. Landing by January 1966..

1961 September 7 - .
  • Selection of Saturn first stage assembly plant - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

    NASA announced that the government-owned Michoud Ordnance Plant near New Orleans, La., would be the site for fabrication and assembly of the Saturn C-3 first stage as well as larger vehicles. Finalists were two government-owned plants in St. Louis and New Orleans. The height of the factory roof at Michoud meant that an 8 x F-1 engined vehicle could not be built; 4 or 5 engines would have to be the maximum.


1961 September 13 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-4 - . Payload: Mercury SC8A. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 183 . COSPAR: 1961-A-Alpha-1. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Mercury-Atlas 4 (MA-4) was launched from Cape Canaveral with special vibration and noise instrumentation and a mechanical crewman simulator aboard in addition to the normal spacecraft equipment. This was the first Mercury spacecraft to attain an earth orbit. The orbital apogee was 123 nautical miles and the perigee was 86 nautical miles. After one orbit, the spacecraft's orbital timing device triggered the retrograde rockets, and the spacecraft splashed in the Atlantic Ocean 161 miles east of Bermuda. Recovery was made by the USS Decatur. During the flight, only three slight deviations were noted - a small leak in the oxygen system; loss of voice contact over Australia; and the failure of an inverter in the environmental control system. Overall, the flight was highly successful: the Atlas booster performed well and demonstrated that it was ready for the manned flight, the spacecraft systems operated well, and the Mercury global tracking network and telemetry operated in an excellent manner and was ready to support manned orbital flight.


1961 September 29 - .
  • Dynasoar contracts issued. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    USAF awarded three contracts for speeding development of the Dyna-Soar, a manned orbital space glider. Receiving contracts were Boeing Co. for development of the glider and related systems, Radio Corp. of America for communications and tracking devices, and Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. for the guidance system.


1961 October 23 - .
  • Freedom 7 deposited in Smithsonian. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    The Freedom 7 Mercury capsule in which Alan B. Shepard, Jr., made the first suborbital space flight, was presented to the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. In his presentation, NASA Administrator Webb said: "To Americans seeking answers, proof that man can survive in the hostile realm of space is not enough. A solid and meaningful foundation for public support and the basis for our Apollo man-in-space effort is that U.S. astronauts are going into space to do useful work in the cause of all their fellow men."


1961 October 27 - .
  • Dynasoar accelerated. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McNamara. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Secretary of Defense McNamara announced that progress of the Administration's accelerated defense buildup made unnecessary the use of additional defense funds appropriate by the Congress above the amount requested by the administration. The Congress had voted $514.5 million for additional long-range bombers; $180 million additional for the B-70; and $85.8 million additional for Dyna-Soar.


1961 November 12 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury 5 launch postponed - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Mercury-Atlas 5, scheduled for launch no earlier than November 14, ran into technical difficulties, postponing launch for several days..

1961 November 16 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Second decision on launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McNamara, von Braun, Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

    Golovin Committe studies launch vehicles through summer, but found the issue to be completely entertwined with mode (earth-orbit, lunar-orbit, lunar-surface rendezvous or direct flight. Two factions: large solids for direct flight; all-chemical with 4 or 5 F-1's in first stage for rendezvous options. In the end Webb and McNamara ordered development of C-4 and as a backup, in case of failure of F-1 in development, build of 6.1 m+ solid rocket motors by USAF.


1961 November 29 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-5 - . Payload: Mercury SC9. Mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Decay Date: 1961-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 208 . COSPAR: 1961-A-Iota-1. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

    Atlas D (53D) was the first missile to be launched by SAC from Vandenberg in the operation test (Category III) launch program. Mercury-Atlas 5 (MA-5), the second and final orbital qualification of the spacecraft prior to manned flight was launched from Cape Canaveral with Enos, a 37.5 pound chimpanzee, aboard. Scheduled for three orbits, the spacecraft was returned to earth after two orbits due to the failure of a roll reaction jet and to the overheating of an inverter in the electrical system. Both of these difficulties could have been corrected had an astronaut been aboard. The spacecraft was recovered 255 miles southeast of Bermuda by the USS Stormes. During the flight, the chimpanzee performed psychomotor duties and upon recovery was found to be in excellent physical condition. The flight was termed highly successful and the Mercury spacecraft well qualified to support manned orbital flight.


1961 December 7 - .
  • Mercury manned orbital flight postponed. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    NASA postponed its projected manned orbital flight from December 1961 until early in 1962 because of minor problems with the cooling system and positioning devices in the Mercury capsule, Dr. Hugh Dryden, Deputy Administrator of NASA, said in a Baltimore interview. "You like to have a man go with everything just as near perfect as possible. This business is risky. You can't avoid this, but you can take all the precautions you know about."


1961 December 9 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • First test of UTC 1205 rocket motors. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Solid-propellent rocket motor generating nearly 500,000 pounds of thrust was fired in a static test of 80-second duration by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, Calif., under USAF contract..

1961 December 13 - .
  • Webb indicates Mercury flight plans. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury.

    NASA Administrator James E. Webb said in a speech in Cleveland that the United States would follow its first manned orbital flight in January 1962 with similar manned orbital flights every 60 days. These would gather data on effects of weightlessness, needed to determine the pacing of the two-man flight program later on. Mr. Webb also forecast the launching of 200 sounding rockets, 20 scientific satellites, and 2 deep-space probes in 1962.


1961 December 15 - .
  • McDonnell given letter contract for Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. McDonnell given letter contract for development of Gemini..

1961 December 26 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Dynasoar suborbital tests deleted from program. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

    Development time schedule for Dyna-Soar was reduced when DOD authorized the USAF to move directly from B-52 drop tests to unmanned and then manned orbital flights. This eliminated the previous interim stage of suborbital flights to be powered by the Titan II. This required renegotiation of the development contract held by the Martin Co. and negotiating of a new contract for a larger booster.


1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • USAF announces Titan III for Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. With continued weight growth USAF announces Titan III to be developed for Dynasoar orbital missions..

1961 December 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Titan 2 first ground test. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini.

    Titan II, an advanced ICBM and the booster designated for NASA's two-man orbital flights, was successfully captive-fired for the first time at the Martin Co.'s Denver facilities. The test not only tested the flight vehicle but the checkout and launch equipment intended for operational use.


1962 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Vostok-Zh studies - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Vostok-Zh.

    Vostok-Zh studies conducted for multiple dockings of rocket blocks and payloads in orbit for circumlunar missions, using Vostok rocket. Vostok-Zh spacecraft used to for manual dockings only. Manned reentry vehicle from circumlunar distance is Sever/Soyuz design. Korolev's reaction to Chelomei's exclusive assignment by Khrushchev to circumlunar mission.


1962 February 20 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-6 - . Call Sign: Friendship 7. Crew: Glenn. Backup Crew: Carpenter. Payload: Mercury SC13. Mass: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carpenter, Glenn. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-6. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.21 days. Decay Date: 1962-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 240 . COSPAR: 1962-Gamma-1. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    The 6555th Aerospace Test Wing launched the Mercury/Atlas D (MA-6), "Friendship 7," that placed the Mercury capsule containing LtColonel John Glenn, USMC, into orbit for the first Project Mercury manned orbital flight. "Friendship 7" completed three orbits before successful reentry and recovery in the Atlantic Ocean. First US manned orbital mission. John Glenn finally puts America in orbit. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place on heat shield. It turned out that indicator light was false and a spectacular reentry ensued, with glowing chunks of the retropack whizzing by the window. After four hours and 43 minutes the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere and landed at 2:43 pm EST in the planned recovery area NE of the Island of Puerto Rico. All flight objectives were achieved. Glenn was reported to be in excellent condition. Beause of failure of one of the automatic systems, the astronaut took over manual control of the spacecraft during part of the flight. With this flight, the basic objectives of Project Mercury had been achieved.


1962 April 12 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • First Soviet announcement of manned lunar goals - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A, Soyuz B, Soyuz V. First Soviet public announcement of manned lunar goals..

1962 May 24 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-7 - . Call Sign: Aurora 7. Crew: Carpenter. Backup Crew: Schirra. Payload: Mercury SC18. Mass: 1,349 kg (2,974 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carpenter, Schirra. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-7. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.21 days. Decay Date: 1962-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 295 . COSPAR: 1962-Tau-1. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    BSD's 6555th Aerospace Test Wing launched Mercury/Atlas 7 (MA-7), "Aurora 7", into orbit carrying Navy Commander M. Scott Carpenter. This was the second U.S. manned orbital flight mission. Scott Carpenter in Aurora 7 is enthralled by his environment but uses too much orientation fuel. Yaw error and late retrofire caused the landing impact point to be over 300 km beyond the intended area and beyond radio range of the recovery forces. Landing occurred 4 hours and 56 minutes after liftoff. Astronaut Carpenter was later picked up safely by a helicopter after a long wait in the ocean and fears for his safety. NASA was not impressed and Carpenter left the agency soon thereafter to become an aquanaut.


1962 July 11 - .
  • Selection of LOR as Apollo Mission Mode - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing.

    Following a long controversy NASA selected Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR) as the fastest, cheapest, and safest mode to accomplish the Apollo mission. LOR solved the engineering problem of how to land. The EOR or Direct Landing approaches required the Apollo crew to be on their backs during the landing and having to use television or mirrors to see the lunar surface. A lunar crasher stage approach had finally emerged as lesser of evils but raised other issues. LOR allowed a purpose-built lander with a logical helicopter-like crew station layout. Studies indicated LOR would allow landing 6-8 months earlier and cost $9.2 billion vs $ 10.6 billion for EOR or direct. Direct flight by this time would not involve Nova, but a scaled-down two-man spacecraft that could be launched by the Saturn C-5. Additional Details: here....


1962 August 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 3 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev. Backup Crew: Bykovsky, Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 5. Mass: 4,722 kg (10,410 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Barmin, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Khrushchev, Kirillov, Kozlov, Frol, Nikolayev, Popovich, Smirnov, Ustinov, Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 3. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 363 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Mu-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

    Joint flight with Vostok 4. The first such flight, where Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other at the orbital insertion of the second spacecraft. The flight was supposed to occur in March, but following various delays, one of the two Vostok pads was damaged in the explosion of the booster of the third Zenit-2 reconnsat in May. Repairs were not completed until August. Vostok 3 studied man's ability to function under conditions of weightlessness; conducted scientific observations; furthered improvement of space ship systems, communications, guidance and landing. Immediately at orbital insertion of Vostok 4, the spacecraft were less than 5 km apart. Popovich made radio contact with Cosmonaut Nikolayev. Nikolayev reported shortly thereafter that he had sighted Vostok 4. Since the Vostok had no maneuvering capability, they could not rendezvous or dock, and quickly drifted apart. The launches did allow Korolev to offer something new and different, and gave the launch and ground control crews practice in launching and handling more than one manned spacecraft at a time. The cosmonaut took colour motion pictures of the earth and the cabin interior. Additional Details: here....


1962 August 12 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 4 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Popovich. Backup Crew: Komarov, Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 6. Mass: 4,728 kg (10,423 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Komarov, Nikolayev, Popovich, Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.96 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 365 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Nu-1. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.20 min.

    Joint flight with Vostok 3. Acquisition of experimental data on the possibility of establishing a direct link between two space ships; coordination of astronauts' operations; study of the effects of identical spaceflight conditions on the human organism. The launch of Popovich proceeds exactly on schedule, the spacecraft launching with 0.5 seconds of the planned time, entering orbit just a few kilometers away from Nikolayev in Vostok 3. Popovich had problems with his life support system, resulting in the cabin temperature dropping to 10 degrees Centigrade and the humidity to 35%. The cosmonaut still managed to conduct experiments, including taking colour motion pictures of the terminator between night and day and the cabin interior.

    Despite the conditions, Popovich felt able to go for the full four days scheduled. But before the mission, Popovich had been briefed to tell ground control that he was 'observing thunderstorms' if he felt the motion sickness that had plagued Titov and needed to return on the next opportunity. Unfortunately he actually did report seeing thunderstorms over the Gulf of Mexico, and ground control took this as a request for an early return. He was ordered down a day early, landing within a few mintutes of Nikolayev. Only on the ground was it discovered that he was willing to go the full duration, and that ground control had thought he had given the code.


1962 September 19 - .
  • USAF announces six pilots selected for Dynasoar - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1962 October 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-8 - . Call Sign: Sigma 7. Crew: Schirra. Backup Crew: Cooper. Payload: Mercury SC16. Mass: 1,374 kg (3,029 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cooper, Schirra. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-8. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 0.38 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 433 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Delta-1. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    The Sigma 7 spacecraft with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., as pilot was launched into orbit by a Mercury-Atlas vehicle from Atlantic Missile Range. In the most successful American manned space flight to date, Schirra traveled nearly six orbits, returning to earth at a predetermined point in the Pacific Ocean 9 hours, 13 minutes after liftoff. Within 40 minutes after landing, he and his spacecraft were safely aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Kearsarge. Schirra attempted and achieved a nearly perfect mission by sticking rigorously to mission plan.


1962 November 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Chelomei takes over Lavochkin and Myasishchev OKBs - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Khrushchev, Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. At Khrushchev's decision Chelomei takes over Lavochkin's OKB-301 and Myasishchev's OKB-23. Lavochkin had built objects 205, 207, 400 (SA-1,2,5); Chelomei UR-96 ABM-1..

1963 February 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards' - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz A. Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards'..

1963 March 7 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Korolev approves draft plan for 'Soyuz Complex' - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Korolev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz A, Soyuz B, Soyuz V.

    Final design approval for Soyuz A spacecraft for earth orbit and circumlunar flight using orbital rendezvous, docking, and refuelling technques. Except for change of orbital module from cylindrical to spherical design, and changes to rendezvous radar tower arrangement, this design was essentially identical to the Soyuz 7K-OK that flew three years later. Additional Details: here....


1963 May 15 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury MA-9 - . Call Sign: Faith 7. Crew: Cooper. Backup Crew: Shepard. Payload: Mercury SC20. Mass: 1,376 kg (3,033 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cooper, Shepard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mercury MA-9. Spacecraft: Mercury. Duration: 1.43 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 576 . COSPAR: 1963-015A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Final Mercury mission, Faith 7, was piloted by Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr..

1963 June 14 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 5 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Leonov, Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 7. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Leonov, Volynov. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 4.96 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 591 . COSPAR: 1963-020A. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.10 min.

    Joint flight with Vostok 6. The Soviet Union launched Vostok 5, piloted by Lt. Col. Valery F. Bykovsky. Two days later Lt. Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first spacewoman, followed in Vostok 6. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Both cosmonauts landed safely on June 19. The space spectacular featured television coverage of Bykovsky that was viewed in the West as well as in Russia. Unlike earlier missions, only a black and white film camera was carried. Photometric measurements of the earth's horizon were made.

    Mission objectives were officially: further study of the effect of various space-flight factors in the human organism; extensive medico-biological experiments under conditions of prolonged flight; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems.

    Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for a record eight days. The launch was delayed repeatedly due to high solar activity and technical problems. Finally the spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit. Combined with increased atmospheric activity due to solar levels, Vostok 5 quickly decayed temperatures in the service module reached very high levels.

    Bykovsky also experienced an unspecified problem with his waste management system (a spill?) which made conditions in the cabin 'very uncomfortable'. He was finally ordered to return after only five days in space.

    To top it all off, once again the Vostok service module failed to separate cleanly from the reentry sphere. Wild gyrations ensued until the heat of reentry burned through the non-separating retraining strap.


1963 June 16 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 6 - . Call Sign: Chayka (Seagull ). Crew: Tereshkova. Backup Crew: Ponomaryova, Solovyova. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 8. Mass: 4,713 kg (10,390 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Ponomaryova, Solovyova, Tereshkova. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 595 . COSPAR: 1963-023A. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.80 min.

    Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space, and the only Russian woman to go into space until Svetlana Savitskaya 19 years later. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Flight objectives included: Comparative analysis of the effect of various space-flight factors on the male and female organisms; medico-biological research; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems under conditions of joint flight. It was Korolev's idea just after Gagarin's flight to put a woman into space as yet another novelty. Khrushchev made the final crew selection. Korolev was unhappy with Tereshkova's performance in orbit and she was not permitted to take manual control of the spacecraft as had been planned.


1963 October 4 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Gagarin identified as head of lunar cosmonauts - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin, Tereshkova. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Tereshkova announces in Havana that Gagarin head of lunar cosmonaut team..

1964 Duing the year - . Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Development of Soyuz-R and Soyuz-P begun. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TK, Soyuz P, Soyuz PPK, Soyuz R.

    KB Kozlov began active development of the military applied versions of the Soyuz. A new version of the R-7 launch vehicle, the 11A514, was put into development to support launch of the Soyuz-P, now designated the 7K-PPK (pilotiruemovo korablya-perekhvatchika, manned interceptor spacecraft). The Soyuz-R would include the small orbital station 11F71 with photo-reconnaissance and ELINT equipment. To dock with the 11F71 station Kuibishev developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 7K-TK. This version of the Soyuz was equipped with rendezvous, docking, and transition equipment, including an airlock, that allowed the two cosmonauts to enter the station without using EVA. The launch vehicle for the 7K-TK would be the 11A511, known today as the Soyuz.


1964 April 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 1 - . Payload: Gemini SC1. Mass: 3,187 kg (7,026 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 782 . COSPAR: 1964-018A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    The first Gemini mission, Gemini-Titan I, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy at 11:00 a.m., e.s.t. This was an unmanned flight, using the first production Gemini spacecraft and a modified Titan II Gemini launch vehicle (GLV). The mission's primary purpose was to verify the structural integrity of the GLV and spacecraft, as well as to demonstrate the GLV's ability to place the spacecraft into a prescribed earth orbit. Mission plans did not include separation of the spacecraft from the second stage of the vehicle, and both were inserted into orbit as a unit six minutes after launch. The planned mission encompassed only the first three orbits and ended about four hours and 50 minutes after liftoff. No recovery was planned for this mission, but Goddard continued to track the spacecraft until it reentered the atmosphere on the 64th orbital pass over the southern Atlantic Ocean (April 12) and disintegrated. The flight qualified the GLV and its systems and the structure of the spacecraft.


1964 October 6 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 47 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 2. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kirillov, Korolev, Rudenko, Tyulin. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 891 . COSPAR: 1964-062A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.

    Unmanned test of Voskhod spacecraft. At 07:00 the State Commission meets at Area 2. All Chief Designers, Commanders, and Section report that all is ready for flight. The commission gives the order to proceed with the launch. Weather at the pad is 7 balls, 8-10 m/s wind with gusts to 15 m/s, temperature 9 to 12 deg C. Weather in the recovery zones is reported as winds up to 15 m/s. Weather in the recovery zone is not clear, but that is not considered an impediment, and in fact Kamanin would like to see how the landing system functions in bad conditions. Kamanin visits the pad at T-30 seconds; at T-20 seconds, the veranda at IP-1 has over 50 viewers of the launch, including 15 cosmonaut candidates and the 7 Voskhod cosmonauts. Kamanin is relegated to the IP-1 veranda this time, with Rudenko, Kirillov, and Tyulin the bunker adjacent to the pad. Korolev stays with the booster until T-5 minutes, then enters the bunker. The booster ignites precisely at 10:00; the strap-ons burn out and are jettisoned at T+120 seconds; the core burns out and the final stage ignites at T+290 seconds; and at T+523 seconds spacecraft 3KV number 2 is placed in orbit as the final stage shuts down. The spacecraft separates and all systems look normal.

    Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1964 October 12 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Voskhod 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Feoktistov, Komarov, Yegorov. Backup Crew: Katys, Lazarev, Volynov. Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 3. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Feoktistov, Gagarin, Katys, Komarov, Korolev, Lazarev, Rudenko, Tyulin, Volynov, Yegorov. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 904 . COSPAR: 1964-065A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.

    Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: here....


1965 February 22 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 57 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 1. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 0.22 days. Decay Date: 1965-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1093 . COSPAR: 1965-012A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

    Unsuccessful mission. Voskhod 2 test. Immediately after orbital insertion airlock and spacesuit inflated normally. Then two ground control stations sent commands to the spacecraft simultaneously. The combined signals accidentally set off the retrofire sequence, which some time later triggered the self destruct mechanism (designed to prevent the spacecraft from falling into enemy hands).
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Additional Details: here....


1965 March 1 - .
  • Soyuz 7K-PPK cancelled. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz PPK. Based on successful test flights of Chelomei's unmanned interceptor-sputnik prototypes (Polyot 1 and 2), the Soyuz 7K-PPK manned interceptor version is cancelled..

1965 March 2 - .
  • Babakin takes over Lavochkin OKB - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Babakin, Chelomei, Korolev. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Luna E-6, Luna Ye-8.

    Former Lavochkin bureau, part of Chelomei, regained status of a separate design bureau with former Korolev deputy GN Babakin as its head. By the end of 1965 all materials on the E-6, Ye-8, and planetary probes were passed by Korolev to the Lavochkin Bureau, who took over responsibility for all future lunar and planetary unmanned probes.


1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Gagarin, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Korolev, Leonov, Rudenko, Tyulin, Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min.

    First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....


1965 March 18 - . 08:34 GMT - .
1965 March 23 - . 14:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 3 - . Call Sign: Molly Brown (from Broadway play 'The Unsinkable..'. Crew: Grissom, Young. Backup Crew: Schirra, Stafford. Payload: Gemini SC3. Mass: 3,225 kg (7,109 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom, Schirra, Stafford, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 3. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 0.20 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 1301 . COSPAR: 1965-024A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 33.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    First manned test flight of Gemini. Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young entered an elliptical orbit about the earth. After three orbits, the pair manually landed their spacecraft in the Atlantic Ocean, thus performing the first controlled reentry. Unfortunately, they landed much farther from the landing zone than anticipated, about 97 km (60 miles) from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Intrepid. But otherwise the mission was highly successful. Gemini III, America's first two-manned space mission, also was the first manned vehicle that was maneuverable. Grissom used the vehicle's maneuvering rockets to effect orbital and plane changes. Grissom wanted to name the spacecraft 'Molly Brown' (as in the Unsinkable, a Debbie Reynolds/Howard Keel screen musical). NASA was not amused and stopped allowing the astronauts to name their spacecraft (until forced to when having two spacecraft aloft at once during the Apollo missions). The flight by Young was the first of an astronaut outside of the original seven. Young, who created a media flap by taking a corned beef sandwich aboard as a prank, would go on to fly to the moon on Apollo and the Space Shuttle on its first flight sixteen years later.


1965 June 1 - .
  • Beginning of Project Spiral - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Korolev. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11.

    With the cancellation of Chelomei's desultory R spaceplane development, the job is handed to 'the profis' - the fighter design bureaus of MiG and Sukhoi. Both would use an air breathing first stage (the XB-70 clone T-4 in Sukhoi's case, a huge new Tupolev hypersonic aircraft 'to be developed' in MiG's case). Second stage would be a conventional expendable rocket stage which would carry the relatively small Spiral spaceplane into orbit. Korolev had been doing some 'back door' work with MiG in competition to Chelomei's R project for some time (Began with 1962 Mikoyan study '50-50': Hypersonic first stage to Mach 5.5; rocket stage with one man), and immediately proposed tests from atop R-7 rockets as early as 1967. At the time all this was begun Dyna Soar was still an active US program.


