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On April 14 in Space History

1929 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Dr William Edgar 'Bill' Thornton - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thornton, Bill. American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-B..

1937 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Eduard Nikolayevich Stepanov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stepanov, Eduard. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1992..

1941 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Pavlovich Fyodorov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fyodorov. Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992..

1942 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Vitalyevich Lebedev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lebedev bureau. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 13, Salyut 7 EO-1..

1943 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • V-2 4020 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Burnout at T+64s; 287 km; nav err. Range 287 km.

1944 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1947 April 14 - .
  • D-558-I first flight. - . Crew: May. Nation: USA. Related Persons: May. Spacecraft: D-558-1.

    Douglas pilot Eugene F. May flew the number one Skystreak for the first time on April 14, 1947, at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. The goals of the program were to investigate the operation of a straight-wing configuration in the lower third of the transonic speed range (which extended from roughly 0.7 to 1.3 times the speed of sound).


1948 April 14 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Decree for production of R-1 and R-2 missiles, design of R-3. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko.

    Decree 'On work on the R-1 and R-2 missiles' was issued. To accomplish putting the R-1 into production the resources of 13 research institutes and 35 factories were tapped. Glushko was tasked with producing the RD-100 copy of the V-2 engine. R-1 stand tests began the same day the decree was issued (Prototypes had already begun factory tests at the end of 1947). The decree also set forth design goals for the R-3.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km.


1949 April 14 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 109 - . Crew: Ridley. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 66. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ridley. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. AF flight 44. Accelerated stall check at transonic speeds. Mach 1.1 at 12200 m..

1950 April 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike Ajax. Launch Vehicle: Nike-484.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Irina Rudolfovna Pronina - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Pronina. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992..

1953 April 14 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman A. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-A-1a.
  • Heating test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi). Rocket performance test. Launched at 0847 local time. Reached 122.3 km..

1954 April 14 - .
  • Predecessor of military-industrial commission formed. - . Nation: Russia. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On creation of Special Committee for Armaments of the Army and VMF (later VPK) of Council of Ministers to manage missile programs' was issued..

1954 April 14 - . LV Family: Atlas.
  • Agreement on the proposed plan to accelerate Atlas. - .

    Trevor Gardner informed General Twining, Air Force Chief of Staff, that the 19 March memorandum from Secretary of the Air Force Harold E. Talbott and the Air Force Council's actions of 16 March were substantially in agreement on the proposed plan to accelerate Atlas. The program was to be reoriented, and its acceleration was to proceed at maximum possible effort with no limitation on funding. The accomplishment of the new program was to be the direct responsibility of a field office under a general officer who would have authority and control over all aspects of the program.


1955 April 14 - .
  • Wernher von Braun becomes a US citizen. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun.

1956 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC3. Launch Pad: LC3/4?. Launch Vehicle: Bomarc.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1957 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1958 April 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Double Deacon.
  • D3/D18 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Martin Babiak - . Nation: Slovakia. Related Persons: Babiak. Slovak pilot cosmonaut, 1998-1999. As of January 2001 Babiak was a Colonel of the Slovak Air Force, studying at the Air War College in Alabama, USA..

1959 April 14 - . LV Family: Minuteman.
  • Aerojet-General Corporation successfully test fired its first Minuteman Stage II engine. - .

1959 April 14 - . 02:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC18A. Launch Pad: LC18A. Launch Vehicle: Vanguard. FAILURE: Stage 2 damaged at separation.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Vanguard 3A - . Payload: Magnetometer satellite. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Vanguard. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Vanguard 3. Decay Date: 1959-04-13 . Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).
  • 30-inch Sphere - . Payload: Air density satellite. Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Vanguard. Spacecraft: Vanguard 3. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 April 14 - . 21:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

    The first Atlas D model flight test missile (3D) had to be destroyed 36 seconds into flight due to a severe engine malfunction and explosions. In addition to other changes, the D series replaced the MA-1 engine package with the Rocketdyne MA-2. The booster engines in the MA-2 produced 309,000 pounds of thrust versus 300,000 pounds for the MA-1. Sustainer engine thrust remained 57,000 pounds. With verniers, total thrust for the MA-2 was 368,000 pounds compared to 357,000 for the MA-1 engine package.


1960 April 14 - . 22:21 GMT - . Launch Site: San Clemente. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A1.
  • Underwater test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1961 April 14 - .
  • Gagarin returns to Moscow - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Agaltsov, Gagarin, Khrushchev, Yazdovskiy. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1.

