Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-06-04. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 16 . Payload: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 11,400.00 kN (2,562,800 lbf). Gross mass: 746,000 kg (1,644,000 lb). Height: 54.05 m (177.32 ft). Diameter: 5.40 m (17.70 ft). Apogee: 407 km (252 mi).
3 stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Ariane EAP P238 + 1 x Ariane 5 EPC H158 + 1 x Ariane 5 EPS.
LEO Payload: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb) to a 407 km orbit at 51.60 degrees. Payload: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb) to a GTO, 7 deg. Launch Price $: 180.000 million in 2000 dollars. LEO Payload: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb).
Stage Data - Ariane 5G
Original design of Ariane 5 with Hermes manned spaceplane and first production Ariane 5G.
Credit: © Mark Wade
The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. The explosion of the booster led to a costly setback for European space science. There were no back-up spacecraft. Some instruments may fly on other future satellites.
Maqsat 3 was an instrumentation package used to monitor performance of the Ariane 5 booster. At T+12:43 the Speltra adapter cover separated revealing Maqsat-3. At T+15:14 the EPS stage Aestus engine ignited and burned until T+31:00. At this point on a normal mission the satellite would separate from the EPS, but to avoid creating space debris Maqsat remained attached to the EPS. The EPS/Maqsat-3 was placed in a 1027 km x 35863 km x 7.0 degree geostationary transfer orbit.
The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle. Equipment included a TDRS satellite communications system; a GPS navigation system; 7 DASA 40 kgf hydrazine attitude control thrusters; a 2.8 m diameter heat shield; three 23 metre diameter parachutes, and a SARSAT recovery beacon. The ARD separated from the Ariane EPS upper stage at 12 minutes 2 seconds after launch. ARD and the EPC stage manoeuvred into a 1 km x 830 km orbit, guaranteeing re-entry at the end of the first orbit. The spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific at 3.69 degrees N, 153.35 degrees W, and was successfully recovered by the French Navy.
Direct Radio Broadcasting satelllite. First night launch of Ariane 5. Worldspace's second digital radio satellite. Joined Afristar in orbit with a mission of providing radio broadcasting to the developing world. Stationed at 105 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 104.96 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 104.99E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.
Replaced the lost Insat 2D and carried a pure telecommunications payload of C, Ku and S band transponders. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 73 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 83.07 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 82.94E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.
Direct Broadcasting satellite. Launch postponed from July 25. Astra 2B was an Astrium/Toulouse Eurostar 2000+ television broadcast satellite owned by the Luxembourg-based Societe Europeene de Satellites. The satellite was to be stationed at 28.2E to replace the German DFS Kopernikus. It carried 28 Ku-band transponders. By September 19 Astra 2B was in a 31,153 x 35,762 km x 0.3 deg orbit, approaching geosynchronous altitude. Stationed at 28 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2000. As of 20 August 2001 located at 28.50 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.15E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day.
Direct Broadcasting satellite. GE Americom satellite to provide cable TV distribution coverage to the USA. Equipped with 24 C-band transponders. Its dry mass was 912 kg and it carried 1023 kg of fuel at launch. The satellite is an A2100A model built by Lockheed Martin/Lockheed, the first lightweight A2100 with a mass about half that of earlier A2100 satellites. By September 19 GE 7 was in a 35,832 x 35,869 km x 0.1 deg orbit drifting over 146 deg W. Stationed at 137 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 137 deg W in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 136.92 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 137.03W drifting at 0.000E degrees per day.
First use of the ASAP-5 piggyback payload adapter. Communications satellite, stationed at 58 deg W. PAS 1R was a large Boeing Model 702 satellite with a dry mass of about 3000 kg (launch mass 4793 kg) and a solar panel span of 45m. It carried 36 C and 48 Ku-band transponders. PAS 1R was operated by Panamsat, whose fleet included the former Hughes Galaxy system. The PAS 1R, STRV 1c/1d, and AMSAT Phase 3D satellites were placed in orbit on a single Ariane launch. The EPS stage entered geostationary transfer orbit at 0134 GMT, followed by separation of the PAS 1R main payload. As of 4 September 2001 located at 45.03 deg W drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 1 located at 45.05W drifting at 0.023W degrees per day.
The two small STRV cubes were then ejected from the Ariane EPS stage ASAP-5 secondary payload structure at 0141 GMT. STRV-1c and 1d were small satellites built by the DERA (former Royal Aircraft Establishment), Farnborough, England. Mass was around 95 kg each. STRV-1c performed accelerated life testing of new components and materials in the high radiation environment of geosynchronous transfer orbit.
STRV-1c and 1d were small satellites built by the DERA (former Royal Aircraft Establishment), Farnborough, England. Mass was around 95 kg each. STRV-1d carries an NRL Space Test Program experiment (S97-2), a camera, and technology and computer experiments.