1965 June 3 - . 15:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 4 - . Call Sign: American Eagle / Little Eva. Crew: McDivitt, White. Backup Crew: Borman, Lovell. Payload: Gemini SC4. Mass: 3,574 kg (7,879 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Borman, Lovell, McDivitt, White. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 4.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 1390 . COSPAR: 1965-043A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    The second manned and first long-duration mission in the Gemini program. Major objectives of the four-day mission were demonstrating and evaluating the performance of spacecraft systems in a long-duration flight and evaluating effects on the crew of prolonged exposure to the space environment. Secondary objectives included demonstrating extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, conducting stationkeeping and rendezvous maneuvers with the second stage of the launch vehicle, performing significant in-plane and out-of-plane maneuvers, demonstrating the ability of the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) to back up the retrorockets, and executing 11 experiments. The stationkeeping exercise was terminated at the end of the first revolution because most of the OAMS propellant allocated for the exercise had been used; further efforts would jeopardize primary mission objectives and could mean the cancellation of several secondary objectives. No rendezvous was attempted. The only other major problem to mar the mission was the inadvertent alteration of the computer memory during the 48th revolution in an attempt to correct an apparent malfunction. This made the planned computer-controlled reentry impossible and required an open-loop ballistic reentry. All other mission objectives were met. The flight crew began preparing for EVA immediately after terminating the stationkeeping exercise. Although preparations went smoothly, McDivitt decided to delay EVA for one revolution, both because of the high level of activity required and because deletion of the rendezvous attempt reduced the tightness of the schedule. Ground control approved the decision. The spacecraft hatch was opened at 4 hours 18 minutes into the flight and White exited 12 minutes later, using a hand-held maneuvering gun. White reentered the spacecraft 20 minutes after leaving it. The hatch was closed at 4 hours 54 minutes ground elapsed time. Drifting flight was maintained for the next two and one-half days to conserve propellant. The spacecraft landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 725 km east of Cape Kennedy - some 65 km from its nominal landing point. The crew boarded a helicopter 34 minutes after landing and was transported to the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp. Spacecraft recovery was completed at 2:28 p.m., a little more than 100 hours after Gemini 4 had been launched. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be controlled from the mission control center in Houston.

    The space walk was hurriedly included after the Russian first in Voskhod 2. White seemed to have a lot more fun than Leonov and McDivitt took the pictures that came to symbolize man in space. With this flight the US finally started to match Russian flight durations.


1965 June 3 - . 19:46 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 4-1 - . Crew: White. EVA Duration: 0.0250 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: White. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 4. Spacecraft: Gemini. First American walk in space; tested spacesuit and ability to manoeuvre..

1965 August 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • First ground test firing of S-IVB stage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

1965 August 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 5 - . Call Sign: Gemini 5. Crew: Conrad, Cooper. Backup Crew: Armstrong, See. Payload: Gemini SC5/Rendezvous Evaluation Pod. Mass: 3,605 kg (7,947 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong, Conrad, Cooper, See. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 5. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 7.96 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 1516 . COSPAR: 1965-068A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Major objectives of the eight-day mission were evaluating the performance of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, using a rendezvous evaluation pod (REP), and evaluating the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment on the flight crew. Secondary objectives included demonstrating controlled reentry guidance, evaluating fuel cell performance, demonstrating all phases of guidance and control system operation needed for a rendezvous mission, evaluating the capability of either pilot to maneuver the spacecraft in orbit to rendezvous, evaluating the performance of rendezvous radar, and executing 17 experiments. The mission proceeded without incident through the first two orbits and the ejection of the REP. About 36 minutes after beginning evaluation of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, the crew noted that the pressure in the oxygen supply tank of the fuel cell system was falling. Pressure dropped from 850 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) at 26 minutes into the flight until it stabilized at 70 psia at 4 hours 22 minutes, and gradually increased through the remainder of the mission. The spacecraft was powered down and the REP exercise was abandoned. By the seventh revolution, experts on the ground had analyzed the problem and a powering-up procedure was started. During the remainder of the mission the flight plan was continuously scheduled in real time. Four rendezvous radar tests were conducted during the mission, the first in revolution 14 on the second day; the spacecraft rendezvous radar successfully tracked a transponder on the ground at Cape Kennedy. During the third day, a simulated Agena rendezvous was conducted at full electrical load. The simulation comprised four maneuvers - apogee adjust, phase adjust, plane change, and coelliptical maneuver - using the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS). Main activities through the fourth day of the mission concerned operations and experiments. During the fifth day, OAMS operation became sluggish and thruster No. 7 inoperative. Thruster No. 8 went out the next day, and the rest of the system was gradually becoming more erratic. Limited experimental and operational activities continued through the remainder of the mission. Retrofire was initiated in the 121st revolution during the eighth day of the mission, one revolution early because of threatening weather in the planned recovery area. Reentry and landing were satisfactory, but the landing point was 145 km short, the result of incorrect navigation coordinates transmitted to the spacecraft computer from the ground network. Landing occurred August 29, 190 hours 55 minutes after the mission had begun. The astronauts arrived on board the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Lake Champlain, at 9:25. The spacecraft was recovered at 11:51 a.m.

    With this flight, the US finally took the manned spaceflight endurance record from Russia, while demonstrating that the crew could survive in zero gravity for the length of time required for a lunar mission. However the mission was incredibly boring, the spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time, and was 'just about the hardest thing I've ever done' according to a hyperactive Pete Conrad. An accident with freeze dried shrimp resulted in the cabin being filled with little pink subsatellites.


1965 August 25 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3M.
  • MOL to be launched from Canaveral and Vandenberg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Lyndon. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. DoD revealed that newly-authorized Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program (announced by President Lyndon Johnson the same day) would be launched from both the Air Force Eastern and Western Test Ranges..

1965 October 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D. FAILURE: Exploded 6 minutes after takeoff. Failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Gemini 6 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA-2. Mass: 3,261 kg (7,189 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1965-10-25 . The Agena target vehicle failed to reach orbit. Gemini 6, awaiting launch, was cancelled. In the ashes of this setback, the idea of launching Gemini 6 to rendezvous with Gemini 7 was born..

1965 December 4 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 7 - . Call Sign: Gemini 7. Crew: Borman, Lovell. Backup Crew: Collins, White. Payload: Gemini SC7. Mass: 3,663 kg (8,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Borman, Collins, Lovell, White. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 13.77 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1812 . COSPAR: 1965-100A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

    An Air Force Titan II Gemini Launch Vehicle lifted Gemini 7 (GT-7) into orbit from Cape Canaveral. Astronauts Frank Borman and James Lovell completed the 14-day mission, the longest U.S. space flight to date (330 hours, 35 minutes) and 206 revolutions, and were recovered on 18 December, 700 miles southwest of Bermuda. During their record flight, Borman and Lovell piloted GT-7 as the target vehicle for the first space rendezvous between manned spacecraft. Astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard Gemini 6 were launched on 15 December and completed the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7 the same day. Primary objectives of the mission were demonstrating manned orbital flight for approximately 14 days and evaluating the physiological effects of a long-duration flight on the crew. Among the secondary objectives were providing a rendezvous target for the Gemini VI-A spacecraft, stationkeeping with the second stage of the launch vehicle and with spacecraft No. 6, conducting 20 experiments, using lightweight pressure suits, and evaluating the spacecraft reentry guidance capability. All objectives were successfully achieved with the exception of two experiments lost because of equipment failure. Shortly after separation from the launch vehicle, the crew maneuvered the spacecraft to within 60 feet of the second stage and stationkept for about 15 minutes. The exercise was terminated by a separation maneuver, and the spacecraft was powered down in preparation for the 14-day mission. The crew performed five maneuvers during the course of the mission to increase orbital lifetime and place the spacecraft in proper orbit for rendezvous with spacecraft No. 6. Rendezvous was successfully accomplished during the 11th day in orbit, with spacecraft No. 7 serving as a passive target for spacecraft No. 6. About 45 hours into the mission, Lovell removed his pressure suit. He again donned his suit at 148 hours, while Borman removed his. Some 20 hours later Lovell again removed his suit, and both crewmen flew the remainder of the mission without suits, except for the rendezvous and reentry phases. With three exceptions, the spacecraft and its systems performed nominally throughout the entire mission. The delayed-time telemetry playback tape recorder malfunctioned about 201hours after liftoff, resulting in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission. Two fuel cell stacks showed excessive degradation late in the flight and were taken off the line; the remaining four stacks furnished adequate electrical power until reentry. Two attitude thrusters performed poorly after 283 hours in the mission. Retrofire occurred exactly on time, and reentry and landing were nominal. The spacecraft missed the planned landing point by only 10.3 km miles, touching down on December 18. The crew arrived at the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp, half an hour later. The spacecraft was recovered half an hour after the crew.

    Far surpassing the Gemini 5 flight, Gemini 7 set a manned spaceflight endurance record that would endure for years. The incredibly boring mission, was made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. This was somewhat offset by the soft spacesuits (used only once) and permission to spend most of the time in long johns. The monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6.


1965 December 15 - . 13:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 6 - . Call Sign: Gemini 6. Crew: Schirra, Stafford. Backup Crew: Grissom, Young. Payload: Gemini SC6. Mass: 3,546 kg (7,817 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Grissom, Schirra, Stafford, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1839 . COSPAR: 1965-104A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    The primary objective of the mission, crewed by command pilot Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and pilot Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, was to rendezvous with spacecraft No. 7. Among the secondary objectives were stationkeeping with spacecraft No. 7, evaluating spacecraft reentry guidance capability, testing the visibility of spacecraft No. 7 as a rendezvous target, and conducting three experiments. After the launch vehicle inserted the spacecraft into an 87 by 140 nautical mile orbit, the crew prepared for the maneuvers necessary to achieve rendezvous. Four maneuvers preceded the first radar contact between the two spacecraft. The first maneuver, a height adjustment, came an hour and a half after insertion, at first perigee; a phase adjustment at second apogee, a plane change, and another height adjustment at second perigee followed. The onboard radar was turned on 3 hours into the mission. The first radar lock-on indicated 246 miles between the two spacecraft. The coelliptic maneuver was performed at third apogee, 3 hours 47 minutes after launch. The terminal phase initiation maneuver was performed an hour and a half later. Two midcourse corrections preceded final braking maneuvers at 5 hours 50 minutes into the flight. Rendezvous was technically accomplished and stationkeeping began some 6 minutes later when the two spacecraft were about 120 feet apart and their relative motion had stopped. Stationkeeping maneuvers continued for three and a half orbits at distances from 1 to 300 feet. Spacecraft No. 6 then initiated a separation maneuver and withdrew to a range of about 30 miles. The only major malfunction in spacecraft No. 6 during the mission was the failure of the delayed-time telemetry tape recorder at 20 hours 55 minutes ground elapsed time, which resulted in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission, some 4 hours and 20 minutes. The flight ended with a nominal reentry and landing in the West Atlantic, just 10 km from the planned landing point, on December 16. The crew remained in the spacecraft, which was recovered an hour later by the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp.

    Gemini 6 was to have been the first flight involving docking with an Agena target/propulsion stage. However the Agena blew up on the way to orbit, and the spacecraft was replaced by Gemini 7 in the launch order.

    For lack of a target, NASA decided to have Gemini 6 rendezvous with Gemini 7. This would require a quick one week turnaround of the pad after launch, no problem with Russian equipment but a big accomplishment for the Americans. The first launch attempt was aborted; the Titan II ignited for a moment, then shut down and settled back down on its launch attachments. Schirra waited it out, did not pull the abort handles that would send the man catapulting out of the capsule on their notoriously unreliable ejection seats. The booster was safed; Schirra had saved the mission and the launch three days later went perfectly. The flight went on to achieve the first manned space rendezvous controlled entirely by the self-contained, on-board guidance, control, and navigation system. This system provided the crew of Gemini 6 with attitude, thrusting, and time information needed for them to control the spacecraft during the rendezvous. Under Schirra's typically precise command, the operation was so successful that the rendezvous was complete with fuel consumption only 5% above the planned value to reach 16 m separation from Gemini 7.


1966 February 22 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 110 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 5. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Shatalov, Shonin, Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 20.69 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2070 . COSPAR: 1966-015A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 95.30 min.

    Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Precursor mission for Voskhod 3 hardware. Two dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
    Officially: Biological research.

    Voskhod s/n 5 launched at 23:10 Moscow time, with two dogs, Veterka and Ygolka, aboard. This will be a 25-day mission. Kamanin is disgusted, he had proposed this as a 25-day mission by a single cosmonaut, but Korolev had constantly held with the 'dog variant'. Preparations for Voskhod-3 are proceeding well. The prime and back-up crews have completed their training and will take their examinations on 28 February. Parallel trials of the oxygen regeneration system at IMBP and OKB-124 both went well (IMBP, 12 days so far, temperature 16-24 deg C, 70% humidity; OKB-124, 10 days so far, temperature 18-16 deg C, 65% humidity).


1966 March 12 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Start of construction (site preparation) for SLC-6 - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. Start of construction (site preparation) for Space Launch Complex 6 facilities at former Sudden Ranch property..

1966 March 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • Gemini 8 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 3/Agena D 5003 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1967-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2104 . COSPAR: 1966-019A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Target vehicle for Gemini 8..

1966 March 16 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 8 - . Call Sign: Gemini 8. Crew: Armstrong, Scott. Backup Crew: Conrad, Gordon. Payload: Gemini SC8. Mass: 3,788 kg (8,351 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Armstrong, Conrad, Gordon, Scott. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 8. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 0.45 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2105 . COSPAR: 1966-020A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    The Atlas-Agena target vehicle for the Gemini VIII mission was successfully launched from KSC Launch Complex 14 at 10 a.m. EST March 16. The Gemini VIII spacecraft followed from Launch Complex 19 at 11:41 a.m., with command pilot Neil A. Armstrong and pilot David R. Scott aboard. The spacecraft and its target vehicle rendezvoused and docked, with docking confirmed 6 hours 33 minutes after the spacecraft was launched. This first successful docking with an Agena target vehicle was followed by a major space emergency. About 27 minutes later the spacecraft-Agena combination encountered unexpected roll and yaw motion. A stuck thruster on Gemini put the docked assembly into a wild high speed gyration. Near structural limits and blackout, Armstrong undocked, figuring the problem was in the Agena, which only made it worse. The problem arose again and when the yaw and roll rates became too high the crew shut the main Gemini reaction control system down and activated and used both rings of the reentry control system to reduce the spacecraft rates to zero. This used 75% of that system's fuel. Although the crew wanted to press on with the mission and Scott's planned space walk, ground control ordered an emergency splashdown in the western Pacific during the seventh revolution. The spacecraft landed at 10:23 p.m. EST March 16 and Armstrong and Scott were picked up by the destroyer U.S.S. Mason at 1:37 a.m. EST March 17. Although the flight was cut short by the incident, one of the primary objectives - rendezvous and docking (the first rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbital flight) - was accomplished.

    Primary objectives of the scheduled three-day mission were to rendezvous and dock with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) and to conduct extravehicular activities. Secondary objectives included rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, performing docked maneuvers using the GATV primary propulsion system, executing 10 experiments, conducting docking practice, performing a rerendezvous, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV in a 220-nautical mile circular orbit. The GATV was inserted into a nominal 161-nautical mile circular orbit, the spacecraft into a nominal 86 by 147-nautical mile elliptical orbit. During the six hours following insertion, the spacecraft completed nine maneuvers to rendezvous with the GATV. Rendezvous phase ended at 5 hours 58 minutes ground elapsed time, with the spacecraft 150 feet from the GATV and no relative motion between the two vehicles. Stationkeeping maneuvers preceded docking, which was accomplished at 6 hours 33 minutes ground elapsed time. A major problem developed 27 minutes after docking, when a spacecraft orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) thruster malfunctioned. The crew undocked from the GATV and managed to bring the spacecraft under control by deactivating the OAMS and using the reentry control system (RCS) to reduce the spacecraft's rapid rotation. Premature use of the RCS, however, required the mission to be terminated early. The retrofire sequence was initiated in the seventh revolution, followed by nominal reentry and landing in a secondary recovery area in the western Pacific Ocean. The spacecraft touched down less than 10 km from the planned landing point. The recovery ship, the destroyer Leonard Mason, picked up both crew and spacecraft some three hours later. Early termination of the mission precluded achieving all mission objectives, but one primary objective - rendezvous and docking - was accomplished. Several secondary objectives were also achieved: rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV. Two experiments were partially performed.


1966 April 10 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmonaut training for lunar flights announced - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Leonov announces that cosmonauts are in training for lunar missions..

1966 May 17 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D. FAILURE: Control system failure.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Gemini 9 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 5. Mass: 3,248 kg (7,160 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-05-17 .

    The Gemini 9 mission was scrubbed when the Atlas booster launched from Cape Canaveral failed to place the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) in its planned circular orbit. A malfunction of the number 2 booster engine of the Atlas caused both the Atlas and Agena to fall into the ocean. The Gemini 9-Atlas/Agena mission was later rescheduled to 1 June using the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA).


1966 June 1 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3.
  • Gemini 9 ATDA - . Payload: TDA 4. Mass: 794 kg (1,750 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Atlas Target Docking Adapter. Decay Date: 1966-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2186 . COSPAR: 1966-046A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    The first and only Atlas/Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) Gemini Agena (#5304) was launched from the Eastern Test Range as part of the Gemini 9 mission. The ATDA was a back-up for the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) and similar to it except that it lacked the capability to maneuver in space. The ATDA achieved a near-circular orbit (apogee 161.5, perigee 158.5 nautical miles). One hour and 40 minutes later, the scheduled launch of Gemini IX-A was postponed by a ground equipment failure which prevented the transfer of updating information from Cape Kennedy mission control center to the spacecraft computer. The mission was recycled for launch on June 3, following a prepared 48-hour recycle plan. Anomalous telemetry indicated some sort of problem with the target, but it was not until Gemini IX rendezvoused with it in orbit that it was seen that fairing separation had failed.


1966 June 3 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 9 - . Call Sign: Gemini 9. Crew: Cernan, Stafford. Backup Crew: Aldrin, Lovell. Payload: Gemini SC9. Mass: 3,668 kg (8,086 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin, Cernan, Lovell, Stafford. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 3.01 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2191 . COSPAR: 1966-047A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

    At the first launch attempt, while the crew waited buttoned up in the spacecraft on the pad, their Agena docking target field blew up on the way to orbit. NASA decided to use an Atlas to launch an Agena docking collar only. This was called the Augmented Target Docking Adapter. Ths was successfully launched and the Gemini succeeded in rendezvousing with it. However, the ATDA shroud had not completely separated, thus making docking impossible. However three different types of rendezvous were tested with the ATDA. Cernan began his EVA, which was to include flight with a USAF MMU rocket pack but the Gemini suit could not handle heat load of the astronaut's exertions. Cernan's faceplate fogs up, forcing him to blindly grope back into the Gemini hatch after only two hours.

    Seventh manned and third rendezvous mission of the Gemini program. Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock with the augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) and to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). These objectives were only partially met. After successfully achieving rendezvous during the third revolution - a secondary objective - the crew discovered that the ATDA shroud had failed to separate, precluding docking - a primary objective - as well as docking practice - another secondary objective. The crew was able, however, to achieve other secondary objectives: an equi-period rendezvous, using onboard optical techniques and completed at 6 hours 36 minutes ground elapsed time; and a rendezvous from above, simulating the rendezvous of an Apollo command module with a lunar module in a lower orbit (completed at 21 hours 42 minutes ground elapsed time). Final separation maneuver was performed at 22 hours 59 minutes after liftoff. EVA was postponed because of crew fatigue, and the second day was given over to experiments. The hatch was opened for EVA at 49 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time. EVA was successful, but one secondary objective - evaluation of the astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU) - was not achieved because Cernan's visor began fogging. The extravehicular life support system apparently became overloaded with moisture when Cernan had to work harder than anticipated to prepare the AMU for donning. Cernan reentered the spacecraft, and the hatch was closed at 51 hours 28 minutes into the flight. The rest of the third day was spent on experiments.


1966 June 5 - . 15:02 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 9-1 - . Crew: Cernan. EVA Duration: 0.0882 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 9. Spacecraft: Gemini. Attempted to test USAF Astronaut Manoeuvring Unit. Cancelled when Cernan's faceplate fogged over..

1966 July 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 1 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. First flight M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 727 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 217 sec..

1966 July 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 2 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 634 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245sec..

1966 July 10 - .
  • Komarov announces that USSR will beat US to moon - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Komarov. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Komarov announces in Japan that USSR would beat the US to moonlanding by one year..

1966 July 18 - . 20:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • Gemini 10 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 1A/Agena D 5005 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2348 . COSPAR: 1966-065A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 290 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    An Air Force Titan Gemini Launch Vehicle placed the Gemini 10 (GT-10) spacecraft into orbit for the three-day mission of Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins. Rendezvous and docking were accomplished with the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) that had been launched from Cape Kennedy aboard an Atlas Booster just ahead of GT-10. Using the GATV-10 Primary Propulsion System (PPS), the docked vehicles achieved a manned-flight altitude record of 476 miles. Reentry was accomplished on 21 July and recovery was made 544 miles east of Cape Canaveral. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).


1966 July 18 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 10 - . Call Sign: Gemini 10. Crew: Collins, Young. Backup Crew: Bean, Williams, Clifton. Payload: Gemini SC10. Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean, Collins, Williams, Clifton, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2349 . COSPAR: 1966-066A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    An Air Force Titan Gemini Launch Vehicle placed the Gemini 10 (GT-10) spacecraft into orbit for the three-day mission of Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins. Rendezvous and docking were accomplished with the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) that had been launched from Cape Kennedy aboard an Atlas Booster just ahead of GT-10. Using the GATV-10 Primary Propulsion System (PPS), the docked vehicles achieved a manned-flight altitude record of 476 miles. Reentry was accomplished on 21 July and recovery was made 544 miles east of Cape Canaveral. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena is stored. Collins space walks from Gemini to Agena to retrieve micrometeorite package left in space all those months. Loses grip first time, and tumbles head over heels at end of umbilical around Gemini. Package retrieved on second try.

    The Gemini X mission began with the launch of the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle from complex 14. The Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) attained a near-circular, 162- by 157-nautical-mile orbit. Spacecraft No. 10 was inserted into a 145- by 86-nautical-mile elliptical orbit. Slant range between the two vehicles was very close to the nominal 1000 miles. Major objective of the mission was achieved during the fourth revolution when the spacecraft rendezvoused with the GATV at 5 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time and docked with it about 30 minutes later. More spacecraft propellant was used to achieve rendezvous than had been predicted, imposing constraints on the remainder of the mission and requiring the development of an alternate flight plan. As a result, several experiments were not completed, and another secondary objective - docking practice - was not attempted. To conserve fuel and permit remaining objectives to be met, the spacecraft remained docked with the GATV for about 39 hours. During this period, a bending mode test was conducted to determine the dynamics of the docked vehicles, standup extravehicular activties (EVA) were conducted, and several experiments were performed. The GATV primary and secondary propulsion systems were used for six maneuvers to put the docked spacecraft into position for rendezvous with the Gemini VIII GATV as a passive target. The spacecraft undocked at 44 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, separated from the GATV, and used its own thrusters to complete the second rendezvous some three hours later. At 48 hours and 42 minutes into the flight, a 39-minute period of umbilical EVA began, which included the retrieval of a micrometorite collection package from the Gemini VIII Agena. The hatch was opened a third time about an hour later to jettison extraneous equipment before reentry. After about three hours of stationkeeping, the spacecraft separated from the GATV. At 51 hours 39 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew performed a true anomaly-adjust maneuver to minimize reentry dispersions resulting from the retrofire maneuver.


1966 July 19 - . 21:44 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-1 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Duration: 0.0347 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Photographed earth and stars..