    Everyone is up at the dacha on the Volga at 06:00 and are ready to leave shortly thereafter. Now the weather in Moscow is expected to be fine. At 10:40 an Il-18 takes off for Moscow with Gagarin's party. This consists of Gagarin, Agaltsov, Rytov, Yazdovskiy, several correspondents, and some film operators. 50 km from Moscow seven fighters intercept the transport and form up as an escort, two off each wing, and three trailing. Gagarin calls them on the radio 'Brother fighter pilots - I send you greetings - Yuri Gagarin!' The aircraft formation flies down Lenin Prospekt, Red Square, and then up Gorkiy Street to Vnukovo. There are masses of people everywhere below. At exactly 15:00 the aircraft shuts down its engines 100 m from the reviewing stands. Yuri exits the aircraft and steps into history....


1961 April 14 - .
  • NASA issued study contract NAS 9-119 to McDonnell for improvement of the Mercury spacecraft. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury Mark I.

    McDonnell formed a small project group for the study, which immediately began looking to Mercury spacecraft component improvement, with accessibility as the guideline. Mercury had been a first step, almost an experiment, while the improved Mercury was to be an operational vehicle. One result of this line of thought was a basic change in equipment location, from inside the pressure vessel (where it had been in Mercury) to the outside. The contractor was authorized to acquire several long-lead-time procurement items under an amendment to the basic Mercury contract, but Space Task Group limited company expenditures to $2.5 million. The McDonnell project team initially included 30 to 40 engineers.


1961 April 14 - .
  • Apollo Congressional hearings. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Landing.

    In response to questioning by the House Science and Astronautics Committee, Associate NASA Administrator Seamans repeated the general estimate of $20 to $40 billion as the cost for the total effort required to achieve a lunar landing, that an all-out program might cost more, and that 1967 could be considered only as a possible planning date at this stage of such a complex task.


1961 April 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. FAILURE: Failure..
  • R-7A II-3 test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Failure occurred only two days after Yuri Gagarin's flight..

1961 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Temp.
  • 9K71 first launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1961 April 14 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A.
  • Attitude control test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1962 April 14 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIC.
  • Space Systems Division selected the proposal submitted by United Technology Center for the 120-inch diameter, solid-propellant rocket motors for the Titan III. - .

1962 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 April 14 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • Electrical-Electronic Interference Tests began on Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. - . Nation: USA.

    Oscillograph recorders monitored 20 GLV and aerospace ground equipment (AGE) circuits, five of which displayed anomalies. Two hydraulic switchover cicuits showed voltage transients exceeding failure criteria, but a special test fixed this anomaly in the AGE rather than the GLV.


1964 April 14 - .
  • Phase I tests of the Apollo SM engine completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM, CSM SPS.

    Firings at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) and at Aerojet-General Corporation's Sacramento test site completed Phase I development tests of the SM propulsion engine. The last simulated altitude test at AEDC was a sustained burn of 635 seconds, which demonstrated the engine's capability for long-duration firing. Preliminary data indicated that performance was about three percent below specification, but analysis was in progress to see if it could be improved.


1964 April 14 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. Launch Vehicle: Veronique.
  • Solar La Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi). FU110 Atomic H (Ly-alpha), Solar X-rays mission..

1964 April 14 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Auroral emissions Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1964 April 14 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. LV Family: Lupus. Launch Vehicle: HAD.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1964 April 14 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • FIRE 1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 837 km (520 mi).

    FIRE was a subscale model of the Apollo capsule used to verify the spacecraft's hypersonic flight and thermal characteristics. An Atlas D launch vehicle lifted a Project Fire spacecraft from Cape Kennedy in the first test of the heat that would be encountered by a spacecraft reentering the atmosphere at lunar-return velocity. During the spacecraft's fall toward earth, a solid-fuel Antares II rocket behind the payload fired for 30 seconds, increasing the descent speed to 40,501 kilometers (25,166 miles) per hour. Instruments in the spacecraft radioed temperature data to the ground. The spacecraft exterior reached an estimated temperature of 11,400 K (20,000 degrees F). About 32 minutes after launch, the spacecraft impacted into the Atlantic Ocean. The mission, sponsored by Langley Research Center, provided reentry heating measurements needed to evaluate heatshield materials and information on the communications blackout during reentry.


1965 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Final beam in the structural skeleton of the Vertical Assembly Building - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo.

    Construction workers emplaced the final beam in the structural skeleton of the Vertical Assembly Building at Merritt Island (KSC), Florida. Scheduled for completion in 1966, the cavernous structure (160 m (525 ft) tall and comprising 10,968,476 cu m (129 million cu ft)) would provide a controlled environment for assembling Saturn V launch vehicles and mating them to Apollo spacecraft.


