Credit: © Mark Wade
Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut 1983-2008. Selected Aug 1996; he had been Payload Specialist on STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 (responsible for the Space Visions System). 2 spaceflights, 21.7 days in space. Flew to orbit on STS-52 (1992), STS-115.
Twelve Canadian Black Brant rockets for upper-atmosphere research were to be launched from NASA's Wallops Station, Virginia, as the Canadian Defence Research Board shifted the firing site from Fort Churchill because a fire largely destroyed the Canadian facilities. Capable of carrying a 150-pound payload to an altitude of 150 miles, Black Brants were to be fired from Wallops at the rate of two in December 1961, two in February 1962, six in April 1962, and two in May 1962.
The Martlet One Flight Vehicle was designed in mid-1962 as a first generation test vehicle for the HARP project. The primary role of the Martlet One was to test the fundamental technologies for the concept. The main body of the vehicle was intended contain coloured chemicals for release during flight to produce a visible trail. This was to allow the wind and atmospheric conditions to be observed along the flight path. (primarily wind shear at altitudes near apogee). Ground observers were to determine the effect of high altitude winds on the chemical trail. The nose was designed to hold a small one watt radio telemetry transmitter and other electronic instruments.
Only four Martlet Ones were manufactured. Two were flown during the initial test series and the remaining two were retired. The first Martlet One was launched on January 21, 1963. It was launched at an elevation of 80 degrees and flew for 145 seconds. During its flight it rose to an altitude of 26 km and landed 11 km down range. The second Martlet One was launched on February 1, 1963 and flew for 146 seconds. It rose to an altitude of 27 km and landed about 11 km down range. These two flights were sufficient to prove the launch concept. The initial test series also included several wooden test slugs.
The Martlet 1 series was retired in favour of the much improved Martlet 2 family of vehicles. Also, the cost of installation of the gun and the ground support infrastructure left precious little funds for an extensive initial test series.
MARTLET ONE SPECIFICATIONS
by Richard K Graf
The Martlet 3A gun-launched rocket program began in the spring of 1963 with test flights beginning in September. Early Martlet 3A test flights were less then successful. At launch loads of 5000-6000 g's the rocket motor fuel grain would fail.The Martlet 3A set a world record as the largest rocket launched from a gun.
It was not until 1964, when agreements between the Canadian and the US governments permitted stable funding over the following three years, that HARP was able to seriously consider an orbital program. The Martlet 4 program began in the spring of 1965 with extensive parametric studies which showed that meaningful payloads could be launched into low Earth orbit from the 16 inch L86 HARP gun on the Barbados flight range using a full bore, 3 stage rocket vehicle.
Ionospheric research; data correlated with Explorer 31. The double-launch project, known as ISIS-X was the first in a new co-operative NASA-Canadian Defense Research Board program for International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies. Alouette was in orbit with an apogee just over a kilometre lower than Explorer 31's and with a perigee of just more than a kilometre higher. The orbits were some 3000 km at apogee and 500 km at perigee.
Development trials for the Martlet 4A began in the fall of 1966 with tests proceeding into early 1967. The majority of the early work was conducted on the Highwater, Quebec test range where the structural integrity of the Martlet 4A motor during gun-launching was proven. Prior to the abrupt end of the HARP project in July 1967, soft recovery trials and flight testing had been planned for the winter of 1967/1968. At nearly one ton the Martlet 4A holds the worlds record for being the largest rocket motor ever fired from a gun.
The cancellation came only a few months before an orbital 2G-1 could be flown. Martlet 2's were used to conduct extensive research at altitudes of up to 180 km with some 200 flights being conducted between 1963 and 1967. The very low cost per flight, about $3,000, made it ideal for a wide variety of applications.. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry.
Anik I and Anik II also registered as United States objects. .The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite pr ovides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Anik I and II had weights of 1240.59 lb and 1246.48 lb. Each satellite has 12 RF channels each capable of transmitting a color television signal or up to 900 one-way voice channels. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 114 deg W in 1973-1976; over the Americas at 104 deg W in 1976-1982 As of 1 September 2001 located at 66.14 deg W drifting at 5.205 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 107.03W drifting at 5.211W degrees per day.
Anik I and Anik II also registered as United States objects. .The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite pr ovides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Anik I and II had weights of 1240.59 lb and 1246.48 lb. Each satellite has 12 RF channels each capable of transmitting a color television signal or up to 900 one-way voice channels. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 109 deg W in 1973-1979; over the Americas at 106 deg W in 1979-1981; over the Americas at 114 deg W in 1981-1982 As of 26 August 2001 located at 0.59 deg E drifting at 1.690 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 150.94E drifting at 1.684W degrees per day.
Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 104 deg W in 1975-1976; over the Americas at 114 deg W in 1976-1984 As of 4 September 2001 located at 32.38 deg E drifting at 0.812 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 138.81W drifting at 0.829W degrees per day.
Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 116 deg W in 1976-79; over the Pacific Ocean 142 deg W in 1979 As of 5 September 2001 located at 135.36 deg W drifting at 0.161 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 131.55W drifting at 0.190W degrees per day.
Longitude 109.0. Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 109 deg W in 1978-1986 As of 29 August 2001 located at 59.48 deg E drifting at 1.672 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 13.64W drifting at 1.622W degrees per day.
First use of the Delta Redundant Inertial Measurement System (DRIMS). DRIMS improved the inertial measurement unit introduced with DIGS, but kept the DIGS guidance computer. DRIMS added redundancy on all axes of motion. The Delta upper stage was tracked as a separate functional object with this designation on this launch.
Telecommunications. Operating entity Telesat Canada. Longitude 104.5W. Anik D-1 Transmit frequencies (MHz): 3720, 3740, 3760, 3780, 3800, 3820, 3840, 3860, 3880, 3900, 3920, 3940, 3960, 3980, 4000, 4020, 4040, 4060, 4080, 4100, 4120, 4140, 4160, 4180. Power 8.9 watts on each frequency. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 104 deg W in 1982-1991 As of 2 September 2001 located at 94.37 deg E drifting at 0.637 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 52.18E drifting at 0.631W degrees per day.
Deployed from STS-5 11 November 1982. Telecommunications, operated by Telesat Canada. Transmit power 11.2 W per frequency at input of transmit antenna (typical saturated carrier). Anik C-3 Transmit frequency (MHz): 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852 , 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109 , 12157, 12170. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 117.5 deg W in 1982-1989; 115 deg W in 1989-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 15.95 deg E drifting at 1.305 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 114.85W drifting at 1.353W degrees per day.
Deployed by STS-7 6/19/83. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 110 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 12170 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 112 deg W in 1983; 105 deg W in 1983-1985; 110 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993;76 deg W in 1993-1997; 115 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 113.76 deg E drifting at 4.144 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 68.60E drifting at 4.154W degrees per day.
Released 9 November 1984 from STS 51A; 82 deg W. Telecommunications. Longitude 111.5 deg W. Operating entity Telesat Canada. Transmitter power 8.9 watts at each frequency. Frequencies 3720 to 4180 MHz spaced by 20 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 111 deg W in 1984-1986; 110 deg W in 1986-1991; 82 deg W in 1991-1993; 20 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 28 August 2001 located at 178.69 deg W drifting at 4.912 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 25.98W drifting at 4.913W degrees per day.
Released by STS 51D 4/13/85; 107.5 deg W. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 107.5 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 121 70 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 107 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993; 72 deg W in 1993-1997; 118 deg W in 1997-1998; 106 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 63.20 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 112.29E drifting at 2.201W degrees per day.
Telesat Canada's Nimiq television broadcasting satellite was placed into a 7050 km x 35790 km x 15.9 degree transfer orbit. The Nimiq was to use its liquid apogee engine (Royal Ordnance Leros 1) to reach geosynchronous orbit. Telesat Canada also operated the Anik Canadian domestic communications satellites, the first of which was launched in 1972. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg W in 1999. As of 4 September 2001 located at 91.11 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 91.18W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.
Heaviest Ariane 4 payload ever. Anik F1 was a Telesat Canada communications satellite. The Boeing model 702 satellite had a launch mass of 4852 kg and a dry mass of 2950 kg. It carried 36 C-band and 48 Ku-band transponders. As of 3 September 2001 located at 107.30 deg W drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 107.29W drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.
MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) was a Canadian Space Agency project with a 0.15m telescope which would make photometric observations of stars down to mag 6 with 1 part per million accuracy in the 3500-7000 Angstrom band. Canada's tiny "humble space telescope", celebrated its tenth anniversary of operations in 2013.
Canadian Space Agency spacecraft which carried the ACE-FTS spectrometer to study the chemistry of the upper troposphere and stratosphere and the MAESTRO instrument to study ozone and aerosol levels in the atmosphere. Originally to have launched June 25, 2002. Delayed five more times. Air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ.
Follow-on to Canadian Radarsat-1 launched in 1995. Designed to provide C-band synthetic aperture radar mapping with resolution of 3 m to Canadian government users. Compared to the earlier model had greater resolution, vastly increased on-board data storage capacity, and capability to scan left or right of ground track. Planned lifetime of seven years.
Canadian Space Agency satellite with two payloads: the CASCADE high bandwith Ka-band communications relay package and the ePOP suite of instruments to study the polar ionosphere. The satellite was built by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA Ltd.) using a Bristol Aerospace spacecraft bus. First launch of the Falcon 9 v1.1 upgrade of the Falcon 9 rocket.
3U cubesat by San Francisco-based Spire Global, built in Glasgow, Scotland. 3U cubesat, carried an AIS payload and GPS radio occultation equipment, which used the bending of GPS radio signals by the atmosphere to derive atmospheric temperature and pressure.