1966 July 20 - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-3 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Duration: 0.0007 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Internal Vehicular Activity. Threw excess equipment out of spacecraft..

1966 July 20 - . 23:01 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 10-2 - . Crew: Collins. EVA Duration: 0.0271 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 10. Spacecraft: Gemini. Retrieved micrometeoroid collector from Agena..

1966 August 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 3 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 656 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 278 sec..

1966 August 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 4 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1966 September 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 5 - . Crew: Thompson. Payload: M2-F2 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thompson. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 750 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 226sec..

1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
1966 September 12 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • Gemini 11 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 6/Agena D 5006 GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2414 . COSPAR: 1966-080A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Docking target for Gemini 11..

1966 September 12 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 11 - . Call Sign: Gemini 11. Crew: Conrad, Gordon. Backup Crew: Anders, Armstrong. Payload: Gemini SC11. Mass: 3,798 kg (8,373 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anders, Armstrong, Conrad, Gordon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2415 . COSPAR: 1966-081A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 161 km (100 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    More highjinks with Conrad. First orbit docking with Agena, followed by boost up to record 800 km orbit, providing first manned views of earth as sphere. Tether attached by Gordon to Agena in spacewalk and after a lot of effort tethered spacecraft put into slow rotation, creating first artificial microgravity.

    The primary objective of the Gemini XI mission was to rendezvous with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) during the first revolution and dock. Five maneuvers completed the spacecraft/GATV rendezvous at 1 hour 25 minutes ground elapsed time, and the two vehicles docked nine minutes later. Secondary objectives included docking practice, extravehicular activity (EVA), 11 experiments, docked maneuvers, a tethered vehicle test, demonstrating automatic reentry, and parking the GATV. All objectives were achieved except one experiment - evaluation of the minimum reaction power tool - which was not performed because umbilical EVA was terminated prematurely. Umbilical EVA began at 24 hours 2 minutes ground elapsed time and ended 33 minutes later. Gordon became fatigued while attaching the tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. An hour later the hatch was opened to jettison equipment no longer required. At 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff, the GATV primary propulsion system (PPS) was fired to raise the apogee of the docked vehicles to 741 nautical miles for two revolutions. The PPS was fired again, 3 hours 23 minutes later, to reduce apogee to 164 nautical miles. The crew then prepared for standup EVA, which began at 47 hours 7 minutes into the flight and lasted 2 hours 8 minutes. The spacecraft was then undocked to begin the tether evaluation. At 50 hours 13 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew initiated rotation. Initial oscillations damped out and the combination became very stable after about 20 minutes; the rotational rate was then increased. Again, initial oscillations gradually damped out and the combination stabilized. At about 53 hours into the mission, the crew released the tether, separated from the GATV, and maneuvered the spacecraft to an identical orbit with the target vehicle. A fuel cell stack failed at 54 hours 31 minutes, but the remaining five stacks shared the load and operated satisfactorily. A rerendezvous was accomplished at 66 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, and the crew then prepared for reentry.


1966 September 13 - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-2 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Duration: 0.0014 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Internal Vehicular Activity. Threw excess equipment out of spacecraft..

1966 September 13 - . 14:44 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-1 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Duration: 0.0229 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Retrieved micrometeoroid collector from Agena..

1966 September 14 - . 12:49 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 11-3 - . Crew: Gordon. EVA Duration: 0.0903 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 11. Spacecraft: Gemini. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Photographed earth and stars..

1966 September 16 - .
1966 September 20 - .
  • M2 Flight 7 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 677 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 211 sec..

1966 September 22 - .
1966 September 28 - .
  • M2 Flight 9 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 713 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 233 sec..

1966 October 4 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Dummy Proton/Block D mounted on pad. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1.

    A dummy 8K82K/Block D rocket was mounted at the launch site. The dummy was loaded with imitation propellants (kerosene as fuel and water/ethyl alcohol as oxidiser). The nitrogen tetroxide oxidiser had to be kept above -11 degrees C, and it was originally planned for a thermostatically-controlled electrical heating of the tank walls to achieve this. It was ultimately decided that the risk of explosion of such a system was too great, and the system was abandoned.


1966 October 5 - .
  • M2 Flight 10 - . Crew: Sorlie. Payload: M2-F2 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Sorlie. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 713 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 225 sec..

1966 October 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 11 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 692 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 234 sec..

1966 October 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 702 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 227 sec..

1966 November 3 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Gemini B - . Payload: Gemini SC2. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. COSPAR: 1966-099xx.

    During the ascent to orbit, the Gemini capsule atop the MOL Cannister was ejected and made a suborbital reentry and splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean. The spacecraft was the Gemini 2 reentry module, reused to test reentry with hatch cut into the heat shield. The capsule was successfully recovered and it was found that the reentry actually melted hatch shut, indicating that the design was valid for MOL.

  • MOL Mockup - . Payload: MOL Mockup (Titan fuel tank). Mass: 9,680 kg (21,340 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL. COSPAR: 1966-099xx.

    A Titan IIIC (Vehicle #9), the ninth research and development Titan III and sixth Titan IIIC to be launched from Cape Canaveral, completed the most difficult flight plan and most successful mission to date. The primary objective of injecting a modified Gemini spacecraft into a suborbital trajectory to test the reentry heat shield for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program was accomplished. After dipping down to 80 nautical miles to eject the MOL load, the Transtage pitched up and placed a canister containing 11 experiments into a 160-nautical mile circular orbit. This modified Titan 2 propellant tank represented the MOL station itself. It allowed study of the aerodynamic loads associated with launching the MOL into orbit and validated the very long length to diameter core represented by the MOL/Titan 3M configuration. It is possible certain prototype MOL equipment was flown as well.


1966 November 10 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Lunar coordination problems - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Kamanin diary complains of lunar coordination problems..

1966 November 11 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC14. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
  • Gemini 12 Agena Target - . Payload: TDA 7A/Agena D 5001R GATV. Mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft Bus: Agena. Spacecraft: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Decay Date: 1966-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2565 . COSPAR: 1966-103A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Docking target for Gemini 12..

1966 November 11 - . 20:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV.
  • Gemini 12 - . Call Sign: Gemini 12. Crew: Aldrin, Lovell. Backup Crew: Cernan, Cooper. Payload: Gemini SC12. Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin, Cernan, Cooper, Lovell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Duration: 3.94 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2566 . COSPAR: 1966-104A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

    Two very serious astronauts get it all right to end the program. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking without assistance from ground control. Aldrin finally demonstrates ability to accomplish EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints and careful movement.

    Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock and to evaluate extravehicular activities (EVA). Among the secondary objectives were tethered vehicle evaluation, experiments, third revolution rendezvous and docking, automatic reentry demonstration, docked maneuvering for a high-apogee excursion, docking practice, systems tests, and Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) parking. The high-apogee excursion was not attempted because an anomaly was noted in the GATV primary propulsion system during insertion, and parking was not attempted because the GATV's attitude control gas was depleted. All other objectives were achieved. Nine spacecraft maneuvers effected rendezvous with the GATV. The onboard radar malfunctioned before the terminal phase initiate maneuver, but the crew used onboard backup procedures to calculate the maneuvers. Rendezvous was achieved at 3 hours 46 minutes ground elapsed time, docking 28 minutes later. Two phasing maneuvers, using the GATV secondary propulsion system, were accomplished, but the primary propulsion system was not used. The first of two periods of standup EVA began at 19 hours 29 minutes into the flight and lasted for 2 hours 29 minutes. During a more than two-hour umbilical EVA which began at 42 hours 48 minutes, Aldrin attached a 100-foot tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. He spent part of the period at the spacecraft adapter, evaluating various restraint systems and performing various basic tasks. The second standup EVA lasted 55 minutes, ending at 67 hours 1 minute ground elapsed time. The tether evaluation began at 47 hours 23 minutes after liftoff, with the crew undocking from the GATV. The tether tended to remain slack, although the crew believed that the two vehicles did slowly attain gravity-gradient stabilization. The crew jettisoned the docking bar and released the tether at 51 hours 51 minutes. Several spacecraft systems suffered problems during the flight. Two fuel cell stacks failed and had to be shut down, while two others experienced significant loss of power. At 39 hours 30 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew reported that little or no thrust was available from two orbit attitude and maneuver thrusters.


1966 November 12 - . 16:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-1 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Duration: 0.10 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Photographed earth and stars..

1966 November 13 - . 15:34 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-2 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Duration: 0.0896 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity..

1966 November 14 - .
  • M2 Flight 13 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 642 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 261 sec..

1966 November 14 - . 14:52 GMT - .
  • EVA Gemini 12-3 - . Crew: Aldrin. EVA Duration: 0.0382 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Gemini 12. Spacecraft: Gemini. Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. Photographed earth limb and stars in ultraviolet..

1966 November 16 - .
  • Government go-ahead for N-1 use in lunar program - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Keldysh, Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: LK-700, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Mishin's draft plan for the Soviet lunar landing was approved by an expert commission headed by Keldysh. The first N-1 launch was set for March 1968. At same meeting, Chelomei made a last ditch attempt to get his revised UR-700/LK-700 direct landing approach approved in its place. Although Chelomei had lined up the support of Glushko, and Mishin was in a weak position after Korolev's death, Keldysh managed to ensure that the N1-L3 continued. However continued design work on the LK-700, the UR-700 booster, and development of the RD-270 engine were authorised.


1966 November 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 14 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 716 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 230 sec..

1966 November 21 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • First Proton/Soyuz L1 begins assembly. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1.

    The first flight rocket (serial number 22701) began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft.


1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....


1966 December 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: Erroneous firing of launch escape tower ignited launch vehicle on the pad.. Failed Stage: P.
  • Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 1. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Second attempted flight of Soyuz 7K-OK (the spacecraft planned for the linkup with Ksomos 133). An analogue to Mercury Redstone's 'day we launched the tower' but with more disastorous consequences. The core stage ignited, but the strap-ons did not. A booster shutdown was commanded. The service towers were brought back around the booster, and ground crew began work to defuel the launch vehicle. At 27 minutes after the original launch attempt, the Soyuz launch escape system, having received the signal that liftoff had occurred, detected that the booster was not on course (either because a tower arm nudged the booster or because the earth's rotation as detected by the gyros had moved the spacecraft out of limits relative to its original inertial position). The launch escape system ignited, pulling the Soyuz away from the booster, igniting the third stage fuel tanks, leading to an explosion that severely damaged the pad and killed at least one person (the Soviet Rocket Forces major supervising the launch team) and injured many others.


1966 December 22 - .
1966 December 28 - .
  • Soyuz-VI to fly by end of 1967. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI. Resolution 'On approval of work on the 7K-VI Zvezda and course of work on Almaz' no. 305 ordered Kozlov's filial 3 of OKB-1 to undertake first flight of the manned military research spacecraft 7K-VI - 11F73 Zvezda by the end of 1967..

1966 December 31 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
1967 January - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • First L-1 Zond spacecraft mated to Proton - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P #1. Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Fit tests at Tyuratam. Not launched (Interavia SD)..

1967 February 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Government approves landing on moon by end 1968 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    Soviet government approves plan to land cosmonaut on moon by end 1968. N-1 test plan approved, envisioning third quarter 1967 as beginning of flight hardware construction. Fall-back project would be manned circumlunar mission. First manned L1 mission imagined as early as June 1967. First N1 launch by March 1968.


1967 February 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 140 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 3. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2667 . COSPAR: 1967-009A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

    After the self-destruction of the first Soyuz 7K-OK on re-entry, and the loss of the second one on the pad fire in December, the state commission ruled that the third 7K-OK model would be flown unpiloted on a solo mission. If this was successful then the fourth and fifth Soyuz would be flown on a manned docking mission. Once in orbit Cosmos 140 experienced attitude control problems due to a faulty star sensor resulting in excessive fuel consumption. The spacecraft couldn't keep the required orientation towards the sun to keep the solar panels illuminated, and the batteries discharged. Despite all of these problems the spacecraft remained controllable. An attempted manoeuvre on the 22nd revolution still showed problems with the control system. It malfunctioned yet again during retrofire, leading to a steeper than planned uncontrolled ballistic re-entry. The re-entry capsule itself had depressurised on separation from the service module due to a fault in the base of the capsule. A 300 mm hole burned through in the heat shield during re-entry. Although such events would have been lethal to any human occupants, the capsule's recovery systems operated and the capsule crashed through the ice of the frozen Aral Sea, 3 km from shore and 500 kilometres short of the intended landing zone. The spacecraft finally sank in 10 meters of water and had to be retrieved by divers. Still, the mission was deemed 'good enough' for the next mission to be a manned two-craft docking and crew transfer space spectacular. Mishin and Kamanin felt that a human crew could have sorted out the problems. They were also under intense pressure to achieve a manned circumlunar flight before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in October.


1967 March 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Cosmos 146 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 2P. Mass: 5,017 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 7.90 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2705 . COSPAR: 1967-021A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton into planned highly elliptical earth orbit. The first flight four-stage Proton rocket began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment. The launch vehicle and Block D stage functioned correctly and put the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. The spacecraft was not aimed at the moon, did not have a heat shield for reentry, and no recovery was planned or attempted. A successful launch that created false confidence just before the string of failures that would follow.


1967 March 15 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • CIA reports on Soviet space developments - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. CIA reports accurately development of N-1, Almaz, Proton, etc.... even states 100,000 kg large space station in development for launch by N-1 by 1969. CIA does not expect lunar landing until early 1970's..

1967 April 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: Block D ullage rocket failure; no restart.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 154 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 3P. Mass: 5,020 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Mishin, Tsybin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1, Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 2745 . COSPAR: 1967-032A. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

    Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft. There are high winds for the L1 launch, 15-17 m/s. The official limit is 20 m/s, but Chelomei wants to scrub the launch if winds go over 15 m/s. Nevertheless the launch proceeds in 17-18 m/s winds and the L1 reached earth orbit. However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The failure is blamed on Mishin and has Tsybin seething in anger. Mishin is disorganised and has made many mistakes. Spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed. Later in the day comes the news the RTS has to be replaced on one of the Soyuz 1/2 spacecraft. This will have a 3 to 4 day schedule impact, and push the launch back to 15-20 April. The crews arrive the same day for the upcoming Soyuz launch.


1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin, Komarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: here....


1967 May 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F2 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F2. Maximum Speed - 661 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 231 sec..

1967 May 10 - .
1967 June - .
  • Original planned date for first Spiral subsonic tests - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. This would actually not occur until ten years later..

1967 August 27 - .
  • Tass announces water landing exercises - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Tass announces water landing exercises; Leonov involved..

1967 September 27 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: First stage -1 RD-253 failed, resulting at T+67 sec in deviation from flight path.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 4L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Barmin, Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-09-28 .

    First attempted circumlunar flight. The UR-500K failed, crashing 50 to 60 km from the launch pad. The L1 radio beacon was detected 65 km north of the Baikonur aerodrome by an Il-14 search aircraft. An Mi-6 helicopter recovered the capsule and had it back to the cosmodrome by 13:30. Mishin's record: of seven launches of the Soyuz and L1, only one has been successful. Film of the launch shows that one engine of the first stage failed. Mishin still wants to launch the next L1 by 28 October. The other chief designers oppose the move. Barmin says at least five months are needed to diagnose the cause of the failures and makes fixes to ensure they don't happen again. Nevertheless the leadership sides with Mishin, and Barmin is ordered to prepare the left Proton pad for a launch within 30 to 40 days.


1967 October 27 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 186 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 6. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3014 . COSPAR: 1967-105A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Docked with Cosmos 188; first automated rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. The dockings were timed to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution (in lieu of a succession of manned space feats that all had to be cancelled due to schedule delays). Achieved automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Capture achieved but hard docking and electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Star tracker failed and had to make a high-G ballistic re-entry. Recovered October 31, 1967 08:20 GMT.


1967 October 30 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 188 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 5. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Mnatsakanian. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3020 . COSPAR: 1967-107A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Docking target craft for Cosmos 186, which achieved world's first automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Hard docking achieved but electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Ion flow sensor failed and Cosmos 188 had to make a high-G uncontrolled re-entry. When it deviated too far off course, it was destroyed by the on-board self-destruct system,. However officially the Soviet Union reported that it landed succesfully on November 2, 1967 at 09:10 GMT, and that its mission was 'investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices'. Additional Details: here....


1967 November 22 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure, shutoff of stage 4 seconds after ignition. Launcher crashed downrange.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Glushko, Leonov, Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-11-21 .

    The launch takes place at 00:07 local time (22:07 on 22 November Moscow time). Glushko, Chelomei, and Kamanin observe the launch from an observation point in -5 deg C weather. Three to four seconds after second stage ignition, the SAS pulls the spacecraft away from the booster. Telemetry shows that engine number 4 of stage 2 never ignited, and after 3.9 seconds the remaining three engines were shut dwon by the SBN (Booster Safety System) and the SAS abort tower fired. The capsule's radio beacon was detected and the spacecraft was found 80 km southwest of Dzhezkazgan, 285 km down range. The Proton problems are maddening. Over 100 rocket launches have used engines from this factory, with no previous failure. Of ten of the last launches under Mishin's direction (6 Soyuz and 4 L1) only two have went well - an 80% failure rate! Mishin is totally without luck. Kamanin and Leonov take an An-12 to see the L1 at its landing point. Leonov wants to see proof that the cosmonauts would be saved in any conditions. The capsule landed in -17 deg C and 12 m/s winds. The parachute pulled the capsule along the ground for 550 m, and the soft landing rockets fired somewhere above the 1.2 m design height. After safing of the APO self-destruct package, the capsule is lifted to an airfield by a Mi-4.


1968 March 1 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
1968 March 2 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 4 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 6L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.22 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3134 . COSPAR: 1968-013A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,561.71 min.

    What at first seemed to be a success, very much needed by the L1 program, ended in failure. The Proton booster lifted off in 18 m/s winds, -3 deg C temperatures, and into very low clouds - it disappeared from view at only 150 m altitude. Aircraft at 9, 10, and 11 km altitude reported the cloud deck topped 8300 m, with 1.5 to 2.0 km visibility. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 330,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the moon. On reentry, the guidance system failed, and the planned double skip maneuver to bring the descent module to a landing in the Soviet Union was not possible. Ustinov had ordered the self-destruct package to be armed and the capsule blew up 12 km above the Gulf of Guinea. Kamanin disagreed strongly with this decision; the spacecraft could have still been recovered in the secondary area by Soviet naval vessels after a 20 G reentry. The decsion was made to recover the spacecraft in the future whenever possible.
    Officially: Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Study of remote regions of circumterrestrial space, development of new on-board systems and units of space stations.


1968 March 15 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 2 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 684 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 243 sec..

1968 April 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 242 sec..

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 15 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 213 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 7. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3193 . COSPAR: 1968-030A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Cosmos 213 was the target for Cosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz 7K-OK rendezvous and docking systems. The Cosmos 213 launch was the most accurate yet. The spacecraft was placed in orbit only 4 km from Cosmos 212, ready for a first-orbit docking. Both spacecraft were recovered, but Cosmos 213 was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown. This failure caused the upcoming Soyuz 2/3 manned docking mission to be scaled back.
    Officially: Investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices. Additional Details: here....


1968 April 22 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: Second stage shut-off prematurely due to short-circuit in Zond control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 7L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-04-22 .

    L1 launch attempt, lift-off at 02:00 local time. The spacecraft was to separate at 589 seconds into the flight. Instead at 260 seconds, a short circuit in the malfunction detection system incorrectly indicated a launch vehicle failure. This in turn triggered the SAS abort system. The SAS shut down the good stage and separated the spacecraft from the booster. The capsule landed safely 520 km downrange from the launch site. This was the third such abort, which if nothing else proved the reliability of the SAS - all of the spacecraft landed safely.


1968 April 25 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 4 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 739 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 258 sec..

1968 May 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 5 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 May 16 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 6 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 719 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 265 sec..

1968 May 28 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 7 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 698 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 June 11 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 8 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 697 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 246 sec..

1968 June 21 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 9 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 681 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 271 sec..

1968 June 26 - .
  • November manned circumlunar flight set - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1.

    State commission sets November as date for manned circumlunar flight. The next L1 flight was set for July, with flights to continue at monthly intervals at each translunar launch window. 3 or 4 unmanned flights had to be successful before a manned flight would be attempted.


July 1968 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • DIA/CIA warn of impending Zond circumlunar flight - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1.

    The information led NASA to decide to send Apollo 8 on a risky lunar orbital mission at the end of December 1968. Interestingly enough the CIA warning to NASA came within days of the L1 State Commission's meeting and decision to press for a November circumlunar flight.


1968 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L - . Payload: Zond 7K-L1 s/n 8L. Mass: 5,140 kg (11,330 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1968-07-21 . Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however..

1968 August 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 238 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 9. Mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.96 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3351 . COSPAR: 1968-072A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Recovered September 1, 1968 9:03 GMT. Final test of redesigned Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft for Soyuz 3 manned mission..

1968 September 14 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 5 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 9L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.76 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3394 . COSPAR: 1968-076A. Apogee: 385,000 km (239,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 14,722.06 min.

    First successful circumlunar flight with recovery. Test flight of manned spacecraft; launched from an earth parking orbit to make a lunar flyby and return to earth. On September 18, 1968, the spacecraft flew around the moon at an altitude of 1950 km. High quality photographs of the earth were taken at a distance of 90,000 km. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria, and other living matter was included in the flight. Before re-entry the gyroscopic platform went off line due to ground operator failure. However this time the self destruct command was not given. After a ballistic 20G re-entry the capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean at 32:63 S, 65:55 E on September 21, 1968 16:08 GMT. Soviet naval vessels were 100 km from the landing location and recovered the spacecraft the next day, shipping it via Bombay back to Soviet Union. Additional Details: here....


1968 September 24 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 10 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. XLR-11 engine installed. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1968 October 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 758 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 243 sec..

1968 October 23 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. First powered flight. Premature shutdown. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12100 m. Flight Time - 189 sec..

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.


1968 October 26 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 3 - . Call Sign: Argon (Argon ). Crew: Beregovoi. Backup Crew: Shatalov, Volynov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 10. Mass: 6,575 kg (14,495 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Shatalov, Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3516 . COSPAR: 1968-094A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.30 min.

    Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock. Complex testing of spaceship systems; development, in joint flight with space ship Soyuz 2 of processes of space ship manoeuvring and docking in artificial earth satellite orbit; development of elements of celestial navigation; conduct of research under space flight conditions. The failed docking was blamed on manual control of the Soyuz by Beregovoi, who repeatedly put the spacecraft in an orientation that nulled the automatic docking system. Beregovoi used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock - of 80 kg allocated, only 8 to 10 kg was remaining. Additional Details: here....


1968 November 10 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 6 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 12L. Mass: 5,375 kg (11,849 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.79 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3535 . COSPAR: 1968-101A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min.

    Test flight of manned circumlunar spacecraft. Successfully launched towards the moon with a scientific payload including cosmic-ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological specimens. A midcourse correction on 12 November resulted in a loop around the moon at an altitude of 2,420 km on 14 November. Zond 6 took spectacular photos of the moon’s limb with the earth in the background. Photographs were also taken of the lunar near and far side with panchromatic film from distances of approximately 11,000 km and 3300 km. Each photo was 12.70 by 17.78 cm. Some of the views allowed for stereo pictures. On the return leg a gasket failed, leading to cabin depressurisation, which would have been fatal to a human crew. The 7K-L1 then made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back out into space before making a final re-entry onto Soviet territory. The landing point was only 16 km from the pad from which it had been launched toward the moon. After the re-entry the main parachute ejected prematurely, ripping the main canopy, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact with the ground. One negative was recovered from the camera container and a small victory obtained over the Americans. But the criteria for a manned flight had obviously not been met and Mishin's only hope to beet the Americans was a failure or delay in the Apollo 8 flight set for December. The next Zond test was set for January. Additional Details: here....