The long-delayed Phase 3D amateur radio satellite, built by AMSAT-DL (Germany), was renamed AMSAT-Oscar-40 (AO-40) once launched. It carried an MBB S400 liquid engine (the backup engine for the Galileo Jupiter probe) and a variety of amateur radio payloads in L, S, C, X, V, U and K bands, as well as an ammonia arcjet thruster and a laser communications experiment. The satellite was the largest amateur satellite orbited to date and the first to feature deployable solar panels. Mass was 397 kg dry. The PAS 1R, STRV 1c/1d, and AMSAT Phase 3D satellites were placed in orbit on a single Ariane launch. At 0149 GMT the SBS cylindrical adapter which connected PAS-1R to AMSAT was jettisoned; 50 seconds later AMSAT separated from the EPS upper stage. Thereafter the spacecraft could not be contacted. Finally telemetry was received from after two weeks of silence, confirming that the satellite was still functioning.
Astra 2D was a Boeing 376HP spin-stabilised satellite, with a dry mass of around 700 kg. It was owned by the Luxembourg-based company SES and was to broadcast to the British Isles. Astra 2D was in a 292 x 35835 km x 2.2 deg transfer orbit on December 22 and was subsequently boosted into geosynchronous orbit by its Star 30 apogee kick motor. The 825 kg (dry mass) satellite carried 16 Ku-band transponders to provide direct-to-home voice, video, and data transmissions to Britain and neighboring countries after parking over 28.2 deg-E longitude. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 3 September 2001 located at 28.17 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.17E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.
Ariane V138's EPS upper stage carried an ASAP5 small payload attachment ring with a special camera system and the LDREX experimental antenna for Japan's NASDA space agency. LDREX (Large-scale Deployable Reflector EXperiment) was a 6-m diameter antenna which was to have deployed 40 minutes after launch, to test the deployment mechanism for the larger antenna to be used on the ETS-8 satellite. After the test the antenna was to have been jettisoned. However the experiment failed and no deployment or jettison took place.
GE 8 was a C-band TV and data distribution satellite for GE Americom. The Lockheed Martin A2100A spacecraft had a launch mass of 2015 kg, a dry mass of 919 kg, and was equipped with 24 C-band transponders. By December 26 GE 8 had reached an 18656 x 35760 km x 0.4 deg orbit on its way to geostationary orbit. It was jointly owned by AT&T Alascom for Alaskan communications, and was also called Aurora III. Americom and Alascom were originally both RCA subsidiaries. Alascom continued to use the Americom network while GE operated the satellite. The 2.2 tonne (with fuel) spacecraft carried 24 C-band transponders to provide voice, video, and broadband data communications to the contiguous USA, Alaska, and the Caribbean after parking over 139 deg-W longitude. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 146 deg W in 2001 As of 5 September 2001 located at 139.01 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 139.03W drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.
Launch delayed from March 2. Eurobird was a Spacebus 3000B3 built by Alcatel (Cannes). It was the 18th member of the European Eutelsat consortium's geosynchronous constellation and carried 24 Ku-band transponders to provide broad bandwidth and high power direct-to-home transmissions to enable digital entertainment and internet connections. The three tonne (with fuel) satellite was to be parked over 28.5 deg-E longitude, replacing the aging Copernicus (Kopernikus (DFS 3), 1992-066A). Dry mass was probably around 1300 kg. The satellite had an Astrium S400 bipropellant engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.50 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 28.52E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.
BSAT-2a was a Japanese geosynchronous communications spacecraft and the second Orbital STAR-class television broadcasting satellite. Its launch mass was 1317 kg; dry mass was 535 kg. The satellite had a Thiokol Star 30CBP solid apogee motor. The new BSTAR STAR-class satellites are a new design replacing the earlier Starbus type satellite of which only one (Cakrawarta 1) was launched. BSAT Corp. (Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.) earlier launched HS-376 satellites BSAT 1a and 1b, replacing the government's BS series which began Japanese direct broadcast services in 1978. The satellite was to be parked over 110 deg-E longitude to provide direct-to-home voice, video and internet communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 2001 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.82 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 109.92E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day.
Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite designed to test new communications technologies. The Ariane 510 vehicle failed to reach its correct orbit. The solid boosters and main stage worked as planned and put the EPS upper stage in the planned near-suborbital trajectory. The EPS stage then fired but the Aestus engine failed to reach full thrust and cut off 1 minute early. Instead of the planned 858 x 35853 km orbit, only a 592 x 17528 km orbit was reached. The 3.1 tonne (with fuel), 2.5 kW spacecraft carried two pairs of ion engines and had adequate xenon propellant for those engines to reach geosynchronous altitude. This was the first ever rescue of a satellite mission using electric propulsion. The satellite reached its operational orbit in 31 January 2003.using the four German RITA electric xenon thrusters. Artemis could then function as originally planned, as there remained sufficient chemical propellant for 10 years' operation. Artemis was to provide voice and data communications between mobile phones in Europe and North America, and act as a relay satellite between low-Earth orbiters and ground stations. Eventually, as part of the planned EGNOS system (to be operational by about 2010) it was to provide navigation/location determination as an independent European counterpart to the GPS and GLONASS fleets. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 21.40E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.