1965 April 14 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Journeyman.
  • Minnesota Particles Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi).

1966 April 14 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II.
  • The Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 was conducted at Martin-Baltimore. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 10.

    The CSAT was followed by a performance data review, completed April 19. The vehicle acceptance team convened April 26 and accepted GLV-10 on April 29. The vehicle was deerected May 2-4 and formally accepted by the Air Force May 18. Stage I was flown to Cape Kennedy the same day, with stage II following May 20. Both stages were transferred to Hanger L where they were purged and pressurized with dry nitrogen and placed in controlled access storage.


1966 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: AICBM.
  • An AFSC directive authorized establishment of a cadre system program office (SPO) for WS 120A at Ballistic Systems Division headquarters. - .

1966 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 598. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 April 14 - . 05:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk.
  • Auroral Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi).

1966 April 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Dayglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1966 April 14 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi).

1967 April 14 - .
  • Huge blow-up at Tyuratam. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Mishin, Ustinov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The cosmonauts are completely trained, ready for launch at any time with four hours notice. Then Mishin calls Ustinov and tells him that their training is what is holding up the Soyuz 1 launch! From the point of view of the military quality assurance inspectors, there are 100 unresolved discrepancies on Soyuz 1 - the spacecraft is a piece of shit.


1967 April 14 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout A.
  • Transit O-12 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 2754 . COSPAR: 1967-034A. Apogee: 1,064 km (661 mi). Perigee: 1,037 km (644 mi). Inclination: 90.1000 deg. Period: 106.20 min. First APL-built Transit Operational satellite. Operational life of this and subsequent Transits was over 14 years..

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1969 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: UK S23. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 07:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
  • Nimbus 3 - . Payload: Nimbus B2. Mass: 575 kg (1,267 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 3890 . COSPAR: 1969-037A. Apogee: 1,130 km (700 mi). Perigee: 1,071 km (665 mi). Inclination: 100.4000 deg. Period: 107.30 min.

    Primary experiments consisted of a satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining the vertical temperature profiles of the atmosphere, an infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) for measuring the emission spectra of the earth-atmosphere system, both high- and medium-resolution infrared radiometers (HRIR and MRIR) for yielding information on the distribution and intensity of infrared radiation emitted and reflected by the earth and its atmosphere, monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) for detecting solar UV radiation, image dissector camera system for providing daytime cloudcover pictures in both real-time mode using the real time transmission system and tape recorder mode using the high data rate storage system, radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) SNAP-19 to assess the operational capability of radioisotope power for space applications, and an interrogation, recording and location system (IRLS) experiment designed to locate, interrogate, record, and retransmit meteorological and geophysical data from remote collection stations. Nimbus-3 was successful and performed normally until July 22, 1969, when the IRIS experiment failed. The HRIR and the SIRS experiments were terminated on January 25, 1970, and June 21, 1970, respectively. The remaining experiments continued operation until September 25, 1970, when the rear horizon scanner failed. Without this horizon scanner, it was impossible to maintain proper spacecraft attitude, thus making most experimental observations useless. All spacecraft operations were terminated on January 22, 1972.

  • SECOR 13 - . Payload: EGRS 13. Mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USA ACE. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: SECOR. USAF Sat Cat: 3891 . COSPAR: 1969-037B. Apogee: 1,129 km (701 mi). Perigee: 1,070 km (660 mi). Inclination: 100.3000 deg. Period: 107.30 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1969 April 14 - . 15:36 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Magnetospheric mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1970 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan ABM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Safeguard M1-1 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: US Army. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Zarya renamed Salyut - . Nation: Russia. Program: Lunar L3, Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1, Shuguang 1.

    All of the pressure on the N1 project was going on simultaneously with the launch preparations for DOS#1. The Central Committee had approved the name 'Zarya' (Dawn) for the station, but it was felt that this name might offend the Chinese, who's secret new manned spacecraft was also called 'Dawn' (it is interesting that Chertok and the Soviet space community was aware of this in 1970 - the existence of the nascent Chinese manned space project of that name was not revealed publicly in the West until 2002!). After some hurried consultations, it was decided to give the station the public name 'Salyut' (although the vehicle rolled out to the pad still had 'Zarya' emblazoned on the payload shroud -- but these pictures were not revealed until the 1990's).


1971 April 14 - .
  • Salyut 1 cleared for roll-out. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Chelomei, Grechko, Andrei, Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Salyut 1.

    Marshal Grechko has sent a telegram to Kamanin, informing him that the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre has received the Order of Lenin. The UR-500K booster is mated to space station DOS-7K#1. Chelomei is ill. Mishin takes the opportunity to insult him by replacing Chelomei with Mishin's man on the commission that will judge the UR-500's readiness for launch. Nevertheless, the commission clears the booster to be moved out to the pad on 15 April, with launch set for 19 April at 06:40. In the evening Beregovoi's 50th birthday is celebrated.


1971 April 14 - . Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 threatened again - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Babakin, Keldysh, Mishin, Ustinov. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: LK, Soyuz 7K-LOK.

    An expert commission met to consider the N1-L3. Keldysh made several categorical demands:

    • the laser-based Kontakt rendezvous and docking system had to either be backed up with redundancy throughout, or an independent back-up system had to be developed
    • the L3 had to be designed with an internal transfer compartment, as was being done for the DOS/7K-T space station system
    • each stage of the N1 had to undergo flammability tests
    • the mission scenario had to be reformulated to provide support by more than one cosmonaut on the moon at a time, and use of automated landers and rovers from Babakin at Lavochkin
    • landings of the capsule in the equatorial oceans of the world had to be eliminated. The capsules had to land on the territory of the USSR
    Additional Details: here....

1971 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 406 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5124 . COSPAR: 1971-029A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 14 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Petrel.
  • Particles Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1972 April 14 - .
  • Skylab Orbital Workshop meteoroid shield test at finds misinstalled torsion springs. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Skylab.

    During an Orbital Workshop meteoroid shield test at MSFC, it was discovered that in one hinge section of the foldout panel, nine of the 15 torsion springs were installed in such a manner that they were only 50-percent effective in action to assist shield deployment. Action was initiated to ensure proper spring action.


1972 April 14 - . Launch Site: , Vandenberg. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • The 6595th Missile Test Group launched the first Minuteman III Production Verification Missile (PVM) from Vandenberg. - .

1972 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg.
  • NASA announced that the Kennedy Space Center in Florida and Vandenberg AFB in California would be the operational bases for the future Space Transportation System (STS). - . Related Persons: , Kennedy.

    The research and development launches of the Space Shuttle would be made from Cape Canaveral, as would the civilian space launches, while the military Space Shuttle launches would be from Vandenberg AFB. SAMSO was the responsible Defense Department agency for defining the military applications and requirements for the Space Shuttle and for cooperating with NASA in the development of the STS.


1972 April 14 - .
  • Death of Robert N 'Bob' Ackley - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ackley. American engineer. Head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program Ackley, son of a violin repairman, was head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program..

1972 April 14 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Prognoz 1 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 501. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1981-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5941 . COSPAR: 1972-029A. Apogee: 199,667 km (124,067 mi). Perigee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,782.10 min. Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 486 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5945 . COSPAR: 1972-030A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 April 14 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 2.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: DLR, INTA. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1975 April 14 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-02 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 12. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1988-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7738 . COSPAR: 1975-029A. Apogee: 39,323 km (24,434 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 700.50 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1976 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kourou. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas.
  • EXAMETNET 35-90 - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1976 April 14 - . 12:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Grand Turk Island. Launch Complex: Grand Turk Island DZ. Launch Pad: Aircraft from Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: FB-111. Launch Vehicle: SRAM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1977 April 14 - . Launch Site: Malmstrom AFB. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • Work began on the integrated program of improvements to the Minuteman System at Wing I, Malmstrom AFB, Montana. - .

1977 April 14 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 April 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC177. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 April 14 - . LV Family: Shuttle.
  • A contract for full-scale development of the space shuttle's Inertial Upper Stage was distributed to the Boeing Aerospace Company. - .

1978 April 14 - .
  • Complete ground vibration test modification - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Complete ground vibration test modification at MSFC.

1979 April 14 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1093 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 20. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11331 . COSPAR: 1979-032A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.20 min.

1979 April 14 - . 18:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Plasma mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1980 April 14 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 April 14 - .
  • STS-1 - Wakeup Song: Reveille - . Flight: STS-1. "Reveille" ; preceded by comic tape with voices of Houston DJs Hudson and Harrigan kidding Young and Crippen..

1981 April 14 - . 20:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1981 April 14 - .
1982 April 14 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1983 April 14 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1984 April 14 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 34D/Transtage.
  • DSP - . Payload: DSP MOS/PIM s/n 12 / OPS 7641. Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. Completed Operations Date: 2002-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 14930 . COSPAR: 1984-037A. Apogee: 35,530 km (22,070 mi). Perigee: 35,530 km (22,070 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,423.00 min.

    Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly eighteen years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 135 deg W in 1984-1985; 65 deg E in 1985-1988; as of 31 December 1990 at 99.16 deg W drifting at 0.050 deg W per day.


1985 April 14 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1986 April 14 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1987 April 14 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • Nation: Russia. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1988 April 14 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Foton 4 - . Payload: Foton s/n 4L. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 13.62 days. Decay Date: 1988-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 19043 . COSPAR: 1988-031A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. 218 orbits. Materials processing experiments; extremely pure and semiconductor materials. Research in material science in space (production of semiconductor materials with improved properties and very pure biologically active substances).

1989 April 14 - .
  • Contact lost with SME. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: SME.

    SME was developed to investigate the processes that create and destroy ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere. All instruments were turned off in December 1988 due to power constraints. Contact was lost on April 14, 1989 after a battery failure, and the vehicle re-entered on March 5, 1991.


1989 April 14 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 23 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 33L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1996-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19928 . COSPAR: 1989-030A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 336 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1989-1995; 44 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 4 September 2001 located at 53.34 deg E drifting at 0.294 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.48E drifting at 0.016E degrees per day.


1995 April 14 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 April 14 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Tilla. LV Family: Nodong 1. Launch Vehicle: Ghauri.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2002 April 14 - .
  • STS-110 - Wakeup Song: All Star - . Flight: STS-110. "All Star" performed by Smash Mouth from the Shrek movie soundtrack. The song was played for Walheim by his family..

2002 April 14 - . 13:48 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-110-3 - . Crew: Smith, Steven, Walheim. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Smith, Steven, Walheim. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-110. From 1344 to 2015 UTC the astronauts rewired the SSRMS station robot arm to get power via the S0. They also removed launch restraint bolts from the Mobile Transporter. The Mobile Transporter was tested in a small move on April 15..

2005 April 14 - .
2006 April 14 - .
2008 April 14 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 421.
  • ICO G1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Martin. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: FS-1300. USAF Sat Cat: 32763 . COSPAR: 2008-016A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 6.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The satellite was to provide mobile communications services for ICO Global Communications, a successor company to Teledesic..

2009 April 14 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 3C.
  • Beidou G2 - . Payload: Beidou DW2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Beidou-GEO. USAF Sat Cat: 34779 . COSPAR: 2009-018A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. First launch of the geostationary component of the Beidou-2 navigation satellite constellation. Experienced control problems; as of 2010 not in the operational constellation..

2010 April 14 - .
  • STS-131 - Wakeup Song: The Earth in the Color of Lapis Lazuli - . Flight: STS-131. "The Earth in the Color of Lapis Lazuli" by Seiko Matsuda for Naoko Yamazaki..

2011 April 14 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: WK2. LV Family: Spaceship. Launch Vehicle: Spaceship Two.
  • WK2-55/CC11 - . Nation: USA. Agency: SCAL. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

2012 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • - (140ss) - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2012 April 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral ETR. Launch Platform: SSBN 738. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • - (139ss) - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2014 April 14 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • Yars RV x 4? - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test. Four warheads launched towards the Kura impact zone (in Kamchatka)..

2015 April 14 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: Cape Canaveral SLC40. LV Family: Falcon. Launch Vehicle: Falcon 9 v1.1.
  • Dragon CRS-6 - . Mass: 9,500 kg (20,900 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Dragon. Duration: 37.00 days. Decay Date: 2015-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 40588 . COSPAR: 2015-021A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    ISS resupply mission. Delivered into a 206 x 357 km orbit. Attempted recovery of the Falcon 9's first stage failed. It was flown down to the barge 'Just Read The Instructions' in the Atlantic but a stuck valve caused control problems in the final burn and the stage crash-landed. The Dragon itself arrived at ISS on April 17. The SSRMS arm grappled CRS-6 at 10:55 GMT and berthed it on the Harmony module at 13:29 GMT. After unloading and packing with materials to be returned to earth, the cargo ship was unberthed again around 09:29 GMT May 21, released at 11:04 GMT, and splashed down in the Pacific at 16:42 GMT.

    CRS-6 carried 16 cubesats: 14 3U-size Flock-1e for Planet Labs, one Arkyd-3R for Planetary Resources (also a 3U) and a 1U cubesat, Centennial-1, for Booz Allen Hamilton carrying an Air Force Research Lab imaging experiment. The cubesats were transferred to the Kibo module after Dragon docking and later ejected into orbit via the NanoRacks deployers and the Kibo robot arm. CRS-6 also carried a number of mice aboard the Rodent Research 2 package, and a 20 kg microgravity-qualified Lavazza espresso machine.



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