1968 November 13 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 13 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers, 186-sec powered flight. Maximum Speed - 843 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13000 m. Flight Time - 385 sec..

1968 December 9 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 14 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: HL-10 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 872 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14450 m. Flight Time - 394 sec..

1969 January 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 4 - . Call Sign: Amur (Amur - river). Crew: Shatalov. Backup Crew: Shonin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 12. Mass: 6,625 kg (14,605 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Shatalov, Shonin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3654 . COSPAR: 1969-004A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Soyuz 4 is launched with Vladimir Shatalov aboard without further problems at 10:30. This time the rockets gyroscopes, the capsule communications, and the television camera all functioned perfectly. Volynov and his crew for Soyuz 5 watched the launch from Area 17. Later Soyuz 4 would dock with Soyuz 5, and following a transfer of two cosmonauts, return with Shatalov, Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexsei Yeliseyev from Soyuz 5. Official purpose: scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. In making the transfer Khrunov and Yeliseyev avoided the most spectacular survivable incident of the space age - the nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.


1969 January 15 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 5 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Khrunov, Volynov, Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 13. Mass: 6,585 kg (14,517 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Kubasov, Volynov, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4/5, Soyuz 5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3656 . COSPAR: 1969-005A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    At 3 am an An-12 arrives from Moscow with ten newspapers, and letters for Shatalov, to be delivered by the Soyuz 5 crew to him as the first 'space mail'. At 05:15 the State Commission convened and approved launch at 10:04:30. The countdown proceeds normally; meanwhile communications sessions are held with Shatalov on Soyuz 4. The commission is taken by automobile convoy from Area 2, to Area 17, where the Soyuz 5 crew declares itself ready for flight. At T-25 minutes, with the crew already aboard the spacecraft, a piece of electrical equipment fails and needs to be replaced. Engineer-Captain Viktor Vasilyevich Alyeshin goes to the fuelled booster and replaces it. While doing this he notices that the access hatch has been secured with only three bolts, instead of the four required. Nevertheless the launch proceeds successfully. After Soyuz 5 is in orbit, it and Soyuz 4 begin their mutual series of manoeuvres for rendezvous and docking. Officially the flight conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit.


1969 January 16 - . 12:43 GMT - .
  • EVA Soyuz 4/5-1 - . Crew: Khrunov, Yeliseyev. EVA Duration: 0.0257 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrunov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 4/5, Soyuz 5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    A day after the launch of Soyuz 5, Soyuz 4 docked with it. The Soyuz 4 active spacecraft was equipped with a long docking probe, designated 'Shtir'. The Soyuz 5 target spacecraft was equipped with the 'Konus' receptacle. The symbology lead Volynov to joke that he 'was being raped' when the hard docking was accomplished. Khrunov and Yeliseyev transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4, the feat they had hoped to accomplish in the cancelled Soyuz 2 flight almost two years earlier. The external crew transfer was also a test of the technique needed for the Soviet lunar landing.


1969 January 20 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. FAILURE: Second stage - One RD-0210 engine fails at T+510 sec, resulting in flight path deviation, automatic shutoff of launch vehicle.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 13L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Smirnov, Ustinov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1969-01-19 .

    Launch failure - but the abort system again functioned perfectly, taking the capsule to a safe landing (in Mongolia!). At 501 seconds into the flight one of the four engines of the second stage shut down, and remained shut down for 25 seconds. The ever-reliable SAS abort system detected the failure, and separated the capsule from the failed booster. Yet again a successful capsule recovery after a booster failure. Additional Details: here....


1969 February 21 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N-1 11A52. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 3L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 3. Mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Dorofeyev, Kirillov, Mishin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-02-21 . Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

    N-1 serial number 3L was the first N-1 launched. The vehicle ran into trouble immediately at lift-off. A fire developed in the tail compartment. The engine monitoring system detected the fire, but then gave an incorrect signal, shutting down all engines at 68.7 seconds into the flight. British intelligence detected the launch attempt, but the CIA's technical means for some reason missed it and they denied for years that it had ever occurred. In retrospect the launch team at Baikonur pointed to a grave mistake - at the christening of the first N1, the champagne bottle broke against the crawler-transporter rather than the hull of the rocket. After the 3L failure everyone knew there was no chance at all of beating the Americans to the moon. Additional Details: here....


1969 March 3 - .
  • Soviet/Chinese troops clash on Ussuri River - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Military on full alert; Tyuratam preempted by military through June.

1969 April 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 15 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 3 chambers. Maximum Speed - 973 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16070 m. Flight Time - 400 sec..

1969 April 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 1 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 763 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 217 sec..

1969 April 25 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 16 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Glide. Maximum Speed - 743 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1969 May 8 - .
  • X-24 Flight 2 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 735 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 253 sec..

1969 May 9 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 17 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 3 chambers, first supersonic. Maximum Speed - 1197 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16250 m. Flight Time - 410 sec..

1969 May 20 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 959 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14970 m. Flight Time - 414 sec..

1969 May 28 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 19 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1311 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18960 m. Flight Time - 398 sec..

1969 June 6 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 20 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Glide. Maximum Speed - 1483 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 231 sec..

1969 June 10 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • MOL Program cancelled - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: MOL.

    Department of Defense announced cancellation of the planned Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program from Space Launch Complex 6 at Vandenberg AFB. The cancellation was expected to save $ 1.5 billion of the projected total $ 3.0 billion program costs. The SLC-6 launch facility at Vandenberg, 90% complete, would be finished and mothballed. MOL reconnaisance systems useful on unmanned satellites would be completed for a total cost of $ 225 million. Ten thousand aerospace workers were laid off as a result of the cancellation.


1969 June 19 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 21 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1483 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1969 June 21 - .
  • Design issued for OIS military space station. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz OB-VI. Draft project OIS 11F730, was issued by TsKBEM and filial 3 jointly. In the course of 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including modules for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II..

1969 June 23 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1350 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19450 m. Flight Time - 373 sec..

1969 June 30 - .
  • Spiral project cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. No competing US project any more, huge obstacles in getting Tu-144 SST to fly at Mach 2 sustained let alone Mach 4 sustained for Tupolev's Spiral first stage..

1969 July 3 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N-1 11A52. FAILURE: First stage failure.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 5L launch - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1S s/n 5 / Dummy LK. Mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1A. Decay Date: 1969-07-03 .

    N-1 serial number 5L began to fail at 0.25 second after liftoff when the oxidizer pump of engine number 8 ingested a slag fragment and exploded. A fire ensued as the vehicle climbed past the top of the tower. Engines were shutdown until the acceleration dropped below 1 G; then the vehicle began to fall back to the pad at a 45 degree angle. The escape tower fired at the top of the brief trajectory, taking the L1S dummy descent module away from the pad. Upon impact of the base of the N1 with the pad, the vehicle exploded, destroying launch pad 110 east, which would take over 18 months to repair. This was the end of a slight Soviet hope of upstaging the US Apollo 11. Additional Details: here....


1969 August 6 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 23 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. First 4-chambered flight. Maximum Speed - 1641 kph. Maximum Altitude - 23190 m. Flight Time - 372 sec..

1969 August 7 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 7 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 11. Mass: 5,379 kg (11,858 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4062 . COSPAR: 1969-067A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min.

    Circumlunar flight; successfully recovered in USSR August 13, 1969. Only completely successful L1 flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive or uninjured to earth. Official mission was further studies of the moon and circumlunar space, to obtain colour photography of the earth and the moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the moon at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip re-entry and landed 50 km from aim point near Kustani in the USSR.


1969 August 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 3 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 615 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 270 sec..

1969 September 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 4 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1541 kph. Maximum Altitude - 23760 m. Flight Time - 414 sec..

1969 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 4 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 647 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 232 sec..

1969 September 18 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 25 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: HL-10 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 4 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1340 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24140 m. Flight Time - 426 sec..

1969 September 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 5 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 637 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 257 sec..

1969 September 30 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 26 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 780 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16380 m. Flight Time - 436 sec..

1969 October 11 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 6 - . Call Sign: Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant). Crew: Kubasov, Shonin. Backup Crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 14. Mass: 6,577 kg (14,499 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kubasov, Shatalov, Shonin, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4122 . COSPAR: 1969-085A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 - Soyuz 8 docking but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to new helium pressurization integrity test prior to mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....


1969 October 12 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 7 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 15. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kolodin, Kubasov, Mishin, Shatalov, Shonin, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.94 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4124 . COSPAR: 1969-086A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....


1969 October 13 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 8 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 16. Mass: 6,646 kg (14,651 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4126 . COSPAR: 1969-087A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Recovered October 18, 1969 10:19 GMT. Additional Details: here....


1969 October 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 6 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 623 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 238 sec..

1969 October 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1675 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18470 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1969 November 3 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 28 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1482kph. Maximum Altitude - 19540 m. Flight Time - 439 sec..

1969 November 13 - .
  • X-24 Flight 7 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 687 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 270 sec..

1969 November 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1693 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19690 m. Flight Time - 408 sec..

1969 November 21 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 30 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1532 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24160 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1969 November 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 8 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 730 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 266 sec..

1969 December 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • First flight Almaz station close to completion - . Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Ten stations 'in advanced stage of completion' by end of year..

1969 December 12 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 31 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1401 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24370 m. Flight Time - 428 sec..

1970 January 19 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 32 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1398 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26410 m. Flight Time - 410 sec..

1970 January 26 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 1443 kph. Maximum Altitude - 26730 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 February 1 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Space station programs rationalised. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Mishin. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz OB-VI.

    Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.


1970 February 18 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 34 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum speed. Maximum Speed - 1976 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20520 m. Flight Time - 380 sec..

1970 February 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 9 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Glide. Maximum Speed - 819 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14326 m. Flight Time - 258 sec..

1970 February 27 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: HL-10 flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum altitude. Maximum Speed - 1400 kph. Maximum Altitude - 27524 m. Flight Time - 416 sec..

1970 March 19 - .
  • X-24 Flight 10 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13533 m. Flight Time - 424 sec..

1970 April 2 - .
  • X-24 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17892 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1970 April 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 12 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 981 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17587 m. Flight Time - 408 sec..

1970 May 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 13 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 795 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13594 m. Flight Time - 513 sec..

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Grechko, Lazarev, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 218 sec..

1970 June 11 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 36 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Glide landing study. Maximum Speed - 809 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 202 sec..

1970 June 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 14 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1051 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18593 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 June 30 - .
  • Original plan for tests of Spiral - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Original planned date for first flight tests of Spiral with rocket first stage..

1970 July 17 - .
  • HL-10 Flight 37 - . Crew: Hoag. Payload: HL-10 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoag. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: HL-10. Maximum Speed - 803 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1970 July 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 708 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 228 sec..

1970 July 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 15 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 996 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17678 m. Flight Time - 388 sec..

1970 August 11 - .
  • X-24 Flight 16 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1047 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19477 m. Flight Time - 413 sec..

1970 August 26 - .
  • X-24 Flight 17 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 2 chambers. Maximum Speed - 737 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12649 m. Flight Time - 479 sec..

1970 October 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 18 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. First supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1261 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20696 m. Flight Time - 411 sec..

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min.

    Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.


1970 October 27 - .
  • X-24 Flight 19 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1446 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21763 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1970 October 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 10L and 15L. Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Despite decision to cancel immediate manned circumlunar flights after Apollo 8, the remaining two L-1 spacecraft were kept in reserve for support of the L3 lunar landing program and possible later manned flights. They were never used..

1970 November 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 19 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 690 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 236 sec..

1970 November 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 20 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1456 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20604 m. Flight Time - 432 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 20 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 859 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1970 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D.
  • Cosmos 382 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 2K. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Block D. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Duration: 8,549.30 days. USAF Sat Cat: 4786 . COSPAR: 1970-103A. Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Inclination: 55.9000 deg. Period: 171.00 min.

    Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
    318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
    1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.


1971 January 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 21 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1093 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 462 sec..

1971 February 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 22 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Powell's check flight, glide. Maximum Speed - 700 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 235 sec..

1971 February 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 21 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F3 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1971 February 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 23 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1606 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20544 m. Flight Time - 447 sec..

1971 February 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 821 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 348 sec..

1971 March 1 - .
  • X-24 Flight 24 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1064 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17343 m. Flight Time - 437 sec..

1971 March 29 - .
  • X-24 Flight 25 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Fastest X-24 flight. Maximum Speed - 1667 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21488 m. Flight Time - 446 sec..

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov, Patsayev, Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.


1971 May 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 26 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: X-24A flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Maximum Speed - 1477 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21610 m. Flight Time - 423 sec..

1971 May 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 27 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. 3 chambers. Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19903 m. Flight Time - 548 sec..

1971 June 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 28 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24A. Final X-24A flight. Maximum Speed - 867 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16581 m. Flight Time - 517 sec..

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky, Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov, Patsayev, Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 26 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N-1 11A52. FAILURE: First stage failed.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 6L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Mass: 9,850 kg (21,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1971-07-21 . Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

    Superbooster failure of N1 serial number 6L. This was a substantially improved vehicle, incorporating filters in the propellant lines to prevent any foreign objects from getting into the pumps. The shape of the tail of the booster was modified, and ventilation and refrigeration systems were added to keep the engine compartment cool. It was painted white overall to reduce temperatures while sitting on the pad. After liftoff and ascent, an axial rotation was introduced by gas dynamics interactions of the thirty engines with the air slipstream. The launch vehicle developed a roll beyond the capability of the control system to compensate. and began to break up as it went through Max Q. Control was lost at 50.2 seconds into the flight and it was destroyed by range safety a second later. The engines functioned well and did not shut down up to the point of vehicle destruction. No functional payload was carried. It has been stated that this launch did not have a working launch escape system. Additional Details: here....


1971 July 23 - .
  • M2 Flight 23 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 788 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18440 m. Flight Time - 353 sec..

1971 August 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1035 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18898 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1971 August 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 25 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. First M2-F3 supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1163 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20513 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1971 September 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 26 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 772 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12802 m. Flight Time - 210 sec..

1971 November 15 - .
  • M2 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Glide flight. Maximum Speed - 784 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 215 sec..

1971 December 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 28 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1356 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21580 m. Flight Time - 391 sec..

1971 December 16 - .
  • M2 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 861 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14265 m. Flight Time - 451 sec..

1972 June 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 496 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 9.95 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6066 . COSPAR: 1972-045A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test..

1972 July 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 30 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1049 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18562 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1972 July 26 - .
  • Contract awarded for shuttle OV-102. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1972 July 29 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zarya s/n 122 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 122. Mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Decay Date: 1972-07-29 . Second Salyut space station (DOS 2), failed to reach orbit..

1972 August 11 - .
  • M2 Flight 31 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1168 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20480 m. Flight Time - 375 sec..

1972 August 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 32 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1344 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 September 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 935 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14020 m. Flight Time - 387 sec..

1972 September 27 - .
  • M2 Flight 34 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1424 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 366.5 sec..

1972 October 5 - .
  • M2 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1455 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20210 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 October 19 - .
  • M2 Flight 36 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14360 m. Flight Time - 359 sec..

1972 November 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 37 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1292 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21730 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1972 November 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 38 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14260 m. Flight Time - 364 sec..

1972 November 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 39 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1524 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1972 November 23 - . 06:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N-1 11A52. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • N1 7L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-LOK / LK Mockups. Mass: 9,850 kg (21,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Decay Date: 1972-11-23 . Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

    Unmanned test of manned lunar mission launch vehicle serial number 7L. This article incorporated significant changes to the previous model, including roll 'steering' engines to prevent the loss of control that destroyed 6L. The rocket ascended into the sky, and the engines ran 106.93 seconds, only seven seconds before completion of first stage burnout. Programmed shutdown of some engines to prevent overstressing of the structure led to propellant line hammering, rupture of propellant lines, and an explosion of engine number 4. The vehicle disintegrated. Additional Details: here....


1972 November 29 - .
  • M2 Flight 40 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1432 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20570 m. Flight Time - 357 sec..

1972 December 6 - .
  • M2 Flight 41 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20820 m. Flight Time - 332 sec..

1972 December 13 - .
  • M2 Flight 42 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Fastest M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 1712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 383 sec..

1972 December 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: M2-F2. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Last M2-F3 flight, also highest. Maximum Speed - 1377 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21790 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1972 December 31 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Brezhnev selects Almaz for next space station - . Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next space station launch. Following two successive failures of DOS-7K station (Salyut 1 and the July 29, 1972 launch failure), Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next launch (Salyut 2)..

1973 April 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 2 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-01. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 54.62 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6398 . COSPAR: 1973-017A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
    Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: here....


1973 May 11 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 557 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 123. Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 10.98 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6498 . COSPAR: 1973-026A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later..

1973 May 14 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: LUT2. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Skylab 1 - . Payload: Skylab Orbital Workshop. Mass: 74,783 kg (164,868 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Skylab. Decay Date: 1979-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6633 . COSPAR: 1973-027A. Apogee: 439 km (272 mi). Perigee: 427 km (265 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

    First and only US space station to date. Project began life as Apollo Orbital Workshop - outfitting of an S-IVB stage with docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Curtailment of the Apollo moon landings meant that surplus Saturn V's were available, so the pre-equipped, five times heavier, and much more capable Skylab resulted.

    An unexpected telemetry indication of meteoroid shield deployment and solar array wing 2 beam fairing separation was received 1 minute and 3 seconds after liftoff. However, all other systems of the OWS appeared normal, and the OWS was inserted into a near-circular Earth orbit of approximately 435 km altitude. The payload shroud was jettisoned, and the ATM with its solar array was deployed as planned during the first orbit. Deployment of the Workshop solar array and the meteoroid shield was not successful. In fact the xternal solar/meteoroid shield had ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one solar panel wing and debris jamming the remaining panel. Without shield temperatures soared in station. Repairs by crews led to virtually all mission objectives being met.

    Following the final manned phase of the Skylab mission, ground controllers performed some engineering tests of certain Skylab systems--tests that ground personnel were reluctant to do while men were aboard. Results from these tests helped to determine causes of failures during the mission and to obtain data on long term degradation of space systems.

    Upon completion of the engineering tests, Skylab was positioned into a stable attitude and systems were shut down. It was expected that Skylab would remain in orbit eight to ten years. It was to have been visited by an early shuttle mission, reboosted into a higher orbit, and used by space shuttle crews. But delays in the first flight of the shuttle made this impossible.

    On July 11, 1979, Skylab disintegrated when it re-entered the earth's atmosphere after a worldwide scare over its pending crash. The debris stretched from the south-east Indian Ocean into Western Australia. Additional Details: here....


1973 June 7 - . 15:15 GMT - .
1973 June 15 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 573 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 35. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6694 . COSPAR: 1973-041A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Soyuz test flight. Recovered June 17, 1973 6:01 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test, probably using one of the spacecraft allocated to the failed Salyut 2 or Cosmos 557 stations..

1973 June 19 - . 10:55 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 2-3 - . Crew: Conrad, Weitz. EVA Duration: 0.0722 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad, Weitz. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 2. Spacecraft: Skylab. Replacement of film cartridges for solar camera..

1973 August 1 - .
  • X-24 Flight 29 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. First glide flight. Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12190 m. Flight Time - 252 sec..

1973 August 7 - . 17:30 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 3-1 - . Crew: Garriott, Lousma. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott, Lousma. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    Installed second sunshade. Replaced solar camera film cartridges. During EVA by crew members of Skylab 3, a twin-boom sunshade, developed by MSFC, was deployed over the parasol of the OWS. A redesigned and refined thermal parasol had been launched with Skylab 3. However, its use would have required jettisoning the parasol deployed by crew members of Skylab 2, with the possibility of creating the same thermal problems that existed on the OWS prior to the parasol deployment. Following erection of the twin-pole sunshade, the cabin temperature stayed at a comfortable 293-297 K (67.7°F-74.9°F).


1973 August 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 30 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 267 sec..

1973 August 24 - . 16:24 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 3-2 - . Crew: Garriott, Lousma. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott, Lousma. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Skylab. Replaced solar camera film cartridges; installed replacement gyroscopes..

1973 August 31 - .
  • X-24 Flight 31 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 771 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 277 sec..

1973 September 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 32 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 271 sec..

1973 September 22 - . 11:18 GMT - .
1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Gubarev, Klimuk, Lazarev, Makarov, Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min.

    Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.


1973 October 4 - .
  • X-24 Flight 33 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 732 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 279 sec..

1973 November 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 34 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. First power flight. Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 16080 m. Flight Time - 404 sec..

1973 November 23 - . 17:42 GMT - .
1973 November 30 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 613 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 34L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6957 . COSPAR: 1973-096A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered January 29, 1974 5:29 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T duration test..

1973 December 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 35 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1038 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19080 m. Flight Time - 434 sec..

1973 December 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 13 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk, Lebedev. Backup Crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33A. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Klimuk, Lebedev, Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.87 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6982 . COSPAR: 1973-103A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems.


1973 December 25 - . 16:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 4-2 - . Crew: Carr, Pogue. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carr, Pogue. Program: Skylab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Skylab 4. Spacecraft: Skylab. Photographed Comet Kohoutek and replaced solar camera film cartridges..

1973 December 29 - . 17:00 GMT - .
1974 February 3 - . 15:19 GMT - .
1974 February 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 36 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 307 sec..

1974 March 5 - .
  • X-24 Flight 37 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. First supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1139 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18390 m. Flight Time - 437 sec..

1974 April 3 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 638 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 71-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 9.89 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7234 . COSPAR: 1974-018A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

    Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1974 April 30 - .
  • X-24 Flight 38 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 930 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15860 m. Flight Time - 419 sec..

1974 May 2 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1-L3 program is cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko, Kozlov, Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station.

    The N1 program was cancelled before the next test flight. Mishin was removed as head of NPO Energia. Kozlov is first asked to replace him, but he prefers to stay in Samara. Glushko is appointed as the second choice. Two fully assembled (serial numbers 8L and 9L), and four partially assembled rockets were available at time of cancellation. These would have been the first to use the new modernized series NK-33/NK-39 engines. 8L was planned for launch in the fourth quarter of 1974. Confidence was high that, based on the massive telemetry received on the 7L flight, that all problems would have been rectified. A total of 3.6 billion rubles was spent on the N1-L3 program, of which 2.4 billion rubles went into N1 development. Those on the project felt that they were within months of finally providing the Soviet Union with a heavy-lift booster. Instead the work was discarded, and Glushko began design of the RLA/Vulkan with entirely new configuration and engines.


1974 May 24 - .
  • X-24 Flight 39 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1212 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17060 m. Flight Time - 448 sec..

1974 May 27 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 656 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 61. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7313 . COSPAR: 1974-036A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned test flight of the Soyuz 7K-T(A9) Soyuz variant designed for docking with the military Almaz space station. Recovered May 29, 1974 7:50 GMT..

1974 June 4 - .
  • Structural assembly of crew module for OV-102 begun. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1974 June 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 40 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1303 kph. Maximum Altitude - 19970 m. Flight Time - 405 sec..