BSAT-2b was planned as a geosynchronous television broadcast satellite for the Japanese B-SAT company. It used Orbital's Star 1 bus and had a launch mass of 1298 kg. It carried a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor and a set of station-keeping thrusters with 200 kg of propellant. A propulsion problem in the final stage of rocket stranded the satellite at a much lower altitude than planned. Since BSAT 2B carried only a soild propellant apogee kick motor, it was unable to maneuver itself to a useful orbit.
This launch was the first Ariane 5 to use the 17-m Long Fairing and the first to launch north from Kourou. The booster placed the European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform in orbit. The flight profile was quite different from earlier Ariane 5 GTO launches where the EPC core stage usually reached a marginal orbit. In this case EPC separation at 350 km high 10 min after launch. The stage was on a -2610 x 651 km x 93.8 deg orbit, reaching apogee around 0125 UTC and reentering north of Ellesmere Island at about 0136 UTC. The EPS final stage with Envisat only achieved a positive perigee at 22 minutes after launch, with a circular 790 km sun-synchronous orbit reached at 25 min after launch. ESA reported the booster put the satellite to within 20 m of the desired orbital position.
Launch delayed from late June. Stellat-5 was an Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3 with a dry mass of 1805 kg and 2245 kg of propellant. The satellite carried Ku-band and C-band transponders, and was a joint venture between France Telecom and Europeon.Star which was to provide 2-way internet access and video transmission from 5 deg W. Stellat-5 was colocated with France Telecom's Telecom 2C. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 4.99W drifting at 0.000E degrees per day.
Launch delayed from late June. The N-Star c satellite was an S-band satellite for mobile telephone communications for NTT DoCoMo of Japan. N-Star c had a communications payload built by Lockheed Martin and used the Star 2 bus from Orbital. The small Star 2 satellite had a dry mass around 800 kg and was the first flight of a new Orbital hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide liquid apogee propulsion system with a 500N thrust apogee engine developed by Japan's IHI. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 135.92E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.
Launch delayed from August 27. Atlantic Bird was a European (EUTELSAT) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 2.7-ton (1550 kg dry with 1150 propellant), 5 kW satellite was to provide voice, video, and Internet services to Europe and the eastern part of America through its 24 transponders after being parked over 12.5° W. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 12.49W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.
Launch delayed from August 27. MSG 1 (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite. After first being parked over 10° E longitude for six months it was later to be moved to zero degree longitude. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 3.50W drifting at 0.015W degrees per day.
Satellite jointly owned by Singtel Optus Pty and the Australian Dept. of Defense. Previous satellites in the series were purely civilian and didn't carry the dedicated defence communications equipment. Prime contractor for the satellie was Mitsubishi, using a Loral FS-1300 bus with UHF, X-band and Ka-band communications transponders. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 109.87E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day.
European Space Agency satellite which was to use ion drive and gravity assists to reach lunar orbit. The spacecraft made its third lunar resonance gravity assist on October 12, 2004. The continued gravitational effect of the Moon resulted in lunar capture on November 15, 2004,, when SMART-1 entered a 4962 x 51,477 km orbit around the Moon inclined at 81 degrees to the lunar equator.
The 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) took the satellite from its Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) of 649 km perigee and 36,000 km apogee with an orbital inclination of 7 deg. The LAM was fired for a total duration of 121 minutes in three phases on September 29, September 30 and October 1. A total velocity of 1460 m/sec was added by LAM at apogee. INSAT-3E had 1592 kg propellant at the time of its injection into GTO by Ariane-5 launch vehicle on September 28. After orbit raising operations, it had 510 kg of propellant remaining that was sufficient to arrest the drift and park it at its orbital slot as well as maintain the satellite in its orbit and controlling its orientation during its design life of more than 12 years. After the completion of the third apogee motor firing, the Solar Arrays and Antennae of INSAT-3E were deployed. The Sun tracking solar array of INSAT-3E had a total area of 29.6 sq m and it is designed to generate 2.9 kW (BoL) of power in orbit. The satellite had two deployable antennas and one fixed antenna. The satellite was expected to reach its final orbital slot of 55 deg E and be put into operation by November 2003. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 54.97E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day. In 2014 the satellite was decommissioned; it began to slowly drift off station in late March and its orbit was lowered on April 4 to 35579 x 35693 km, drifting two degrees east per day.
Last flight of the Ariane 5G. Launch delayed from July 15, August 22 and 28, September 3. The e-Bird was to service high-speed access networks providing both forward and return links via satellite. The spacecraft carried 20 active Ku-band transponders, each powered by a 33-watt traveling wave tube amplifier. The Ku-band transponders were connected to four spot beams that would provide coverage over Europe and Turkey. The spacecraft was to operate at 33 degrees East longitude, and had a contract life of 10 years.