1974 June 24 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 3 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-02. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 90.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7342 . COSPAR: 1974-046A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule. The KSI capsule suffered damage during re-entry but all the film was recoverable. On 24 January 1975 trials of the on-board 23 mm Nudelmann aircraft cannon (other sources say it was a Nudelmann NR-30 30 mm gun) were conducted. The next day the station was commanded to retrofire to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean. Although only one of three planned crews managed to board the station, that crew did complete the first completely successful Soviet space station flight. Additional Details: here....


1974 June 28 - .
  • X-24 Flight 41 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1480 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20770 m. Flight Time - 427 sec..

1974 June 30 - .
  • Spiral project resurrected - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Glushko supports modest project to do subsonic flight tests of Spiral orbiter configuration..

1974 July 3 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 14 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Artyukhin, Popovich. Backup Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 62. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Artyukhin, Demin, Popovich, Rozhdestvensky, Sarafanov, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 14. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 15.73 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7361 . COSPAR: 1974-051A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    On 4 July Soyuz 14 docked with the Salyut 3 space station after 15 revolutions of the earth. The planned experimental program included manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. After the crew's return research continued in the development of the on-board systems and the principles of remote control of such a station.


1974 August 6 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 670 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 1L. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 2.99 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7405 . COSPAR: 1974-061A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Unmanned Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered August 8, 1974 23:59 GMT..

1974 August 8 - .
  • X-24 Flight 42 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1644 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 395 sec..

1974 August 12 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 672 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 72-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7413 . COSPAR: 1974-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1974 August 26 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start structural assembly aft fuselage, Enterprise (OV-101).

1974 August 26 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 15 - . Call Sign: Duna (Danube ). Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Backup Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 63. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Demin, Rozhdestvensky, Sarafanov, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7421 . COSPAR: 1974-067A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Soyuz 15 was to conduct the second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, but the Igla rendezvous system failed and no docking was made. The two day flight could only be characterised as '... research in manoeuvring and docking with the OPS in various modes, and development of methods for evacuation and landing from space complex in new conditions....'

    As Chelomei had complained, Soyuz had no reserves or backup systems for repeated manual docking attempts and had to be recovered after a two-day flight. The state commission found that the Igla docking system of the Soyuz needed serious modification. This could not be completed before Salyut 3 decayed. Therefore the planned Soyuz 16 spacecraft became excess to the program (it was later flown as Soyuz 20 to a civilian Salyut station, even though over its two year rated storage life).

    Officially: Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-3 orbital scientific station.


1974 August 29 - .
  • X-24 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1170 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22080 m. Flight Time - 467 sec..

1974 October 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 44 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Max. speed flight. Maximum Speed - 1873 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21990 m. Flight Time - 417 sec..

1974 November 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 45 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1722 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21960 m. Flight Time - 481 sec..

1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Filipchenko, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko, Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

    ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.


1974 December 17 - .
  • X-24 Flight 46 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1667 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20960 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1974 December 26 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 4 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 124. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 768.82 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7591 . COSPAR: 1974-104A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    Deorbited February 2, 1977.
    Maneuver Summary:
    211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
    211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
    277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
    Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
    Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.


1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Gubarev, Klimuk, Lazarev, Makarov, Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 January 14 - .
  • X-24 Flight 47 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1862 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22180 m. Flight Time - 477 sec..

1975 March 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 48 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1537 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21450 m. Flight Time - 409 sec..

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Columbia fuselage assembly starts. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 March 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1975 April 5 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: During second-third stage separation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Soyuz 18-1 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Backup Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 39. Mass: 6,830 kg (15,050 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Klimuk, Lazarev, Makarov, Sevastyanov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 0.0149 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-05 . Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

    Carried Oleg Makarov, Vasili Lazarev for rendezvous with Salyut 4; but during second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. The crew demanded that the abort procedures be implemented but ground control could not see the launch vehicle gyrations in their telemetry. Soyuz finally was separated from by ground control command at 192 km, and following a 20.6+ G reentry, the capsule landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside, and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment, but after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Total flight duration was 1574 km and flight time 21 minutes 27 seconds. Lazarev suffered internal injuries from the high-G reentry and tumble down the mountain side and never flew again. Both cosmonauts were denied their 3000 ruble spaceflight bonus pay and had to apeal all the way to Brezhnev before being paid.


1975 April 18 - .
  • X-24 Flight 49 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1279 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17650 m. Flight Time - 450 sec..

1975 May 6 - .
  • X-24 Flight 50 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1541 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 448 sec..

1975 May 22 - .
  • X-24 Flight 51 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Max. altitude. Maximum Speed - 1744 kph. Maximum Altitude - 22370 m. Flight Time - 461 sec..

1975 May 23 - .
  • Enterprise wings complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Wings on dock, Palmdale-less elevons, seals and main gear doors-Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 May 24 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 18 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok, Ponomaryov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 40. Mass: 6,825 kg (15,046 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Klimuk, Kovalyonok, Ponomaryov, Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 62.97 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7818 . COSPAR: 1975-044A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. The crew remained aloft aboard the station during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight..

1975 May 27 - .
  • Enterprise vertical stabilizer complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale (main fin box only), Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 June 6 - .
  • X-24 Flight 52 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1786 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21980 m. Flight Time - 474 sec..

1975 June 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 53 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1427 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17680 m. Flight Time - 426 sec..

1975 July 15 - .
  • X-24 Flight 54 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1685 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21180 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Filipchenko, Ivanchenkov, Kubasov, Leonov, Romanenko, Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Apollo (ASTP), Soyuz 19 (ASTP). Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80°, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


1975 August 5 - .
  • X-24 Flight 55 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1381 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18290 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1975 August 20 - .
  • X-24 Flight 56 - . Crew: Love, Michael. Payload: X-24B flight 28. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love, Michael. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1625 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21950 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1975 August 25 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise final assembly. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 September 5 - .
  • Enterprise aft fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 September 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 57 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: X-24B flight 29. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 1593 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21640 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1975 September 23 - .
  • X-24 Flight 58 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: X-24B flight 30. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Last rocket-powered flight. Maximum Speed - 1255 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17680 m. Flight Time - 438 sec..

1975 September 29 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 772 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 2L. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 3.99 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8338 . COSPAR: 1975-093A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered October 3, 1975 4:10 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    193 km X 270 km orbit to 195 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    196 km X 300 km orbit to 196 km X 328 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 16 m/s


1975 October 9 - .
  • X-24 Flight 59 - . Crew: Enevoldson. Payload: X-24B flight 31. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Enevoldson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 724 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 251 sec..

1975 October 21 - .
  • X-24 Flight 60 - . Crew: Scobee. Payload: X-24B flight 32. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scobee. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 743 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 255 sec..

1975 October 31 - .
  • Enterprise lower fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1975 November 3 - .
  • X-24 Flight 61 - . Crew: McMurtry. Payload: X-24B flight 33. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McMurtry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 734 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 248 sec..

1975 November 12 - .
  • X-24 Flight 62 - . Crew: Enevoldson. Payload: X-24B flight 34. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Enevoldson. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 734 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1975 November 17 - .
  • Columbia crew module started. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Start long-lead fabrication of crew module, Columbia (OV-102).

1975 November 17 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 20 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 64. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 90.49 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8430 . COSPAR: 1975-106A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned long duration test of the Soyuz transport vehicle; docked with Salyut 4. Recovered February 16, 1976 2:24 GMT. Comprehensive checking of improved on-board systems of the space craft under various flight conditions. Carried a biological payload. Living organisms were exposed to three months in space.


1975 November 19 - .
  • X-24 Flight 63 - . Crew: Scobee. Payload: X-24B flight 35. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scobee. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 249 sec..

1975 November 26 - .
  • X-24 Flight 64 - . Crew: McMurtry. Payload: X-24B flight 36. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McMurtry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: X-24. Spacecraft: X-24B. Maximum Speed - 740 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 245 sec..

1975 December 1 - .
  • Enterprise upper forward fuselage complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 January 16 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 March 3 - .
  • Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 March 12 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise final assembly complete. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete final assembly and closeout system installation..

1976 March 15 - .
  • Start functional checkout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101)..

1976 April 22 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 June 22 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 5 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 103-01. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 411.24 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8911 . COSPAR: 1976-057A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Second successful flight of the Almaz manned military space station. It had taken only 60 days and 1450 man-hours to prepare Almaz 0101-2 for flight, using the services of 368 officers and 337 non-commissioned officers. The tracking ships Academician Sergei Korolev and Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were stationed in the Atlantic and Caribean to provide communications when out of tracking range of the USSR. Salyut 5 operated for 409 days, during which the crews of Soyuz 22 and 24 visited the station. Soyuz 23 was to have docked but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. Soyuz 25 was planned, but the mission would have been incomplete due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5, so it was cancelled.

    During the flight of Salyut 5 a 'parallel crew' was aboard a duplicate station on the ground. They conducted the same operations in support of over 300 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, and medical/biological experiments. Astrophysics studies included an infrared telescope-spectrometer in the 2-15 micrometer range which also obtained solar spectra. Earth resources studies were conducted as well as Kristall, Potok, Diffuziya, Sfera, and Reatsiya technology experiments. Presumably Salyut 5 was equipped with a SAR side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets even through cloud cover.

    The film capsule was ejected 22 February 1977 (and sold at Sotheby's, New York, on December 11, 1993!). The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977. In addition to the human crew two Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were flown.

    The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additional Details: here....


1976 June 25 - .
  • Complete functional checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 June 28 - .
  • Start horizontal ground vibration tests Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start horizontal ground vibration tests and proof load tests, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 June 30 - .
  • SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. SSME dummy set on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1976 July 6 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 21 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Backup Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Support Crew: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 41. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun, Rozhdestvensky, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 21. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 49.27 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8934 . COSPAR: 1976-064A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

    Soyuz 21 with Volynov and Zholobov aboard hard-docked with the station on 6 July 1976 after failure of the Igla system at the last stage of rendezvous. Towards the end of the two month mission an early return to earth was requested due to the poor condition of flight engineer Zholobov (who was suffering from space sickness and psychological problems).


1976 August 23 - .
  • Start Delta F modification, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 August 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise - dummy OMS pods delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Reaction control system/orbital maneuvering system pods (simulated), approach and landing tests, on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise.

1976 September 10 - .
  • Complete Delta F modifications, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 13 - .
  • Start preparations for first rollout, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 September 15 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 22 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Aksyonov, Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Malyshev, Strekalov. Support Crew: Andreyev, Popov. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 74 modified with MF6 camera. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aksyonov, Andreyev, Bykovsky, Malyshev, Popov, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 22. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-MF6. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9421 . COSPAR: 1976-093A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Tested and perfected scientific-technical methods and devices for studying the geological characteristics of the earth's surface from outer space for economic purposes.


1976 September 20 - .
  • Start Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 October 14 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 23 - . Call Sign: Radon (Radon ). Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Backup Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. Support Crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 65. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun, Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 23. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9477 . COSPAR: 1976-100A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min.

    The Soyuz 23 ferry spacecraft suffered a docking system failure. Sensors indicated an incorrect lateral velocity, causing unnecessary firing of the thrusters during rendezvous. The automatic system was turned off, but no fuel remained for a manual docking by the crew.


1976 October 29 - .
  • Complete Delta F retest, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 November 26 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout, Enterprise (OV-101) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1976 November 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 869 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 3L. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 17.77 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9564 . COSPAR: 1976-114A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

    Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered December 17, 1976 10:31 GMT. Transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
    187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
    259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    Total Delta V: 83 m/s


1976 December 13 - .
  • Start assembly upper forward fuselage, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1976 December 15 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 881 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9606 . COSPAR: 1976-121A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Launch of mission LVI-1 came at 04:00 on 15 December. At 176 seconds the ADU escape tower separated from the LVI. Once the final stage had shut down in orbit, by command from the launch vehicle sequencer, the VA 009A (also given as 009P) and its TDU separated from the LVI. Two seconds later VA 009 (or 009L) was ejected. Fifteen minutes after launch all systems of the both VA capsules were in operation. The guidance system detected the direction of flight and oriented each spacecraft for retro-fire, and the pair began the return to earth after less than one revolution. At an external atmospheric pressure of 165 mm (10 km altitude) the NO section jettisoned, the three-cupola drogue parachute ejected, and the antennae and altimeter were deployed. The Komara landing radio beacon (installed on the landing section of the parachute) was activated when the spacecraft was 1.0 to 1.5 m above the ground - which occurred at the same moment on both 009 and 009A. The Kaktus special system tripped the soft landing PRSP (parachute landing propulsion system). The soft landing was accomplished with higher accuracy than Soyuz, both capsules being recovered at 44 deg N, 73 deg E, on December 15, 1976 3:00 GMT. The flights were officially given the designations Cosmos 881 (VA 009A) and Cosmos 882 (VA 009). US intelligence believed them to be tests of recoverable manned spaceplane prototypes.

  • Cosmos 882 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9607 . COSPAR: 1976-121B. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Test of TKS-VA capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1977 January 3 - .
  • Start assembly vertical stabilizer, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mockup SSME's delivered for Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 January 31 - . Launch Site: Edwards AFB.
  • Enterprise (OV-101) transported to Edwards AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 January 31 - .
  • Mass simulated SSMEs on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise.

1977 February 7 - .
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mate start.

1977 February 7 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 24 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. Backup Crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. Support Crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 66. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Kozelsky, Lisun, Preobrazhensky. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 24. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 17.73 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9804 . COSPAR: 1977-008A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

    Soyuz 24 docked with Salyut 5 and brought repair equipment and equipment for a change of cabin atmosphere. This special apparatus was designed to allow the entire station to be vented through the EVA airlock. Because of this the planned EVA was cancelled. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. The crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission.


1977 February 10 - .
  • Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 February 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft mated.

1977 February 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • First inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct first inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 5 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Second inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct second inert captive flight, Edwards (3 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 25 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Third inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct third inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 28 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 February 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fourth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct fourth inert captive flight, Edwards (2 hours, 11 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 March 2 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fifth inert captive flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct fifth inert captive flight, Edwards (1 hour, 39 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 7 - .
  • Complete integrated checkout of Enterprise - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete integrated checkout and hot-fire ground test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 June 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 1 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. First manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (55 minutes, 46 seconds).

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 June 30 - .
  • Originally planned full up Spiral flight - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: MiG 105-11. Original planned date for flight test of Spiral with airbreathing hypersonic first stage..

1977 July 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 929 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16101. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 199.62 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10146 . COSPAR: 1977-066A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min.

    First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
    Maneuver Summary:
    214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
    219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
    303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
    288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
    437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
    335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
    Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1977 July 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 3 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (59 minutes, 50 seconds).

1977 August 4 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. FAILURE: First stage engine steering unit failure at T+40.1 seconds. Failed Stage: 1.
  • TKS VA s/n 009L/P - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L/P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1977-08-04 . Spacecraft lost in booster explosion..

1977 August 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 4 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Conduct first free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 21 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 August 26 - .
  • Deliver wings on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 7 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 September 13 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 5 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 September 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 6 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third free flight , ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 15.

1977 September 29 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 6 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125 s/n 5L. Mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Duration: 1,763.71 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10382 . COSPAR: 1977-097A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: here....


1977 October 9 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 25 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 42. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Romanenko, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 25. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.03 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10401 . COSPAR: 1977-099A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6..

1977 October 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 7 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle, Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fourth free flight, ALT, first tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 October 26 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 8 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Fullerton, Haise. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Haise. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fifth free flight, ALT, final tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 1 second), Enterprise (OV-101), concrete Runway 04.

1977 October 28 - .
  • Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 4 - .
  • Deliver aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1977 November 7 - .
  • Start final assembly Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1977 November 15 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • First ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. First ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 21 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Second ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Second ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 17 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 17 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Third ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Third ferry flight test, Edwards (4 hours, 13 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 November 18 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Fourth ferry flight test, Edwards (3 hours, 37 minutes), Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 9 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Complete approach and landing flight tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete approach and landing flight tests, including ferry flights, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko, Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 12 - .
  • Start modification of Enterprise for ground vibe tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start removal for mated vertical ground vibration test modification at Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1977 December 19 - . 21:36 GMT - .
1978 - During the year - .
  • Manned Almaz program terminated - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei, Glushko, Ustinov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS-2, TKS.

    Almaz station portion of the project already severely cut back after Marshal Grechko's heart attack in early 1976. Chelomei lost his most active patron and was unable to withstand the slow strangulation of his projects by Ustinov and Glushko. Almaz finally completely scrapped in 1980, but Chelomei hid the completed space stations in a corner of his complex, labelling them as 'radioactive material'. Chelomei finally forced to retire in October 1983. TKS shuttle craft used to dock with Salyut stations but never in manned mode. Following Ustinov's death, Almaz stations finally flown as unmanned radarsats, but Chelomei did not live to see this.


1978 January 1 - .
  • Kovunenko succeds Babkin as OKB head - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. VM Kovunenko succeds Babkin as head of former Lavochkin design bureau..

1978 January 10 - .
  • Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26, Soyuz 27. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 20 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 1 - . Payload: Progress s/n 102. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.73 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . Decay Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10603 . COSPAR: 1978-008A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 22 Jan 1978 10:12:14 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1978 05:54:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 8 Feb 1978 02:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.91 days. Total docked time 14.82 days.


1978 February 10 - .
  • Complete final assembly, STA-099, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 14 - .
  • STA-099 on dock, Lockheed facility, Palmdale - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1978 February 17 - .
  • Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 February 24 - .
  • Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev, Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak, Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gubarev, Pelczak, Remek, Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26, Soyuz 28. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.


1978 March 3 - .
  • Complete modification for mated vibe tests. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete modification for mated vertical ground vibration test, Edwards, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 March 6 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 10 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Ferry Enterprise from Edwards to Texas. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Edwards to Ellington Air Force Base, Texas (approximately 3 hours, 38 min).

1978 March 13 - .
  • Ferry Enterprise from Texas to Huntsville - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry Enterprise (OV-101) atop shuttle carrier aircraft from Ellington AFB to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala..

1978 March 19 - .
  • Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 March 30 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. Launch Pad: LC81/24?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 997 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 997. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10770 . COSPAR: 1978-032A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Given the on-pad explosion of the LVI-2 launch attempt, plans to crew the upper VA re-entry capsule in the next test was abandoned. LVI-3 (VA's 102P and 102L / Cosmos 997 and Cosmos 998) was launched unmanned four months behind the original schedule. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One source indicates that one of the capsules was 009P, on its third launch and second flight to orbit. This was said to have demonstrated the multiple re-entry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose).

  • Cosmos 998 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10771 . COSPAR: 1978-032B. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit..

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1978 April 23 - .
  • Columbia ready for power-on. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 April 24 - .
  • Start precombined systems test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 April 28 - .
  • Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 May 26 - .
  • Upper forward fuselage mate, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 26 - .
  • Complete forward RCS structure, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 May 30 - .
  • Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC.

1978 June 15 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 29 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Backup Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 46. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Lyakhov, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10952 . COSPAR: 1978-061A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments..

1978 June 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 30 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Hermaszewski, Klimuk. Backup Crew: Jankowski, Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 67. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Hermaszewski, Jankowski, Klimuk, Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29, Soyuz 30. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 7.92 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10968 . COSPAR: 1978-065A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments..

1978 July 7 - .
  • Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102).

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.


1978 July 13 - .
  • Reconfigure from boost to launch, vibe test - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Reconfigure from boost to launch, mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1978 July 29 - . 04:00 GMT - .
1978 August 7 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 3 - . Payload: Progress s/n 103. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 15.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . Decay Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 10999 . COSPAR: 1978-077A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Aug 1978 23:59:30 GMT. Undocked on 21 Aug 1978 15:42:50 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Aug 1978 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.10 days. Total docked time 11.66 days.


1978 August 11 - .
  • Complete forward RCS, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 August 26 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 31 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky, Jaehn. Backup Crew: Gorbatko, Koellner. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 47. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Gorbatko, Jaehn, Koellner. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29, Soyuz 31. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 67.84 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11010 . COSPAR: 1978-081A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1978 September 25 - .
  • Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1978 September 30 - .
  • Uragan space interceptor project begun - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor.

    In order to counter US space shuttle flights made in polar orbits from Vandenberg, deep black Uragan project begun. Scaled-up Spiral to be launched by new Zenit launch vehicle, carrying Nudelmann recoilless gun (same as developed for TKS) for destruction of shuttle after interception and inspection. First flight planned 1983.


1978 October 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 4 - . Payload: Progress s/n 105. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . Decay Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 11040 . COSPAR: 1978-090A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 6 Oct 1978 01:00:15 GMT. Undocked on 24 Oct 1978 13:01:52 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Oct 1978 16:28:13 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.22 days. Total docked time 18.50 days.


1978 December 15 - .
  • Complete precombined system test, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 January 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1074 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 5L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 60.04 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11259 . COSPAR: 1979-008A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Manned precursor. Recovered April 1, 1979 10:09 GMT. Soyuz T Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    197 km X 240 km orbit to 255 km X 297 km orbit. Delta V: 33 m/s
    255 km X 297 km orbit to 264 km X 306 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    264 km X 306 km orbit to 309 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
    309 km X 321 km orbit to 279 km X 357 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    279 km X 357 km orbit to 352 km X 402 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    352 km X 402 km orbit to 363 km X 384 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 112 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1979 February 3 - .
  • Complete combined systems test, Palmdale, Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 16 - .
  • Airlock on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 February 25 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 32 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Backup Crew: Lebedev, Popov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 48. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lebedev, Lyakhov, Popov, Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 110.18 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11281 . COSPAR: 1979-018A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned..

1979 February 26 - .
  • Complete mated vertical ground vibe test program - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete mated vertical ground vibration test program at MSFC, Enterprise (OV-101).

1979 March 5 - .
  • Complete postcheckout, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia.

1979 March 8 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Columbia (OV-102) transported overland to Edwards. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Columbia (OV-102) transported overland from Palmdale to Edwards (38 miles).

1979 March 9 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia test flight - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) test flight at NASA Edwards.

1979 March 12 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 5 - . Payload: Progress s/n 104. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.77 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . Decay Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . USAF Sat Cat: 11292 . COSPAR: 1979-022A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 14 Mar 1979 07:19:21 GMT. Undocked on 3 Apr 1979 16:10:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Apr 1979 00:10:22 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.40 days. Total docked time 20.37 days.


1979 March 20 - .
  • Ferry flight, Edwards to El Paso - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Edwards to Biggs Army Air Base, El Paso, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 March 22 - .
  • Ferry flight El Paso to Kelly AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Biggs Army Air Base to Kelly AFB, San Antonio, Texas (1 hr, 39 min).

1979 March 23 - .
  • Ferry flight, Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla. (2 hours, 12 minutes).

1979 March 24 - .
  • Ferry flight, Eglin AFB to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Eglin AFB to KSC (1 hour, 33 minutes).

1979 April 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, MSFC to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101) from MSFC to KSC (1 hour, 52 minutes).

1979 April 10 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
1979 April 18 - .
  • Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Complete left-hand OMS/RCS Phase I qualification, WSTF May 1 Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET/SRBs mated on mobile launcher platform,.

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24.
  • TKS VA s/n 008 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: TKS VA s/n 008. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA .

    On 20 April 1979 LVI-4 VA (VA s/n 103 and s/n 008) was awaiting launch. The booster ignited, but then shut down on the pad. This triggered the launch escape system, which pulled the top capsule away from the booster. The parachute system failed and the capsule crashed to the ground. The lower capsule remained in the rocket. The top capsule was to have been manned, but the inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA combination made that (luckily) impossible.


1979 April 20 - .
  • TKS VA s/n 103 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 103. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA .

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad. Booster could be reused with new payload.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Nation: Russia. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

1979 May 10 - .
  • Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 13 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 6 - . Payload: Progress s/n 106. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . Decay Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 11356 . COSPAR: 1979-039A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 15 May 1979 06:19:22 GMT. Undocked on 8 Jun 1979 07:59:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Jun 1979 18:52:46 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.54 days. Total docked time 24.07 days.


1979 May 15 - .
  • Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas to KSC, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 May 22 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1100 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 1100. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . COSPAR: 1979-042A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    The Proton launch vehicle that shut down on the original LVI-4 launch attempt was undamaged, and just a month later, with a switch of payload, LVI-4 was orbited as Cosmos 1100 and 1101. The pair launched were the 102P/102L twins from LVI-3. One capsule failed when the automatic system suffered an electrical distribution failure and it did not land correctly, spending two orbits in space, while the other landed as planned after one orbit. The launch again successfully demonstrated the reusability of the VA capsule. Plans to launch the upper capsule manned were scrubbed due to the inability to get two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA.

  • Cosmos 1101 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11363 . COSPAR: 1979-042B. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Test of TKS-VA manned capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1979 June 6 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 34 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 50. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 73.76 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11387 . COSPAR: 1979-049A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Docked with Salyut 6. Launched unmanned to provide return vehicle for Soyuz 32 crew of Lyakhov/Ryumin after Soyuz 33 primary propulsion system failure. Checked the operation of the spacecraft propulsion unit; transportated the crew of the Salyut-6 station back to earth.


1979 June 21 - .
  • Start assembly crew module, Challenger (OV-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger.

1979 June 28 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 7 - . Payload: Progress s/n 107. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 32. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . Decay Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11421 . COSPAR: 1979-059A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Jun 1979 11:18:22 GMT. Undocked on 18 Jul 1979 03:49:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jul 1979 01:57:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.0 days. Total docked time 17.69 days.


1979 July 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A.
  • First test STS stack move from VAB to LC39A - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Enterprise (OV-101), ET, SRBs transported on mobile launcher platform from Launch Complex 39-A to Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC.

1979 August 1 - . LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 August 6 - .
  • Complete limit test (STA-099) - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Complete limit test (STA-099), Lockheed facility, Palmdale.

1979 August 10 - .
  • Ferry flight, KSC to Atlanta - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), KSC to Atlanta (1 hour, 55 minutes).

1979 August 11 - .
  • Ferry flight, Atlanta to St. Louis - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Atlanta to St. Louis (1 hour, 50 minutes).

1979 August 12 - .
  • Ferry flight, St. Louis to Tulsa - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), St. Louis to Tulsa (1 hour, 35 minutes).

1979 August 13 - .
  • Ferry flight, Tulsa to Denver - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Tulsa to Denver (2 hours).

1979 August 14 - .
  • Ferry flight, Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Denver to Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah (1 hour, 30 minutes).

1979 August 15 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • Ferry flight, Ogden to Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Ogden to Vandenberg AFB (2 hours, 20 minutes).

1979 August 15 - . 14:16 GMT - .
1979 August 16 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Ferry flight, Vandenberg AFB to Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Enterprise (OV-101), Vandenberg AFB to Edwards (1 hour, 10 minutes).

1979 August 23 - . Launch Site: Edwards. Launch Complex: Edwards.
  • Enterprise / shuttle carrier demate, Edwards - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Enterprise (OV-101)/ shuttle carrier demate, Edwards.

1979 August 27 - .
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1979 December 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-1 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 6L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 100.38 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11640 . COSPAR: 1979-103A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

    New generation Soyuz capsule; unmanned flight to Salyut 6. Docked with Salyut 6. Recovered March 25, 1980 21:47 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz T design.
    Officially: Complex experimental testing of new on-board systems and assemblies under various flight conditions and operation in conjunction with the Salyut-6 orbital station.


1980 March 27 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 8 - . Payload: Progress s/n 108. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 29.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . Decay Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11743 . COSPAR: 1980-024A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Mar 1980 20:01:00 GMT. Undocked on 25 Apr 1980 08:04:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Apr 1980 06:54:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.0 days. Total docked time 26.50 days.


1980 April 9 - . 13:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 35 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov, Ryumin. Backup Crew: Andreyev, Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 51. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andreyev, Popov, Ryumin, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 55.06 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11753 . COSPAR: 1980-027A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried crew comprising L I Popov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific and technical research and experiments..

1980 April 27 - . 06:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 9 - . Payload: Progress s/n 109. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . Decay Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11784 . COSPAR: 1980-033A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Apr 1980 08:09:19 GMT. Undocked on 20 May 1980 18:51:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 22 May 1980 00:44:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.32 days. Total docked time 21.45 days.


1980 May 26 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 36 - . Call Sign: Orion (Orion ). Crew: Farkas, Kubasov. Backup Crew: Dzhanibekov, Magyari. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 52. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Farkas, Kubasov, Magyari. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35, Soyuz 36. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 65.87 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 11811 . COSPAR: 1980-041A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Transported the fifth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V N Kubasov (USSR) and B Farkas (Hungary) to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1980 June 5 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-2 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Aksyonov, Malyshev. Backup Crew: Kizim, Makarov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 7L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aksyonov, Kizim, Makarov, Malyshev. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35, Soyuz T-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11825 . COSPAR: 1980-045A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Test flight of new Soyuz T; docked with Salyut 6. Conducted testing and development of on-board systems in the improved Soyuz T series transport vehicle under piloted conditions..

1980 June 29 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 10 - . Payload: Progress s/n 110. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.88 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . Decay Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11867 . COSPAR: 1980-055A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 1 Jul 1980 05:53:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Jul 1980 22:21:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1980 01:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.19 days. Total docked time 16.69 days.


1980 July 23 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 37 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Gorbatko, Tuan. Backup Crew: Bykovsky, Liem. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 53. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Bykovsky, Gorbatko, Liem, Tuan. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35, Soyuz 37. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11905 . COSPAR: 1980-064A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min.

    Manned two crew. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the sixth international crew under the Intercosmos programme, comprising V V Gorbatko (USSR) and Pham Tuan (Viet Nam), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 35 to Earth. Recovered October 11, 1980 9:50 GMT.


1980 September 18 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 38 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Romanenko, Tamayo Mendez. Backup Crew: Khrunov, Lopez Falcon. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 54. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Khrunov, Lopez Falcon, Romanenko, Tamayo Mendez. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35, Soyuz 38. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11977 . COSPAR: 1980-075A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the seventh international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising Y V Romanenko (USSR) and A. Tomaio Mendez (Cuba), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1980 September 28 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 11 - . Payload: Progress s/n 111. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 35. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 73.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . Decay Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11993 . COSPAR: 1980-079A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Sep 1980 17:03:00 GMT. Undocked on 9 Dec 1980 10:23:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 Dec 1980 14:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.23 days. Total docked time 69.72 days.


1980 November 27 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-3 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim, Makarov, Strekalov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok, Polyakov, Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 8L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kizim, Kovalyonok, Makarov, Polyakov, Savinykh, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12077 . COSPAR: 1980-094A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.

    Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved transport ship of the 'SOYUZ T' series; transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station a crew consisting of L D Kizim, O G Makarov and G M Strekalov to carry out repair and preventive work and scientific and technical investigation and experiments.


1981 January 24 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 12 - . Payload: Progress s/n 113. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.11 days. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . Decay Date: 1981-03-20 16:58:58 . USAF Sat Cat: 12152 . COSPAR: 1981-007A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 26 Jan 1981 15:56:00 GMT. Undocked on 19 Mar 1981 18:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Mar 1981 16:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.02 days. Total docked time 52.10 days.


1981 March 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-4 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon ). Crew: Kovalyonok, Savinykh. Backup Crew: Andreyev, Zudov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 10L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Andreyev, Kovalyonok, Savinykh, Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 74.73 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12334 . COSPAR: 1981-023A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station cosmonauts V V Kovalenok and V P Savinykh to carry out repairs and preventive maintenance and scientific and technical investigations and experiments..

1981 March 22 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 39 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Gurragcha. Backup Crew: Ganzorig, Lyakhov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 55. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Ganzorig, Gurragcha, Lyakhov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 39, Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12366 . COSPAR: 1981-029A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the eighth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR) and Z. Gurragchi (Mongolian People's Republic) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments.


1981 April 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-1 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Crippen, Young. Payload: Columbia F01 / DFI. Mass: 4,909 kg (10,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-1. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12399 . COSPAR: 1981-034A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 40.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package..

1981 April 25 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1267 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16301. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 459.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 12419 . COSPAR: 1981-039A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: here....


1981 May 14 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 40 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov, Prunariu. Backup Crew: Dediu, Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 56. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dediu, Popov, Prunariu, Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 40, Soyuz T-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12454 . COSPAR: 1981-042A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the ninth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising L I Popov (USSR), and D. Prunariu (Romania), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle, Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle, Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..

1982 March 22 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-3 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Fullerton, Lousma. Payload: Columbia F03 / OSS-1. Mass: 10,301 kg (22,709 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton, Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-3. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13106 . COSPAR: 1982-022A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment..

1982 April 19 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Salyut 7 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125-2. Mass: 18,900 kg (41,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 7. Duration: 3,215.34 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 13138 . COSPAR: 1982-033A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 279 km (173 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

    Second Soviet replenishable long-duration ‘civilian’ space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower. Additional Details: here....


1982 May 13 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-5 - . Call Sign: Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe). Crew: Berezovoi, Lebedev. Backup Crew: Strekalov, Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 11L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Lebedev, Strekalov, Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 106.21 days. Decay Date: 1982-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 13173 . COSPAR: 1982-042A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Carried Anatoli Berezovoi, Valentin Lebedev to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific research and experiments; returned crew of Soyuz T-7 to Earth..

1982 May 23 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 13 - . Payload: Progress s/n 114. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 13.75 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . Decay Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . USAF Sat Cat: 13210 . COSPAR: 1982-047A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 25 May 1982 07:56:36 GMT. Undocked on 4 Jun 1982 06:31:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 6 Jun 1982 00:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.81 days. Total docked time 9.94 days.


1982 June 3 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1374 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1982-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 13257 . COSPAR: 1982-054A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.10 min.

    Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean at 17 degrees South, 98 degrees East, 560 km south of Cocos Islands. Made a 600 km cross-range maneuver during reentry. The recovery was filmed by an Australian Orion reconnaissance aircraft, revealing the configuration to the West for the first time.


1982 June 24 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-6 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamirs ). Crew: Chretien, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov. Backup Crew: Baudry, Kizim, Solovyov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 9L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Baudry, Chretien, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Kizim, Solovyov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5, Soyuz T-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 13292 . COSPAR: 1982-063A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station the Soviet-French international crew, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR), A S Ivanchenkov (USSR) and Jean-Loup Chretien (France) to conduct scientific research and experiments.


1982 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-4 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Hartsfield, Mattingly. Payload: Columbia F04 / DoD 82-1. Mass: 11,109 kg (24,491 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hartsfield, Mattingly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-4. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 7.05 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 13300 . COSPAR: 1982-065A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.

    Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Payloads: Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Development Flight Instrumentation (DFl), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), first NASA getaway special (GAS), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, Vapor Phase Compression (VPC) freezer heat exchanger dynamics for freezing samples, Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (AClP) experiment.


1982 July 10 - . 09:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 14 - . Payload: Progress s/n 117. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 33.65 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . Decay Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13361 . COSPAR: 1982-070A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 12 Jul 1982 11:41:00 GMT. Undocked on 10 Aug 1982 22:11:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Aug 1982 01:29:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.21 days. Total docked time 29.44 days..

1982 July 30 - . 02:39 GMT - .
1982 August 19 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-7 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov, Savitskaya, Serebrov. Backup Crew: Pronina, Romanenko, Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 12L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Popov, Pronina, Romanenko, Savinykh, Savitskaya, Serebrov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5, Soyuz T-7. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 113.08 days. Decay Date: 1982-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 13425 . COSPAR: 1982-080A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Docked with Salyut 7. Carried Svetlana Savitskaya, Leonid Popov, Alexander Serebrov to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1982 September 18 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 15 - . Payload: Progress s/n 112. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.51 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . Decay Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13558 . COSPAR: 1982-094A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 20 Sep 1982 06:12:00 GMT. Undocked on 14 Oct 1982 13:46:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Oct 1982 17:08:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.19 days. Total docked time 24.32 days..

1982 October 31 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 16 - . Payload: Progress s/n 115. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.25 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . Decay Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . USAF Sat Cat: 13638 . COSPAR: 1982-107A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 2 Nov 1982 13:22:00 GMT. Undocked on 13 Dec 1982 15:32:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 14 Dec 1982 17:17:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.16 days. Total docked time 41.09 days..

1982 November 11 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-5 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. Payload: Columbia F05 / SBS 3 [PAM-D] / Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 14,551 kg (32,079 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-5. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.09 days. Decay Date: 1982-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13650 . COSPAR: 1982-110A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 294 km (182 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

    Manned four crew. First mission to deploy commercial communications satellites (SBS 3, Anik C3). Payloads: : Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-C with Payload Assist ; (PAM)-D; Telesat-E (Canadian communications satellite) with PAM-D. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), three getaway specials (GAS), Student experiments, GLOW experiment, Vestibular experiment, Oxygen Interaction With Materials experiment.


1983 March 2 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1443 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16401L. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 200.62 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 13868 . COSPAR: 1983-013A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    TKS manned ferry spacecraft from the cancelled Almaz OPS-4 mission. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 7 space station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 4 March 1983. Separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August. The VA re-entry capsule separated and the space station deorbited itself on September 19, 1983 at 0:28 GMT. The VA capsule continued in space for four more days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully re-entering on 23 August 1983. Returned 350 kg of material from the station. Additional Details: here....


1983 March 15 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1445 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1983-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13883 . COSPAR: 1983-017A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean, 556 km south of the Cocos Islands ..

1983 April 4 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-6 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bobko, Musgrave, Peterson, Weitz. Payload: Challenger F01 / TDRS 1 [IUS]. Mass: 21,305 kg (46,969 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko, Musgrave, Peterson, Weitz. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13968 . COSPAR: 1983-026A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 288 km (178 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Manned four crew. First flight of space shuttle Challenger; deployed TDRSS. Payloads: Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-A with Inertial Upper Stage (lUS)-2, Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, three getaway specials (GAS).


1983 April 8 - . 21:05 GMT - .
1983 April 20 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-7 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen, Fabian, Hauck, Ride, Thagard. Payload: Challenger F02 / OSTA-2. Mass: 16,839 kg (37,123 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen, Fabian, Hauck, Ride, Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-7. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.10 days. Decay Date: 1983-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 14132 . COSPAR: 1983-059A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-2 experiments, deployment of PALAPA-B1 communications satellite for Indonesia with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and Telesat-F communications satellite for Canada with PAM-D, German Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01, seven getaway specials (GAS), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES).


1983 June 27 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-9 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov. Backup Crew: Strekalov, Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 14L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov, Strekalov, Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 149.45 days. Decay Date: 1983-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14152 . COSPAR: 1983-062A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of V A Lyakhov, commander of the spacecraft, and A P Aleksandrov, flight engineer, to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1983 August 17 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 17 - . Payload: Progress s/n 119. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 31.48 days. Completed Operations Date: 1983-09-17 23:42:37 . Decay Date: 1983-09-17 23:42:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 14283 . COSPAR: 1983-085A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 19 Aug 1983 13:47:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1983 11:44:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 17 Sep 1983 23:43:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.57 days. Total docked time 28.91 days..

1983 August 30 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-8 - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford, Brandenstein, Gardner, Thornton, Bill, Truly. Payload: Challenger F03 / PFTA. Mass: 13,642 kg (30,075 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford, Brandenstein, Gardner, Thornton, Bill, Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-8. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.05 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 14312 . COSPAR: 1983-089A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min.

    First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. Payloads: Deployment of INSAT (lndia communica-tion satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D, Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA)/ Payload Deployment Retrieval System (PDRS), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), biomedical experiments. 250,000 express mail envelopes with special cachet for U.S. Postal Service were carried for a first-day cover.


1983 September 26 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Launch vehicle blew up on pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
1983 October 20 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 18 - . Payload: Progress s/n 118. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 26.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1983-11-16 04:17:55 . Decay Date: 1983-11-16 04:17:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 14422 . COSPAR: 1983-106A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 22 Oct 1983 11:34:00 GMT. Boosted Salyut to 326 X 356 orbit on 4 Nov 1983. Undocked on 13 Nov 1983 03:08:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Nov 1983 04:18:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.11 days. Total docked time 21.65 days.


1983 November 1 - . 04:47 GMT - .
1983 November 3 - . 03:47 GMT - .
1983 November 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-9 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Garriott, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. Payload: Columbia F06 / Spacelab 1 Pallet. Mass: 15,088 kg (33,263 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-9. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.32 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min.

    Carried ESA Spacelab. Payloads: Payload: Spacelab-1 experiments, habitable Spacelab and pallet, carried 71 experiments. The six-man crew was divided into two 12-hour-day red and blue teams to operate experiments. First high-inclination orbit of 57 degrees.

  • Spacelab 1 Pallet - . Payload: SL 1 PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.
  • Spacelab 1 - . Payload: SL 1 LM. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1983 December 27 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1517 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0500 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 14585 . COSPAR: 1983-125A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Subscale Spiral spaceplane. In a new mission profile, braked out of orbit over the South Atlantic and was recovered in the Black Sea after one orbit of the Earth..

1984 February 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-41-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Brand, Gibson, McCandless, McNair, Stewart. Payload: Challenger F04 / SPAS 1A. Mass: 15,362 kg (33,867 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand, Gibson, McCandless, McNair, Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-B. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.97 days. Decay Date: 1984-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14681 . COSPAR: 1984-011A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). Payloads: PALAPA-B2 (Indonesian communications satellite) with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D and WESTAR (Western Union communications satellite)-Vl with PAM-D. Both satellites were deployed but the PAM-D in each satellite failed to ignite, leaving both satellites in earth orbit. Both satellites were retrieved and returned to earth for renovation on the STS-51-A mission. The manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was tested with extravehicular astronauts as free flyers without tethers as far as 98 m from the orbiter. Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-01 experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Isoelectric Focusing Experiment (lEF), Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES), Cinema 360 cameras, five getaway specials (GAS), Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification (ACIP)/High Resolution Accelerom-eter Package (HIRAP).


1984 February 7 - .
1984 February 8 - . 12:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-10 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Atkov, Kizim, Solovyov, Vladimir. Backup Crew: Polyakov, Savinykh, Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-ST s/n 15L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Atkov, Kizim, Polyakov, Savinykh, Solovyov, Vladimir, Vasyutin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 62.95 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14701 . COSPAR: 1984-014A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew consisting of ship's commander L D Kizim, flight engineer V A Solovyov and cosmonaut-research O Y Atkov to the SALYUT-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments.


1984 February 9 - .
1984 February 21 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 19 - . Payload: Progress s/n 120. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 40.48 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-04-01 18:17:55 . Decay Date: 1984-04-01 18:17:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 14757 . COSPAR: 1984-018A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Feb 1984 08:21:00 GMT. Undocked on 31 Mar 1984 09:40:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 1 Apr 1984 18:18:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.43 days. Total docked time 37.05 days.


1984 April 3 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-11 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Malyshev, Sharma, Strekalov. Backup Crew: Berezovoi, Grechko, Malhotra. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 17L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Grechko, Malhotra, Malyshev, Sharma, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10, Soyuz T-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 181.91 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 14872 . COSPAR: 1984-032A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7.Transported a Soviet-Indian international crew comprising ship's commander Y V Malyshev, flight engineer G M Strekalov (USSR) and cosmonaut-researcher R Sharma (India) to the SALYUT-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments.


1984 April 6 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-41-C - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen, Hart, Nelson, Scobee, van Hoften. Payload: Challenger F05 / LDEF 1 / MMU 3. Mass: 17,357 kg (38,265 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen, Hart, Nelson, Scobee, van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-C. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 6.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14897 . COSPAR: 1984-034A. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.40 min.

    Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, by James van Hoften and George Nelson. Deployed LDEF. Payloads:Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) repair, manned maneuvering unit (MMU) satellite support, deployment of Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in earth orbit free drift. LDEF contained 57 experiments and weighed about 10,000 kg. Cinema 360 and IMAX 70-mm cameras.


1984 April 8 - . 14:18 GMT - .
1984 April 11 - . 08:58 GMT - .
1984 April 15 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 20 - . Payload: Progress s/n 121. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.68 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-05-07 00:32:58 . Decay Date: 1984-05-07 00:32:58 . USAF Sat Cat: 14932 . COSPAR: 1984-038A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. First launch of Progress by Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Salyut 7 on 17 Apr 1984 09:22:00 GMT. Undocked on 6 May 1984 17:46:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1984 00:32:51 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.33 days. Total docked time 19.35 days.


1984 April 23 - . 04:31 GMT - .
1984 April 26 - . 02:40 GMT - .
1984 April 29 - . 01:35 GMT - .
1984 May 4 - . 23:15 GMT - .
1984 May 7 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 21 - . Payload: Progress s/n 116. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.68 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-05-27 15:00:15 . Decay Date: 1984-05-27 15:00:15 . USAF Sat Cat: 14961 . COSPAR: 1984-042A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 10 May 1984 00:10:00 GMT. Undocked on 26 May 1984 09:41:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 May 1984 15:00:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 16.40 days.


1984 May 18 - . 17:52 GMT - .
1984 May 28 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 22 - . Payload: Progress s/n 122. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 48.19 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-07-15 18:52:08 . Decay Date: 1984-07-15 18:52:08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14996 . COSPAR: 1984-051A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 30 May 1984 15:47:00 GMT. Undocked on 15 Jul 1984 13:36:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Jul 1984 18:52:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 45.91 days.


1984 July 17 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz T-12 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Savitskaya, Volk. Backup Crew: Ivanova, Savinykh, Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 18L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov, Ivanova, Savinykh, Savitskaya, Vasyutin, Volk. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10, Soyuz T-12. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1984-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15119 . COSPAR: 1984-073A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew comprising ship's commander V A Dzhanibekov, flight engineer S E Savitskaya and cosmonaut-research I P Volk to the Salyut-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments..

1984 July 25 - . 14:55 GMT - .
1984 August 8 - . 08:46 GMT - .
1984 August 14 - . 06:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 23 - . Payload: Progress s/n 124. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 13.79 days. Completed Operations Date: 1984-08-28 01:27:45 . Decay Date: 1984-08-28 01:27:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 15193 . COSPAR: 1984-086A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 16 Aug 1984 08:11:00 GMT. Undocked on 26 Aug 1984 16:13:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Aug 1984 01:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.46 days. Total docked time 10.33 days.


1984 August 30 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-41-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. Payload: Discovery F01 / SBS 4[PAM-D] / Telstar 302[PAM-D]. Mass: 21,552 kg (47,514 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-D. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 6.04 days. Decay Date: 1984-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15234 . COSPAR: 1984-093A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. Payloads: Satellite Business System (SBS)-D commu-nications satellite with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-2 communica-tions satellite with its unique stage deployment, Telstar (American Telephone and Telegraph) 3-C with PAM-D deployment, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)-1 experiments. Deployment and restowing of large solar array. Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES). IMAX camera.


1984 October 5 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-41-G - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Crippen, Garneau, Leestma, McBride, Ride, Scully-Power, Sullivan. Payload: Challenger F06 / ERBS / LFC / ORS. Mass: 10,643 kg (23,463 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crippen, Garneau, Leestma, McBride, Ride, Scully-Power, Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41-G. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 8.22 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15353 . COSPAR: 1984-108A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

    Manned seven crew. Deployed ERBS; performed high resolution Earth imagery. Payloads: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) deployment, Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-3 experiments, Large Format Camera (LFC). First use of Orbital Refueling System (ORS) with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, IMAX camera.


1984 October 11 - .
1984 November 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-A - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker, Dave. Payload: Discovery F02 / PLT. Mass: 20,550 kg (45,300 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-A. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.99 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 15382 . COSPAR: 1984-113A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2; recovered Westar 6, Palapa B2. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-H with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deploy-ment, Syncom IV-1 communications satellite deployment with its unique stage, retrieval of PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR VI communications satellites with PAM-D which failed to ignite on the STS-41-B mission. Manned maneuvering unit (MMU) used for retrieval. Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS) experiment.


1984 November 12 - . 13:25 GMT - .
1984 November 14 - .
1984 November 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg.
  • The Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise arrives - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Enterprise. The Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise arrived at Vandenberg AFB for a series of facility verification tests..

1984 December 19 - . 03:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • Cosmos 1614 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: BOR-4. Duration: 0.0500 days. Decay Date: 1984-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 15442 . COSPAR: 1984-126A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Last flight of the subscale Spiral spaceplane. Recovered December 19, 1984 5:26 GMT, in the Black Sea after one orbit of the Earth..

1984 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
  • Buran Analog BST-02 taxi test 1 - . Crew: Stankevicius, Volk. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius, Volk. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran Analogue. Maximum speed 45 kph. Time 5 minutes. Thereafter to PRSO test stand for full-scale equipment tests; then to PDST pilot-dynamics test stand for further tests..

1985 January 24 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-C - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. Payload: Discovery F03 / Magnum 1 [IUS]. Mass: 116,884 kg (257,685 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-C. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 3.06 days. Decay Date: 1985-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 15496 . COSPAR: 1985-010A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 28.4000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Orbits of Earth: 48. Landed at: Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Landing Speed: 342 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 839.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,240.00 m. Payloads: Department of Defence classified payloads.


1985 April 12 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-D - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams, Donald. Payload: Discovery F04 / Anik C1[PAM-D] / Syncom-4 3 /Orbus. Mass: 16,249 kg (35,822 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams, Donald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-D. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 15641 . COSPAR: 1985-028A. Apogee: 535 km (332 mi). Perigee: 445 km (276 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

    Manned seven crew. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-I with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-3 communications satellite deploy-ment with its unique stage (unique stage failed to ignite), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), student experiments, two getaway specials (GAS) Informal science studies (Toys in Space).


1985 April 16 - .
1985 April 29 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-B - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Gregory, Lind, Overmyer, Thagard, Thornton, Bill, van den Berg, Lodewijk, Wang. Payload: Challenger F07 / SL 3 MPESS. Mass: 14,245 kg (31,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory, Lind, Overmyer, Thagard, Thornton, Bill, van den Berg, Lodewijk, Wang. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-B. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.01 days. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3. Payloads: Spacelab-3 experiments, habitable Spacelab and mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments represented a total of five different disciplines: materials processing in space, environmental observa-tions, life science, astrophysics, and technology experiments. Two getaway specials (GAS). The flight crew was split into gold and silver shifts working 12-hour days during the flight.

  • Spacelab 3 - . Payload: SL 3 LM. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15665 . COSPAR: 1985-034xx. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 346 km (214 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

1985 June 6 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz T-13 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov, Savinykh. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov, Popov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 19L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Dzhanibekov, Popov, Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a, Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 112.13 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 15804 . COSPAR: 1985-043A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Docked with Salyut 7. Delivered to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of flight commander V A Dzhanibekov and flight engineer V P Savinykh to carry out emergency repairs to inert Salyut 7 station and to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments.


1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-G - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. Payload: Discovery F05 / Morelos 1[PAM-D] / Telstar 303. Mass: 20,174 kg (44,476 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-G. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15823 . COSPAR: 1985-048A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

    Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D.Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Autono-mous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN)-1; Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF); High Precision Tracking Experiment (HPTE); Orbiter Experiments (OEX); French Echocardiograph Experiment (FEE) and French Pocket Experiment (FPE).


1985 June 21 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Progress 24 - . Payload: Progress s/n 125. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a, Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.91 days. Completed Operations Date: 1985-07-15 22:33:50 . Decay Date: 1985-07-15 22:33:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 15838 . COSPAR: 1985-051A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Delivery to the Salyut-7 orbital station of a mixed cargo with a total mass of 2,000 kg. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Jun 1985 02:54:00 GMT. Undocked on 15 Jul 1985 12:28:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Jul 1985 22:33:31 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.51 days. Total docked time 22.40 days.


1985 July 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Cosmos 1669 - . Payload: Progress s/n 126. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a, Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 41.51 days. Completed Operations Date: 1985-08-30 01:19:52 . Decay Date: 1985-08-30 01:19:52 . USAF Sat Cat: 15918 . COSPAR: 1985-062A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Progress vehicle, given Cosmos designation instead of Progress because control lost early in mission but regained later. Resupplied Salyut 7. On departure briefly undocked and redocked to verify reliability of docking system. Transported of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 21 Jul 1985 15:05:00 GMT. Undocked on 28 Aug 1985 21:50:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 30 Aug 1985 01:20:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.23 days. Total docked time 38.28 days.


1985 July 29 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-F - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Acton, Bartoe, Bridges, England, Fullerton, Henize, Musgrave. Payload: Challenger F08 / PDP / Spacelab 2 PLT. Mass: 15,603 kg (34,398 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Acton, Bartoe, Bridges, England, Fullerton, Henize, Musgrave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-F. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.95 days. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 89.90 min.

    Manned seven crew. At 5 minutes, 45 seconds into ascent the number one engine shut down prematurely due to a a sensor problem and an abort to orbit was declared. Despite the anomaly the mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab-2 with 13 experiments, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG). The flight crew was divided into a red and blue team. Each team worked 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation.

  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.
  • Spacelab 2 PLT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle Attached Payloads. Spacecraft: SLP. Decay Date: 1985-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 15925 . COSPAR: 1985-063xx. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 49.5000 deg. Period: 90.80 min.

1985 August 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 August 2 - . 07:15 GMT - .
1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-I - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher, William, Lounge, van Hoften. Payload: Discovery F06 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1. Mass: 19,952 kg (43,986 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey, Engle, Fisher, William, Lounge, van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-I. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.10 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15992 . COSPAR: 1985-076A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min.

    Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment.


1985 August 31 - .
1985 September 1 - .
1985 September 17 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1985 September 27 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Cosmos 1686 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16501. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a, Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 1,958.80 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16095 . COSPAR: 1985-086A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

    Modification of cancelled TKS manned ferry; docked with Salyut 7. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). Burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.

    Maneuver Summary:
    172 km X 302 km orbit to 284 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 36 m/s
    281 km X 315 km orbit to 290 km X 336 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    290 km X 336 km orbit to 335 km X 352 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s
    Maneuvers after docking with Salyut 7:
    336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
    333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s
    466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 143 m/s
    Officially: Testing the equipment, assemblies and design components of a satellite in various modes of flight, including joint flight with the Salyut-7 station.


1985 October 3 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-51-J - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bobko, Grabe, Hilmers, Pailes, Stewart. Payload: Atlantis F01 / DSCS-3 2 / DSCS-3 3 [IUS]. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bobko, Grabe, Hilmers, Pailes, Stewart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-J. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.07 days. Decay Date: 1985-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16115 . COSPAR: 1985-092A. Apogee: 486 km (301 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.20 min.

    Manned five crew. Atlantis (first flight); deployed USA 11, USA 12. Reusable space transportation system.

    Orbits of Earth: 63. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Touchdown miss distance: 754.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,455.00 m. Payloads: Classified DoD Mission - Record altitude (as of 5/93).


1985 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 October 30 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-61-A - . Call Sign: Challenger. Crew: Bluford, Buchli, Dunbar, Furrer, Hartsfield, Messerschmid, Nagel, Ockels. Payload: Challenger F09 / GLOMR 1. Mass: 14,451 kg (31,859 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford, Buchli, Dunbar, Furrer, Hartsfield, Messerschmid, Nagel, Ockels. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-A. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Challenger. Duration: 7.03 days. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 319 km (198 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min.

    Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Payloads: Spacelab D-1 with habitable module and 76 experiments. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts for 24-hour-a-day operation. The remaining two crew members were 'switch hitters.'.

  • Spacelab D-1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1985-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 16230 . COSPAR: 1985-104xx. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 322 km (200 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.

1985 November 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 November 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1985 November 27 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-61-B - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cleave, Neri Vela, O Connor, Ross, Shaw, Spring, Walker. Payload: Atlantis F02 / EASE / ACCESS. Mass: 21,791 kg (48,040 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cleave, Neri Vela, O Connor, Ross, Shaw, Spring, Walker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.88 days. Decay Date: 1985-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16273 . COSPAR: 1985-109A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-2 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Deploy Morelos (Mexico communications satellite)-B with PAM-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-2 with PAM-D. EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures— Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, Continuous Flow Electrophore-sis System (CFES), Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS), IMAX camera, one getaway special (GAS), Linhof camera and Hasseblad camera.


1985 November 29 - .
  • EVA STS-61-B-1 - . Crew: Ross, Spring. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross, Spring. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Began EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures / Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) structural assembly experiments..

1985 December 1 - .
  • EVA STS-61-B-2 - . Crew: Ross, Spring. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross, Spring. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-B. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Completed EASE/ACCESS (Assembly of Structures / Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures) structural assembly experiments..

1986 January 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 January 12 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-61-C - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson, Bill. Payload: Columbia F07 Satcom-K 1 [PAM-D2]. Mass: 14,724 kg (32,460 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson, Bill. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-C. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 6.09 days. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).


1986 January 28 - . 16:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle. FAILURE: Seal on SRB failed, allowed hot gas to burn through External Tank.. Failed Stage: 0.
1986 February 19 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Mir - . Payload: Mir s/n 127-01. Mass: 20,100 kg (44,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Mir . Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16609 . COSPAR: 1986-017A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:

    • Splav-2 crystal growth facility
    • Zona zone melt facility
    • Kashtan electrophoresis unit
    • Bulgarian Rozhen photometer
    • Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers
    • Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg)
    • Biryuza semiconductor materials unit
    • -Ruchei electrophoresis installation
    • Yantar metal coating equipment
    • Mariye magnetic spectrometer
    • Korund furnace (136 kg)

    Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: here....


1986 March 13 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz T-15 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim, Solovyov, Vladimir. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov, Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz T 11F732 s/n 21L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Kizim, Solovyov, Vladimir, Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 125.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 16643 . COSPAR: 1986-022A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Mir Main Expedition EO-01. Epic repair mission. The crew, consisting of ship's commander L D Kizim and flight engineer V A Solovyov first docked with the Mir orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments. Mir then maneuvered 17 April to match Salyut 7's orbit at 4000 km separation, then again on 4 May to catch up. After six weeks aboard Mir, Soyuz T-15 undocked on 5 May, then rendezvoused and manually docked with the inoperative Salyut 7 station. This was the only flight in history by a single spacecraft between two space stations. The Salyut-7 station was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. The crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat, and environmental control. The also removed experimental results left behind by last crew. Soyuz T-15 undocked Salyut 7 on 25 June, and redocked with Mir on 26 June, delivering 400 kg of scientific material from Salyut 7, including a multichannel spectrometer. Following further work aboard Mir, the crew landed on July 16, 1986 at 12:34 GMT. No crew ever revisited Salyut 7; it made an uncontrolled reentry over Argentina.


1986 March 19 - . 10:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 25 - . Payload: Progress s/n 134. Mass: 7,270 kg (16,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 32.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1986-04-21 00:48:05 . Decay Date: 1986-04-21 00:48:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 16645 . COSPAR: 1986-023A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Mir on 21 Mar 1986 11:16:02 GMT. Undocked on 20 Apr 1986 19:24:08 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Apr 1986 00:48:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 30.34 days.


1986 March 30 - . LV Family: VKS series. Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000.
  • Tupolev starts developement of aerospace plane - . Nation: Russia. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. In reaction to US X-30 project, Tupolev OKB asked to start work on counterpart. By 1992 mockup completed, but solving of propulsion and inlet problems intractable without access to supercomputers..

1986 April 23 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 26 - . Payload: Progress s/n 136. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 60.83 days. Completed Operations Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . Decay Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . USAF Sat Cat: 16687 . COSPAR: 1986-032A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir on 25 April, but problem with Mir's radio communication system delays docking until the next day. Docked with Mir on 26 Apr 1986 21:26:06 GMT. Undocked on 22 Jun 1986 18:25:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Jun 1986 15:41:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.96 days. Total docked time 56.87 days.


1986 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 May 21 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-1 - . Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 51. Mass: 7,070 kg (15,580 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 8.93 days. Decay Date: 1986-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 16722 . COSPAR: 1986-035A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Test of new Soyuz vehicle. Recovered May 30, 1986 6:49 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz TM. Docked with Mir May 23 1987. Undocked 29 May.
    Officially: Comprehensive experimental testing of spacecraft in independent flight and jointly with the Mir orbital station.


1986 May 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 May 28 - . 05:43 GMT - .
1986 May 31 - . 04:57 GMT - .
1986 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 June 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1986 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 January 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 27 - . Payload: Progress s/n 135. Mass: 7,230 kg (15,930 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 40.42 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . Decay Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 17299 . COSPAR: 1987-005A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Mir; raised Mir's orbit. Transported sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 18 Jan 1987 07:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 23 Feb 1987 11:29:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 25 Feb 1987 16:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.25 days. Total docked time 36.17 days.


1987 February 5 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-2 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Laveykin, Romanenko. Backup Crew: Serebrov, Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 52. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Laveykin, Romanenko, Serebrov, Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 174.14 days. Decay Date: 1987-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17482 . COSPAR: 1987-013A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Mir Expedition EO-02. Docked with Mir 7 February 1987. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Aleksander Laveykin to Mir; returned Laveykin, crew of Soyuz TM-3 to Earth..

1987 February 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 February 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 March 3 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 28 - . Payload: Progress s/n 137. Mass: 7,246 kg (15,974 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . Decay Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 17564 . COSPAR: 1987-023A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Orbit of station at time of rendezvous was 344 X 369 km, 51. 62 deg. Docked with Mir on 5 Mar 1987 12:42:36 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1987 05:06:48 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Mar 1987 03:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.01 days. Total docked time 20.68 days.


1987 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 March 31 - . 00:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Kvant 1 - . Payload: 37KE s/n 010 / 77KE s/n 16601. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: 37K. Spacecraft: Kvant. Duration: 2,586.99 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 17845 . COSPAR: 1987-030A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    MIR module; high energy observatory. Docked with Mir. Rendezvous with Mir 5 April; soft dock 9 April; EVA on 11 April to remove fabric strip from docking apparatus and hard dock; jettisoned service module on 12 April at 22:18

    Maneuver Summary:
    168 km X 278 km orbit to 172 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    169 km X 296 km orbit to 172 km X 314 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    170 km X 313 km orbit to 297 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 46 m/s
    298 km X 344 km orbit to 345 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    Service Module only, after undocking with Mir:
    345 km X 364 km orbit to 341 km X 363 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    340 km X 361 km orbit to 383 km X 406 km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    Total Delta V: 101 m/s
    Officially: Extra-atmospheric astronomic research and resolution of a number of problems with scientific and economic applications.


1987 April 11 - . 19:41 GMT - .
1987 April 21 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 29 - . Payload: Progress s/n 127. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . Decay Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 17878 . COSPAR: 1987-034A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Deorbited May 11, 1987. Docked with Mir at 343 X 363 1705 23 April at rear port of Kvant. Undocked May 11 03:10. Deorbited28 May 02:59 .
    Officially: Transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Apr 1987 17:04:51 GMT. Undocked on 11 May 1987 03:10:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 May 1987 08:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 17.42 days.


1987 May 19 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 30 - . Payload: Progress s/n 128. Mass: 7,249 kg (15,981 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 61.07 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . Decay Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 17999 . COSPAR: 1987-044A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

    Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir/Kvant in its orbit of 343 X 366 km, 51. 6 deg. Docked with the station on 21 May 1987 05:50:38 GMT. Undocked on 19 Jul 1987 00:19:51 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1987 05:42:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 58.77 days.


1987 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 June 12 - . 16:55 GMT - .
1987 June 16 - . 15:30 GMT - .
1987 June 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 July 22 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-3 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Aleksandrov, Faris, Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Habib, Savinykh, Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 53. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Faris, Habib, Savinykh, Solovyov, Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1, Soyuz TM-3, Soyuz TM-3 Mir EP-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 160.30 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18222 . COSPAR: 1987-063A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min.

    Manned three crew. Transported to the Mir orbital space station a Soviet-Syrian crew comprising cosmonauts A S Viktorenko, A P Aleksandrov and M A Faris to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts Y Romanenko and A Laveykin. Maneuvered from initial 231 X 217 km orbit to Mir's 311 X 359 km orbit. Docked with rear Mir port at 3:30 GMT 24 July. Undocked with rear port 30 July and docked to forward port.


1987 August 1 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1871 - . Payload: Uragan boilerplate or Orlets-2 Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 18259 . COSPAR: 1987-065A. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 97.0000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Considered by some observors as possible spite test of Uragan space interceptor boilerplate mass model, just prior to project cancellation.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1987 August 3 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 31 - . Payload: Progress s/n 138. Mass: 7,212 kg (15,899 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1, Soyuz TM-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 50.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . Decay Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . USAF Sat Cat: 18283 . COSPAR: 1987-066A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187 X 250 km, 51. 64 deg; 266 X 314 km; 309 X 360 km. Docked with Mir on 5 Aug 1987 22:27:35 GMT. Refueled Mir propellants tanks on 15/16 Sept. Undocked on 21 Sep 1987 23:57:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Sep 1987 01:02:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 47.06 days.


1987 August 28 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1873 - . Payload: Uragan boilerplate or Orlets-2 Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Spiral 50-50. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 18318 . COSPAR: 1987-071A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Considered by some observors as possible spite test of Uragan space interceptor boilerplate mass model, just prior to project cancellation.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1987 September 23 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 32 - . Payload: Progress s/n 139. Mass: 7,035 kg (15,509 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1, Soyuz TM-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.98 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . Decay Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 18376 . COSPAR: 1987-082A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 850 kg propellants, 315 kg food, 2,000 kg total. Docked with Mir on 26 Sep 1987 01:08:15 GMT. Undocked on 10 Nov 1987 04:09:10 GMT. Redocked from 2,500 m on 10 Nov 1987 05:47 GMT. Undocked again 17 Nov 1998 19:25 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Nov 1987 00:58:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.17 days. Total docked time 52.82 days.


1987 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1987 November 20 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 33 - . Payload: Progress s/n 140. Mass: 6,895 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1, Soyuz TM-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.58 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . Decay Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . USAF Sat Cat: 18568 . COSPAR: 1987-094A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Space station orbit at rendezvous was 326 km x 343 km. Docked on 23 Nov 1987 01:39:13 GMT. Undocked on 19 Dec 1987 08:15:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1987 13:37:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 26.28 days.


1987 December 21 - . 11:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1988 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 January 20 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 34 - . Payload: Progress s/n 142. Mass: 7,078 kg (15,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 43.36 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . Decay Date: 1988-03-05 07:29:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 18795 . COSPAR: 1988-003A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 23 Jan 1988 00:09:09 GMT. Undocked on 4 Mar 1988 03:40:09 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Mar 1988 07:29:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.21 days. Total docked time 41.15 days..

1988 January 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 February 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 February 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
1988 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 March 23 - . 21:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 35 - . Payload: Progress s/n 143. Mass: 7,037 kg (15,513 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 42.41 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . Decay Date: 1988-05-06 06:56:07 . USAF Sat Cat: 18992 . COSPAR: 1988-024A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 25 Mar 1988 22:21:35 GMT. Undocked on 5 May 1988 01:36:03 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 May 1988 06:56:19 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 40.14 days..

1988 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1988 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
  • Buran Analog BST-02 flight 25 - . Crew: Stankevicius, Volk. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stankevicius, Volk. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran Analogue. Time 19 minutes. Final Buran Analog flight test. At the same time development of the auto-land system aboard the Tu-154 test bed is completed as well..

1988 May 13 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 36 - . Payload: Progress s/n 144. Mass: 7,077 kg (15,602 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.87 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . Decay Date: 1988-06-05 21:18:15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19117 . COSPAR: 1988-038A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 185x246 km, 51. 66 deg; 223x334 km; 331x357 km. Docked with Mir on 15 May 1988 02:13:26 GMT. Undocked on 5 Jun 1988 11:11:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Jun 1988 21:18:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.49 days. Total docked time 21.37 days.


1988 June 7 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-5 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr, Savinykh, Solovyov. Backup Crew: Lyakhov, Serebrov, Stoyanov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 55. Mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Aleksandrov, Aleksandr, Lyakhov, Savinykh, Serebrov, Solovyov, Stoyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 91.45 days. Decay Date: 1988-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 19204 . COSPAR: 1988-048A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min.

    Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet/Bulgarian crew comprising cosmonauts A Y Solovyev, V P Savinykh and A P Aleksandrov (Bulgaria) to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Interim orbit 343 x 282 km. Maneuvered to Mir's 355 x 349 km orbit. Docked 15:57 GMT 9 June to Mir's aft port. Moved to forward port 18 June.


1988 June 30 - . 05:33 GMT - .
1988 July 18 - . 21:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 37 - . Payload: Progress s/n 145. Mass: 7,065 kg (15,575 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . Decay Date: 1988-08-13 13:45:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 19322 . COSPAR: 1988-061A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187x256 km, 51. 62 deg; 235 x 319 km; 343 x 347 km. Docked with Mir on 20 Jul 1988 22:33:40 GMT. Refuelling operations on 7,8, and 9 August 1998. Undocked on 12 Aug 1988 08:31:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Aug 1988 13:45:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 22.42 days.


1988 August 29 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-6 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov, Mohmand, Polyakov. Backup Crew: Arzamazov, Berezovoi, Masum. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 56. Mass: 7,070 kg (15,580 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Arzamazov, Berezovoi, Lyakhov, Masum, Mohmand, Polyakov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 114.23 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19443 . COSPAR: 1988-075A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Transported to the Mir orbital station a Soviet-Afghan crew comprising the cosmonauts V A Lyakhov, V V Polyakov and A A Momand (Afghanistan) to conduct joint research and experiments with the cosmonauts V G Titov and M K Manarov. Returned Manarov, Titov (Soyuz TM-4), Chretien (Soyuz TM-7) to Earth. Initial orbit 195 X 228 km at 51. 57 deg. Maneuvered to a 235 x 259 km orbit, then docked with Mir at 05:41 GMT on 31 August at its 339 x 366 km orbit. Moved from aft to forward port 8 Sept 88.


1988 September 9 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 38 - . Payload: Progress s/n 146. Mass: 7,027 kg (15,491 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-4, Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 74.81 days. Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . Decay Date: 1988-11-24 19:07:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19486 . COSPAR: 1988-083A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. During launch first test of Buran ejection seat was made during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 186 X 246 km, 51. 63 deg; 234 X 332 km, 337 X 363 km. Docked with Mir on 12 Sep 1988 01:22:28 GMT. Delivered 2,000 kg supplies including 300 kg of food. Refuelled Mir. Undocked on 23 Nov 1988 12:12:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Nov 1988 19:06:58 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 72.45 days.


1988 September 29 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-26 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Payload: Discovery F07 / PDP. Mass: 21,082 kg (46,477 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-26. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.04 days. Decay Date: 1988-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 19547 . COSPAR: 1988-091A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. Payloads: Deploy IUS (lnertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-C. 3M's Physical Vapor Transport Organics Solids 2 experiment (PVTOS), Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), Infrared Communi-cations Flight Experiment (lRCFE), Protein Crystal Growth Il (PCG), Isoelectric Focusing (ISF)-2, Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), Aggrega-tion of Red Blood Cells (ARC)-2, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE)-1, Earth Limb Radiance (ELRAD), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), Autonomous Supporting Instrumentation System (OASlS)-I, two Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments.


1988 October 20 - . 05:59 GMT - .
1988 November 15 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • Buran - . Payload: Buran OK-1K s/n 711. Mass: 79,400 kg (175,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Buran. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Buran. Duration: 0.14 days. Decay Date: 1988-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19637 . COSPAR: 1988-100A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min.

    Unmanned test of Soviet shuttle. Landed November 15, 1988 06:25 GMT. Buran was first moved to the launch pad on 23 October 1988. The launch commission met on 26 October 1988 and set 29 October 06:23 Moscow time for the first flight of the first Buran orbiter (Flight 1K1). 51 seconds before the launch, when control of the countdown switched to automated systems, a software problem led the computer program to abort the lift-off. The problem was found to be due to late separation of a gyro update umbilical. The software problem was rectified and the next attempt was set for 15 November at 06:00 (03:00 GMT). Came the morning, the weather was snow flurries with 20 m/s winds. Launch abort criteria were 15 m/s. The launch director decided to press ahead anyway. After 12 years of development everything went perfectly. Buran, with a mass of 79.4 tonnes, separated from the Block Ts core and entered a temporary orbit with a perigee of -11.2 km and apogee of 154.2 km. At apogee Burn executed a 66.6 m/s manoeuvre and entered a 251 km x 263 km orbit of the earth. In the payload bay was the 7150 kg module 37KB s/n 37071. 140 minutes into the flight retrofire was accomplished with a total delta-v of 175 m/s. 206 minutes after launch, accompanied by Igor Volk in a MiG-25 chase plane, Buran touched down at 260 km/hr in a 17 m/s crosswind at the Jubilee runway, with a 1620 m landing rollout. The completely automatic launch, orbital manoeuvre, deorbit, and precision landing of an airliner-sized spaceplane on its very first flight was an unprecedented accomplishment of which the Soviets were justifiably proud. It completely vindicated the years of exhaustive ground and flight test that had debugged the systems before they flew.


1988 November 26 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1988 December 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-27 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gardner, Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Payload: Atlantis F03 / Lacrosse 1. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gardner, Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-27. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.38 days. Decay Date: 1988-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 19670 . COSPAR: 1988-106A. Apogee: 447 km (277 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 93.40 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 68. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 359 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 447.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,171.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission.


1988 December 9 - . 09:57 GMT - .
1988 December 25 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 39 - . Payload: Progress s/n 147. Mass: 7,015 kg (15,465 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2, Soyuz TM-7. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.40 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . Decay Date: 1989-02-07 13:49:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19728 . COSPAR: 1988-114A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Made second test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 187 X 237 km, 51.63 deg; 236 X 338 km; 325 X 353 km at Mir. Delivered 1,300 kg cargo. Docked with Mir on 27 Dec 1988 05:35:10 GMT. Undocked on 7 Feb 1989 06:45:34 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1989 13:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 42.05 days.


1989 February 10 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 40 - . Payload: Progress s/n 148. Mass: 7,022 kg (15,480 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2, Soyuz TM-7. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.71 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-03-05 01:59:08 . Decay Date: 1989-03-05 01:59:08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19783 . COSPAR: 1989-008A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted third test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 12 Feb 1989 10:29:38 GMT. Undocked on 3 Mar 1989 01:45:52 GMT. Unfurled experimental space mirror petal structure on undocking. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Mar 1989 01:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.08 days. Total docked time 18.64 days.


1989 March 13 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-29 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Payload: Discovery F08 / SHARE. Mass: 17,280 kg (38,090 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-29. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.99 days. Decay Date: 1989-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19882 . COSPAR: 1989-021A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4. Payloads: Deploy IUS (Inertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-D. Protein Crystal Growth (PCG); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space; IMAX 70mm camera; Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments: SSIP 82-8, Effects of Weightlessness in Space Flight on the Healing of Bone Fractures, and SSIP 83-9, Chicken Embryo Development in Space; Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment.


1989 March 16 - . 18:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 41 - . Payload: Progress s/n 149. Mass: 6,995 kg (15,421 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2, Soyuz TM-7. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 39.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . Decay Date: 1989-04-25 12:11:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 19895 . COSPAR: 1989-023A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted fourth test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Delivered Bulgarian Spektr 256 spectrometer, power supplies for failed equipment. Docked with Mir on 18 Mar 1989 20:50:46 GMT. Between April 9 and 17 boosted Mir into a 373 X 416 km storage orbit after the decision was made to delay remanning the station. However these maneuvers resulted in the spacecraft running out of fuel. Undocked on 21 Apr 1989 01:46:15 GMT. Destroyed in uncontrolled decay of orbit on 25 Apr 1989 12:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 6.52 days. Total docked time 33.21 days.


1989 May 4 - . 18:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-30 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Cleave, Grabe, Lee, Thagard, Walker, Dave. Payload: Atlantis F04 / Magellan [IUS]. Mass: 20,833 kg (45,928 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cleave, Grabe, Lee, Thagard, Walker, Dave. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-30. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.04 days. Decay Date: 1989-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19968 . COSPAR: 1989-033A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 28.9000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Manned five crew. Deployed Magellan Venus probe. Payloads: Deploy IUS with Magellan spacecraft. Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA). Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment..

1989 August 8 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-28 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Adamson, Brown, Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Payload: Columbia F08 / DoD. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson, Brown, Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-28. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 5.04 days. Decay Date: 1989-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 20164 . COSPAR: 1989-061A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed 2 classified satellites. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 287 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 1,618.00 m. Landing Rollout: 1,833.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission.


1989 August 23 - . 03:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-1 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 201. Mass: 7,270 kg (16,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 100.34 days. Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-01 11:21:28 . Decay Date: 1989-12-01 11:21:28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20191 . COSPAR: 1989-066A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned supply vehicle to Mir; first flight of new vehicle design. Tested on-board systems under different conditions and delivered expendable materials and sundry cargo to the Mir manned space station. Docked with Mir on 25 Aug 1989 05:19:02 GMT. Undocked on 1 Dec 1989 09:02:23 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 1 Dec 1989 11:21:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.19 days. Total docked time 98.16 days.


1989 September 5 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-8 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Serebrov, Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Balandin, Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 58. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Balandin, Serebrov, Solovyov, Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 166.29 days. Decay Date: 1990-02-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20218 . COSPAR: 1989-071A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-05. Docked with Mir 8 September. Transported to the Mir orbital station a team consisting of A S Viktorenko, commander of the spacecraft, and A A Serebrov, on-board engineer, to carry out scientific and technological research and experiments. Flight cost 80 million rubles. Expected return 25 million rubles net profit.


1989 October 18 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-34 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Baker, Chang-Diaz, Lucid, McCulley, Williams, Donald. Payload: Atlantis F05 / Galileo [IUS]. Mass: 22,064 kg (48,642 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Baker, Chang-Diaz, Lucid, McCulley, Williams, Donald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-34. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.99 days. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20297 . COSPAR: 1989-084A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo .Payloads: Deploy IUS with Galileo spacecraft. Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV), Polymer Morphology (PM) experiments, IMAX camera project, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment, Growth Hormone Concentration and Distribution (GHCD) in Plants experiment, Sensor Technology Experiment (STEX), SSIP Student Experiment (SE) 82-15, Ice Crystals Experiment. First flight at this inclination.


1989 November 23 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-33 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Payload: Discovery F09 / Magnum 2 [IUS]. Mass: 116,884 kg (257,685 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-33. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20329 . COSPAR: 1989-090A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 78. Distance traveled: 3,218,687 km. Landed at: Concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, Cali. Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 570.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,366.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - third space shuttle night launch.


1989 November 26 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Kvant 2 - . Payload: 77KSD s/n 17101. Mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-8. Spacecraft Bus: Mir. Spacecraft: Kvant-2. Duration: 1,615.45 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20335 . COSPAR: 1989-093A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
    Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.


1989 December 20 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-2 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 202. Mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 51.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-02-09 07:56:10 . Decay Date: 1990-02-09 07:56:10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20373 . COSPAR: 1989-099A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried US microgravity payload. Delivered various cargoes to the Mir orbital station, including scientific apparatus produced in the United States of America and intended, pursuant to a commercial agreement, for the conduct of experiments on space biotechnology. Docked with Mir on 22 Dec 1989 05:41:21 GMT. Undocked on 9 Feb 1990 02:33:07 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Feb 1990 07:56:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 48.87 days.


1989 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1990 January 8 - . 20:23 GMT - .
1990 January 9 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-32 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Payload: Columbia F09 / Syncom-4 5 [Orbus-7S]. Mass: 12,014 kg (26,486 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-32. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.88 days. Decay Date: 1990-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20409 . COSPAR: 1990-002A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Payloads: Deployment of Syncom IV-5, retrieval of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)-3, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) III-2, Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms in Space (CNCR)-01, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)-4, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), IMAX, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (lOCM).


1990 January 11 - . 18:01 GMT - .
1990 January 26 - . 12:09 GMT - .
1990 February 1 - . 08:15 GMT - .
1990 February 5 - . 06:08 GMT - .
1990 February 11 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-9 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Balandin, Solovyov. Backup Crew: Manakov, Strekalov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 60. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Balandin, Manakov, Solovyov, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-8, Soyuz TM-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.05 days. Decay Date: 1990-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20494 . COSPAR: 1990-014A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-06. Docked with Mir. Transported to the Mir orbital station a crew comprising the cosmonauts A Y Solovyov and A N Balandin to conduct an extensive programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, experiments on biology and biotechnology and work on space materials science.


1990 February 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-36 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Casper, Creighton, Hilmers, Mullane, Thuot. Payload: Atlantis F06 / KH-12 1. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Casper, Creighton, Hilmers, Mullane, Thuot. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-36. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.43 days. Decay Date: 1990-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 20512 . COSPAR: 1990-019A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 494.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,407.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - Record altitude (through 5/93).


1990 February 28 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-3 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 203. Mass: 7,249 kg (15,981 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 58.07 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-04-29 00:52:03 . Decay Date: 1990-04-29 00:52:03 . USAF Sat Cat: 20513 . COSPAR: 1990-020A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 3 Mar 1990 01:04:32 GMT. Undocked on 27 Apr 1990 20:24:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Apr 1990 00:52:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.26 days. Total docked time 55.81 days..

1990 April 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-31 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Payload: Discovery F10 / Hubble Space Telescope. Mass: 13,005 kg (28,671 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-31. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.05 days. Decay Date: 1990-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20579 . COSPAR: 1990-037A. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi). Perigee: 585 km (363 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

    Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Payloads: Deployment of Hubble Space Telescope, IMAX camera in payload bay and in crew compartment, Protein Crystal Growth III-03, Investigation Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing- 01, Air Force Maui Optical Site-05, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III-01, Student Experiment 82-16, and Ascent Particle Monitor 01.


1990 May 5 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress 42 - . Payload: Progress s/n 150. Mass: 7,011 kg (15,456 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.66 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-05-28 12:27:29 . Decay Date: 1990-05-28 12:27:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20602 . COSPAR: 1990-041A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; last of original design Progress spacecraft. Conducted fifth and final test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 7 May 1990 22:45:03 GMT. Undocked on 27 May 1990 07:08:58 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 27 May 1990 12:27:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 19.35 days.


1990 May 31 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Kristall - . Payload: 77KST s/n 17201. Mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-9. Spacecraft Bus: Mir. Spacecraft: Kristall. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20635 . COSPAR: 1990-048A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Mir module; materials processing laboratory. Docked with Mir. Kristall: Mass: 19,500 kg. Mass on docking 17,200 kg. Length: 11. 9 m or 13. 73 m?. Solar array span 36 m. Diameter: 4. 35 m. Payload: 7,000 kg. Two compartments. Instrument-Payload Compartment contains food containers, and industrial processing units Krater 3, Optizon 1, Zona 02, and Zona 03. 0. 8 m hatch leads to Junction-Docking compartment. This contains spherical universal docker with two APAS-89 androgynous docking units. These will be used to dock with Buran shuttle and 1,000 kg X-ray telescope to be delivered by Buran in 1991. Third opening houses earth observation cameras.
    Launch originally planned for 30 March 1990. Delayed to April 18, then further delayed due to computer chip problems.
    Launched 31 May 1990 12:33 GMT. Docking scheduled June 6 at 12:36 but delayed due to problem with one of Kristall's orientation engines. Docking successful 10 June at 12:47. On June 11 moved to side port. Work within module began 15 June.
    Spektr: Late 1991 launch. Remote sensing work. Occupies port opposite Kvant 2. Before this occurs Kristall solar arrays will be relocated to Kvant.
    Officially: Specialized module. Experimental-industrial production of semi-conducting materials; refinement of biologically active substances for the production of new medicinal preparations. Cultivation of crystals of different albumine compositions and hybridizatio n of cells. Conduct of astrophysical and technical experiments.


1990 July 17 - . 13:06 GMT - .
1990 July 26 - . 11:15 GMT - .
1990 August 1 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-10 - . Call Sign: Vulkan (Volcano ). Crew: Manakov, Strekalov. Backup Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 61A. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Manakov, Manarov, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-10, Soyuz TM-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 130.86 days. Decay Date: 1990-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20722 . COSPAR: 1990-067A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned two crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-07. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the crew consisting of the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov for the purpose of carrying out a programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science.


1990 August 15 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-4 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 204. Mass: 7,294 kg (16,080 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 36.32 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-09-20 11:43:08 . Decay Date: 1990-09-20 11:43:08 . USAF Sat Cat: 20752 . COSPAR: 1990-072A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered cables for rewiring operations and equipment for Soyuz TM-11 Japanese journalist flight. Docked with Mir on 17 Aug 1990 05:26:13 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1990 12:42:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Sep 1990 11:42:49 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.02 days. Total docked time 31.30 days.


1990 September 27 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-5 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 206. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 62.02 days. Completed Operations Date: 1990-11-28 10:59:23 . Decay Date: 1990-11-28 10:59:23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20824 . COSPAR: 1990-085A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Included first Progress recoverable capsule for return of 150 kg of payload to earth. Docked with Mir on 29 Sep 1990 12:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 28 Nov 1990 06:15:46 GMT. After deorbit burn, capsule separated for reentry with an expected landing in Kazakhstan at 28 Nov 1990 11:04:05 GMT. However the recoverable capsule's beacon signal was never received after reentry. All experimental data and materials in capsule lost. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 59.74 days.


1990 October 6 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-41 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Payload: Discovery F11 / Ulysses [IUS + PAM-S]. Mass: 22,140 kg (48,810 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-41. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 4.09 days. Decay Date: 1990-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 20841 . COSPAR: 1990-090A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. Payloads: Deploy Ulysses, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Intelsat Solar Array Coupon, Solid-Surface Combustion Experiment, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing, Chromo-some and Plant Cell Division in Space, Physiological Systems Experiment, Voice Command System, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III, Air Force Maui Optical Site.


1990 October 30 - . 21:45 GMT - .
1990 November 15 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-38 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Covey, Culbertson, Gemar, Meade, Springer. Payload: Atlantis F07 / DoD. Mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey, Culbertson, Gemar, Meade, Springer. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-38. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 4.91 days. Decay Date: 1990-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20935 . COSPAR: 1990-097A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 78 km (48 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 79. Payloads: DoD Mission..

1990 December 2 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-35 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner, Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Payload: Columbia F10 / BBXRT. Mass: 11,943 kg (26,329 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand, Durrance, Gardner, Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-35. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.96 days. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy TeIescope (Astro), Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)..

1990 December 2 - . 08:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Soyuz TM-11 - . Call Sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city). Crew: Afanasyev, Akiyama, Manarov. Backup Crew: Artsebarsky, Kikuchi, Krikalyov. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 61. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Akiyama, Artsebarsky, Kikuchi, Krikalyov, Manarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-10, Soyuz TM-11, Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 175.08 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 20981 . COSPAR: 1990-107A. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Perigee: 367 km (228 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-08. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the international crew consisting of the cosmonauts V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov, and T Akiyami (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. Launched jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama made daily television broadcasts.


1991 January 7 - . 17:03 GMT - .
1991 January 14 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-6 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 205. Mass: 7,125 kg (15,707 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 60.14 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . Decay Date: 1991-03-15 18:06:59 . USAF Sat Cat: 21053 . COSPAR: 1991-002A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered new life support equipment to replace life-expired equipment aboard. Docked with Mir on 16 Jan 1991 16:35:25 GMT. Undocked on 15 Mar 1991 12:46:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1991 18:07:26 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 57.84 days.


1991 January 23 - . 10:59 GMT - .
1991 January 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
1991 March 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-7 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 208. Mass: 7,307 kg (16,109 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 49.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . Decay Date: 1991-05-07 17:21:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 21188 . COSPAR: 1991-020A. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Attempted to dock with Mir on 21 March 1998 14:28 GMT, but missed the station by 500 m. Docking attempted again on 23 March but at 50 meters the docking was aborted; the Progress missed hitting the station by five meters. Thereafter it was placed in a station-keeping co-orbit with Mir while the problem was diagnosed. Finally docked with Mir on 28 Mar 1991 12:02:28 GMT. On 12 and 14 Apr 1998 two burns of the engine of Progress M-7 raised the station's orbit from a 360 x 377 km orbit to a 370 x 382 km orbit. Undocked on 6 May 1991 22:59:36 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1991 17:20:05 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.72 days. Total docked time 39.46 days.


1991 April 5 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-37 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Payload: Atlantis F08 / Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Mass: 16,611 kg (36,620 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 5.98 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21224 . COSPAR: 1991-027A. Apogee: 462 km (287 mi). Perigee: 450 km (270 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 93.70 min.

    Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. Payloads: Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO), Crew/ Equipment Translation Aids (part of Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Experiment), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA), Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-Block Il, Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.


1991 April 7 - .
  • EVA STS-37-1 - . Crew: Apt, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Ross. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Manually deployed Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna..

1991 April 8 - .
  • EVA STS-37-2 - . Crew: Apt, Ross. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Apt, Ross. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Tested CETA (Crew / Equipment Translation Aids - rail with cart for moving astronauts around exterior of International Space Station)..

1991 April 26 - . 20:29 GMT - .
1991 April 28 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-39 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Payload: Discovery F12. Mass: 9,712 kg (21,411 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-39. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.31 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll.


1991 May 18 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 May 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-8 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 207. Mass: 7,296 kg (16,084 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 77.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . Decay Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21395 . COSPAR: 1991-038A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 1 Jun 1991 09:44:37 GMT. Undocked on 15 Aug 1991 22:16:59 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Aug 1991 06:56:32 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.43 days. Total docked time 75.52 days..

1991 June 5 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-40 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Payload: Columbia F11 / GBA-2. Mass: 11,767 kg (25,941 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-40. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 9.09 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Carried Spacelab life sciences module. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS)-1 with long module, getaway special bridge assembly with 12 getaway specials, Physiological Monitoring System (PMS), Urine Monitoring System (UMS), Animal Enclosure Modules (AEM), Middeck Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 7 Orbiter Experiments Program experiments.

  • Spacelab SLS 1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1991-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21399 . COSPAR: 1991-040xx. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 276 km (171 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

1991 June 25 - . 21:11 GMT - .
1991 June 28 - . 19:02 GMT - .
1991 July 15 - . 11:45 GMT - .
1991 July 19 - . 11:10 GMT - .
1991 July 23 - . 09:15 GMT - .
1991 July 27 - . 08:44 GMT - .
1991 August 2 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-43 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Adamson, Baker, Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Payload: Atlantis F09 / TDRS 5 [IUS]. Mass: 21,265 kg (46,881 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Adamson, Baker, Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-43. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.89 days. Decay Date: 1991-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21638 . COSPAR: 1991-054A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-E/lnertial Upper Stage (lUS), Space Station Heatpipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE)-ll, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument 03, Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window (OCTW), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Auroral Photography Experiment (APE)-B, Bioserve-lnstrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BlMDA)-02, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-03, Protein Crystal Growth Ill Block Il, Space Acceleration Measure-ment System (SAMS), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE)-02, Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE).


1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-9 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 210. Mass: 7,311 kg (16,117 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12, Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.39 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . Decay Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 21662 . COSPAR: 1991-057A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.


1991 September 12 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-48 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Brown, Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Payload: Discovery F13 / UARS. Mass: 7,854 kg (17,315 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brown, Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-48. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.35 days. Decay Date: 1991-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 21700 . COSPAR: 1991-063A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 575 km (357 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 96.20 min.

    Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. Payloads: Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)-03, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)-01, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-ll-2, Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics, Experiment (MODE)-01, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-04, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM-02), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll-06, Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM)-03, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.


1991 October 2 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 October 17 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-10 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 211. Mass: 7,306 kg (16,106 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 95.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . Decay Date: 1992-01-20 12:03:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. First attempted to dock with Mir on 19 October 1991. The docking was automatically aborted at a distance of 150 m from the station. Successfully docked with the forward port of Mir on on 21 Oct 1991 03:40:50 GMT. Unloading began next day. Undocked on 20 Jan 1992 07:13:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jan 1992 12:03:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.35 days. Total docked time 91.15 days.


1991 November 24 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-44 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Payload: Atlantis F10 / DSP 16 [IUS]. Mass: 20,242 kg (44,625 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-44. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 6.95 days. Decay Date: 1991-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21795 . COSPAR: 1991-080A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Payloads: Defense Support Program satellite/ Inertial Upper Stage, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor, Terra Scout, Military Man in Space, Shuttle Activation Monitor, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor, Radiation Monitoring Equipment Ill, Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument, Visual Function Tester 1.


1992 January 22 - . 14:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-42 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Payload: Discovery F14 / GBA-3. Mass: 13,001 kg (28,662 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-42. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.05 days. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min.

    Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (lML)-1, getaway special (GAS) bridge with 10 getaway specials, IMAX camera, Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR)-1, Investigations Into Polymer Mem-brane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll, Student Experiment 81-09: Convection in Zero Gravity, Student Experiment 83-02: Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media.

  • Spacelab IML-1 - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1992-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21846 . COSPAR: 1992-002xx. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 286 km (177 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

1992 January 25 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-11 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 212. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 48.33 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-03-13 13:13:31 . Decay Date: 1992-03-13 13:13:31 . USAF Sat Cat: 21851 . COSPAR: 1992-004A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 27 Jan 1992 09:30:43 GMT. Undocked on 13 Mar 1992 08:43:40 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Mar 1992 15:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 45.97 days..

1992 February 21 - . 20:09 GMT - .
1992 March 17 - . 10:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1992 March 24 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP1. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • STS-45 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. Payload: Atlantis F11 / Atlas 1 Fwd. Mass: 8,020 kg (17,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-45. Spacecraft Bus: Shuttle. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min.

    Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).


1992 April 19 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • Progress M-12 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 213. Mass: 7,320 kg (16,130 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-14. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 69.11 days. Decay Date: 1992-06-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 21946 . COSPAR: 1992-022A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 21 Apr 1992 23:21:59 GMT. Undocked on 27 Jun 1992 21:34:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Jun 1992 00:02:51 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.18 days. Total docked time 66.93 days..

1992 May 7 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle.