The original Spektr design was to be armed with Oktava interceptor rockets and equipped with sensors to identify and track ballistic missile re-entry vehicles as well as discriminate decoys. In 1992, as directed by the Soviet Union's military and political leadership, all work on such projects was discontinued. The Spektr module was mothballed, then later converted into a civilian platform, partially funded by the United States.
For those monitoring Radio Moscow: last night Moscow time changed. The clocks have been put 1 hour forward and the new time can be considered to be an interim time. It is called: Sunlight Saving Time and will be valid until 29 March 1992. In the night from 28 to 29 March 1992 the clock will move 1 hour forward again. 50 Moscow time is now UTC+3. (TsUP, and the cosmonauts already used UTC+3 and consequently TsUP/Mir-time is now equal to Moscow time.)
ATTITUDE CONTROL FAILURE HAMPER IMPORTANT OPERATIONS.
During the last weeks preparations were going on to make the return capsule ready for a safe return to Earth. This capsule on board freighter Progress-M10 on 18 January 1992 had to separate from the then undocked Progress-MIG for a safe descent. On 16 January 1992 the cosmonauts reported failure of the Attitude Control System. On 17 January 1992 experts on TsUP were still considering what to do, but they already postponed the undocking of the Progress-M10. About the planned launch of Progress-M11 on 21 January 1992 they were not sure. Krikalyav suggested TsUP to carry out both operations and he uttered some alternatives for the attitude control. Until and inclusive 18 January 1992 Progress-M10 has not been used for an orbit correction either.
(PROGRESS-M11: The crew confirmed that Progress-M1l will not be equipped by a return-capsule. So the original plan to use such a capsule with Progress-M11 has been cancelled.
Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202
Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (lML)-1, getaway special (GAS) bridge with 10 getaway specials, IMAX camera, Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR)-1, Investigations Into Polymer Mem-brane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll, Student Experiment 81-09: Convection in Zero Gravity, Student Experiment 83-02: Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media.
Shuttle Discovery undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Kennedy Space Center. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. 70 modifications are made, including addition of a brake chute, structural inspection, and thermal protection system refit.
Japanese Research Satellite-1. JERS-1 (FUYO-1). To verify functions and performance of optical sensors and a Synthetic Aperture Radar and to establish an integrated system for observing the Earth's resources; to perform observations and measurements for land survey, agriculture, forest ry, fishery, environmental preservation, disaster prevention and coastal surveillance. Launch time 0150 GMT. Launching organization NASDA. The Japanese Fuyo-1 (ERS-1) satellite failed on Oct 12, 1998 after six years of operation.
Stationed at 162 deg E. Domestic communications. Launching organization Arianespace. Launch time 2358 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 162 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 19.90 deg W drifting at 4.382 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 164.51E drifting at 4.378W degrees per day.
Stationed at 31 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1992-1997; 55 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 55.07 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.70E drifting at 5.710W degrees per day.
YELSTIN SIGNED DECREE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE R.K.A.:
R.K.A. stands for Rossiyskoe Kosmicheskoye Agentsvo, so Russian Space Agency. For a long time the Russian parliament discussed about the need to establish such an organisation. Its tasks and possibilities, but also the relation to parliament and government, are almost equal to that of the American NASA. Projects for space-operations have to be submitted to that R.K.A. The R.K.A. investigates the project and evaluates the need, necessity, costs and eventual contribution from state-funds. Projects aimed to achieve political- or chauvinistic prestige will not have any chance. After analysing a project this will be send to the parliament for consent about eventual funding. The president can put his veto on it. After consent the project will be send back to R.K.A. R.K.A. asks for offers of firms, scientific institutes, enterprises, national as well as international ones, on the basis of free enterprise and free market and selects those who will get the order(-s). After that R.K.A. has to keep control on the execution of the orders. It will take some time before such an organisation is operational and in fact it is already a little bit late.
RIDICULOUS AND EXAGGERATED INFORMATION ABOUT BAD HEALTH AND MOOD OF Mir CREW:
For a long time, more or less caused by 'glasnost' and the bad economic situation in the CIS-states, the (ex-) Soviet press critically and even with denigration reported about their national space exploration. For a few weeks that same press gradually seem to be inclined to change this policy a little bit due to a moderate positive attitude towards 'space' of Yeltsin. A lot of Russian journalists still entertain grievances about the fact, that not a Russian, but a Japanese journalist flew in a Russian space-station. Average reports about space-station Mir are still below zero and a lot these reports find their way to the West. Regretfully the spokesmen and public relations officers of space-organisations in the CIS are still very passive and miss the skill and willingness of their western colleagues to fight for their cause. Negative reports, for instance articles in Komsomolskaye Pravda, Izvestiya and others, are extra exaggerated while proceeding along western press-channels. The cosmonauts hear a lot from western news-agencies and from radio-amateurs around the world and sometimes do not believe their ears. On Febr. 17th Moscow-TV relayed a direct TV-session with Mir and the viewers could see how healthy and active the cosmonauts were. I myself know by day to day observations that the crew has a very good health and a high morale. Of course they meet problems, technical failures, even serious ones, but they always keep good hearth and in co-operation with experts on TsUP they resolve problems by repairing or replacing equipment or systems. Radio-amateurs, who have the possibility to communicate with the crew or to exchange information via Packet Radio, certainly will share my opinion. I will advise you all: take all press-reports about Mir, not with a pinch, but with some pounds of salt.
C.M. van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.
This second test or ERIS against a Minuteman I was considered successful enough that no further tests were planned. A second launch attempt on 11 May 1991 had been scrubbed after launch of the target missile but before launch of the interceptor. Further develoment of the technology was to be accomplished by the Orbital Sciences' Aries test vehicle with spectacularly poor results.
Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).
The Chinese leadership decided that an independent manned space program could be afforded. The Chinese National Manned Space Program was given the designation Project 921. The 921-1 manned capsule entered full scale development in 1993 and the 921-2 space station in 1999. Only preliminary work was authorised on the 921-3 reusable spaceplane.
Stationed at 103 deg E. Transmission of Russian radio and television programmes in Siberia and the solution of communications problems in Russia's eastern regions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.44 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 44.59W drifting at 1.512W degrees per day.
Stationed at 55 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 54 deg W in 1992-1997; 17 deg W in 1997-1999; DRIFT As of 4 September 2001 located at 109.00 deg E drifting at 0.022 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.99E drifting at 0.020W degrees per day.
NASA researchers conducted a flight test program to develop the Spacewedge vehicle design. The first test vehicle (Wedge 1) was just four ft long, and weighed 120 lb. It was initially launched from a hillside near Tehachapi; the test program then moved to Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards AFB, and to a sport parachute (Skydive) drop zone at California City, CA.
Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-Vl). First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. Payloads: Intelsat-Vl reboost mission hardware, Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).
Stretched Rohini Satellite Series; carried gamma-ray detector, ionosphere monitor. SROSS-C satellite carries two scientific payloads: 1) Retarding Potential Analyser (RPA), consisting of two planar detectors to measure plasma parameters and investigate energetics of the equatorial ionosphere. (2) Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) detectors, consist ing of two scintillation detectors to study celestial gamma ray bursts in the energy range of 20 keV to 3000 keV. Launch vehicle: Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle.
Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer; mapped galactic EUV sources. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer was switched off on February 2, 2001. NASA decided to terminate funding for the mission, even though the spacecraft was still operating well. The sky survey was completed in January 1993 and after that the EUVE was used by guest astronomers for observations of specific targets. The final observations were made on January 26, 2001. After end-of-life tests of the never-used backup high voltage supplies and checking the remaining battery capacity, EUVE was stabilized pointing away from the Sun and sent into safehold at 2359 GMT on January 31. The transmitters were commanded off on February 2.
A second vehicle to test autonomous parasail spacecraft recovery was fabricated with the same external geometry and weight as Wedge 1. It was dropped from a Cessna U-206 and a Rans S-12 ultralight. A total of 36 flight tests were made, the last taking place on February 12, 1993. These flights verified the manual control and autonomous landing systems of the vehicle. Phase II of the program ran from March 1993 to March 1995, and encompassed 45 flights.
Stationed at 21.5 deg W. Intelsat K is a single spacecraft purchased to meet critical requirements for Ku-band capacity over the Atlantic region, driven primarily by international broadcasters. The satellite was purchased from GE Americom while under construction (as Satcom K4) and required extensive payload modifications. Spacecraft: Based on GE 5000 series bus.3-axis stabilised using magnetotorquers. Hydrazine propulsion system. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation provide 4800 W BOL.4 50 Ahr NiH batteries. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders which can be configured into 32 high quality television channels. Permits access from ground antennas 1.2 meters dia. and smaller. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 21 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 21.54 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 160.51W drifting at 11.137W degrees per day.
Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. First extended-duration mission. Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-1; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE); Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll; Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl) .
Launch of this freighter still on schedule for 30 June 1992. Russian spaceflight authorities now have to take in account interests and feelings of the population, about which they - under protection of the former Soviet Mil. Industrial complex- never bothered. The people living in the Novosibirsk area always feared launches from Baykonur. After launches parts of the rockets (1st stages, hatches, etc.) fall down in that area. Thus far no accidents or damages have been reported -this in contradiction to the ground track areas in Kazakhstan-, but people is always aware of space-launch hazards. To cultivate more goodwill and understanding for space-flight the Baykonur launch-site authorities invited representatives of the administration, civil defence and press of the Novosibirsk region to attend the launch of Progress-M13 on the spot.
EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY (SPACEWALK):
This EVA will take place on 8 or 10 July 1992. The work to be done by the cosmonauts during that EVA is crucial for the operational existence of the Mir complex. 4 of the 6 gyrodynes in Module-D are out of order and so the attitude control of the complex is working unsatisfactorily. For the repair work during the next EVA equipment and tools have to be delivered to Mir by Progress-M13 on 2 July 1992. In the future more work to restore the SUD (movements control system) must be done. For a provisional solution (to keep control on the roll, X- axis, of the complex)f the next crew (Solovyov and Avdeyev) will have to install the VDU (external movements control motor) in the top of the Sofora girder.
Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.
To make the docking of the freighter Progress-M13 on 2 July 1992 possible, the Progress-M12 had to disappear. Progress-M12 had been docked to the forward docking port (PKhO) on 22 April and was often used to correct the orbit of the complex. This also happened a few days ago and so only Kepler elements from day 178 or younger are useable. Radio traffic in the night from 27 to 28 June 1992 revealed that the undocking operation was going on. Kaleri watched the undocking and autonomous flight of Progress-M12 from the airlock (S.Sh.O.) of Module-D and Viktorenko observed all what was happening from the base block. During the pass in orb. 36394, which began at 2129 UTC, Progress-M12 separated from Mir. This was right over our heads at 2135 UTC. Telemetry and Doppler beacon (resp. on 166, 165 and 922.755 mc) could be heard. TsUP received TV images made by Kaleri. For a long time Mir and Progress-M12 flew in formation. During the next pass (in orb. 35395, 2306- UTC) Progress-M12 still flew autonomously still more or less observed by Kaleri. At 230654 UTC the exact TCA could be determined (922.755mc passed the BFO-dip). Almost on this moment Progress-M12's rocket worked to reduce its speed and it entered the earth's atmosphere. It decayed (burnt up) at 2321 UTC on 27 June 1992, so 9 minutes after our LOS. Progress-M12 had not been equipped with a return capsule.
Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. An initial docking attempt on 2 Jul 1992 was a failure. Docked with Mir on 4 Jul 1992 16:55:13 GMT. Undocked on 24 Jul 1992 04:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 24 Jul 1992 08:03:35 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.17 days. Total docked time 19.47 days. It was docked to Mir for only a few weeks, since on 26 Jul the Soyuz TM-15 was to be launched with a replacement crew and would need to use the same docking port.
Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg W in 1995-1996. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).
Stationed at 74 deg E; also performed communications functions. INSAT-2A is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rura l and remote areas, radio and TV progamme distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services. Geostationary longitude 74 +/0 0.1 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 48.18 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 25.76W drifting at 0.201W degrees per day.
Stationed at 349 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Launched in the interests of the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 13.53 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 21 located at 16.60E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.
Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the geomagnetic tail that extends on the nightside of the Earth. Launch time 1426 GMT. Launching states Japan and the United States of America. Launching organization NASA.
Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit.
Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 3. Put into service on 30 July 1992 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.
Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS)-1; European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)-1L; Evaluation of Oxygen Integration with Materials (EOlM)-lll/ Thermal Energy Management Processes (TEMP)-2A; Consortium for Materials Development In Space Complex Autonomous Payloads (CONCAP)-ll and Ill; IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC); Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE); Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF); Ultravio-let Plume Instrument (UVPl).
Microgravity experiments; deployed from STS-46 8/2/92; retrieved by STS-57; European Retrievable Carrier. EURECA is a European scientific and technology mission, launched by the US Space Transportation System. The spacecraft is scheduled to be retrieved likewise by the US/STS in late spring/early summer 1993. Designator ESA/92/01. Frequency plan: 2053.4583/22 30 MHz, 28 GHz/ 18 GHz (data-relay via Olympus).
An industrial research microsatellite built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) for Matra and CNES to carry out 'Little LEO' communications service experiments. Still operational in 2000. S80/T was designed to investigate the technical feasibility of using a constellation of small satellites placed in near-Earth orbit to provide global communications and position location using only hand-held terminals. S80/T was the first fully commercial application of the SSTL multi-mission, modular microsatellite platform developed at the University of Surrey. The same basic platform was also used for the Korean KITSAT-A microsatellite, which accompanied S80/T into orbit on the same launch. The S80/T mission was completed, from concept to launch, within one year and SSTL delivered the platform, associated groundstation equipment and would be providing operations support during the mission within a contract of less than £1M.
Stationed at 160 deg E. Commercial communications. Longitude 160 +/- 0.05 deg E. Launched fromn China. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 159.98 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 163.63E drifting at 0.044E degrees per day.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the first VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalked to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the Mir station. Docked with Mir on 18 Aug 1992 00:20:48 GMT. Undocked on 21 Oct 1992 16:46:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Oct 1992 23:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 64.68 days.
Carried US Dept. of Defense experiment. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation (the satellite's equipment included two Pion passive satellites for the investigation of the upper atmosphere).
This EVA started on 3.09.92 at 1330 UTC (opening hatch airlock Module-D) and ended at 1749 UTC. This EVA is the 1st one in a series to install the VDU (External Movements Control Motor) in the Sofora girder of Kvant-1. The cosmonauts achieved the goals of this EVA. They worked on the container in which the motor was delivered by the freighter Progress-M14. The cosmonauts will continue this work on 7.09.92. It had been expected that during this EVA the cosmonauts would haul down the Soviet flag still waving in the top of the Sofora girder. They only replaced the flag, but certainly will remove it during one of the next 3 or 4 EVA's.
During the EVA's OM Peter monitored the traffic from the Altair satellite. This traffic will be analysed later.
Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.
Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 24 deg W. Declared purpose:'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1992-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 68.52 deg W drifting at 0.336 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 171.17W drifting at 0.109E degrees per day.
Manned seven crew. Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments. Payloads: Spacelab-J, nine getaway special canister experiments, Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Solid Surface Combus-tion Experiment (SSCE).
Shuttle Atlantis undergoes its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Palmdale, returning to service in May 1994. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. Modifications made include: nose wheel steering changes, EDO cargo pallet provisions, and Mir ODS docking system fitting. Provisions for the Long Duration Orbiter 28-day pallet are installed, and 331 Master Change Requests are implemented.
Ionospheric, auroral, amgnetospheric studies. Freja is a Swedish/German satellite designed for research into the aurora. The satellite was launched piggyback on a Long March 2C (CZ-2C) rocket and weighs 214 kg in orbit. It is a sun-pointing spinner (10 rpm) with a 2.2 m diameter. It will make high re solution measurements in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. Data will be received at Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden and at the Prince Albert Satellite Station in Canada's Saskatchewan Province. Launch time 0620 UT.
Stationed at 33.5 deg E. Communication satellite. Longitude 33.5 deg E. Delta II flight no 212. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1992; 23 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 23.45 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 29.79E drifting at 1.955W degrees per day.
Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. Payloads: Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS) II/ Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS), Canadian Experiments (CANEX) 2, United States Micro-gravity Payload (USMP) 1, Attitude Sensor Pack-age (ASP), Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Heat Pipe Performance (HPP) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), Commercial Materials ITA Experiment (CMIX), Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE).
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 29 Oct 1992 19:05:51 GMT. Undocked on 4 Feb 1993 00:44:53 GMT. After completion of the Znamya and autonomous operation experiments, destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1993 06:43:20 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.32 days. Total docked time 97.24 days.
Geostationary at 91 deg W. The Galaxy 7 satellite failed on November 22, 2000, the third such satellite to fall victim to a design flaw in the on-board computers. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 32.55 deg E drifting at 2.022 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 141.47W drifting at 2.077W degrees per day.
Transmission of television programmes to a network of multiple user receiving stations. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 79.69 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.67E drifting at 0.192E degrees per day.
Shuttle Columbia begins its OMDP-1 Orbiter Maintenance Down Period at the Palmdale, returning to service in 1995 for the STS-73 mission. These are undertaken every 10 to 12 shuttle missions. Modifications made included a complete mid-life refurbishment, corrosion control on the wing leading edge spar, and implementation of 96 Master Change Requests.
Carried descent module with greetings to American people. Delivery of a humanitarian cargo (messages to the American people, promotional materials of Russian and foreign firms, etc.) to the United States of America in connection with the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus.
With abandonment of the Buran shuttle and 37K modules, the Mir-2 design was cut back again. Mir-2 returned to its original planned 65 degree orbit, and would be assembled and flown separately from Mir. It would now consist of the DOS-8 core module, and a cross beam called the NEP (scientific-energy platform). This was equipped with equipment already proven on Mir: MSB retractable solar panels, Sfora thruster packages, small scientific packages as demonstrated on Kvant.The add-on modules now used the Progress-M service module as a tug, and were reduced in size for launch by either the Soyuz or Zenit launch vehicles.
Stationed at 53 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1992-1996; 96 deg E in 1996-1998; 50 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 26.46 deg E drifting at 0.193 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 26.21E drifting at 0.345W degrees per day.
SHARP began operation and demonstrated velocities of 3 km/sec with 5 kg projectiles. However the $ 1 billion funding to elevate the tube and begin space launch tests of smaller projectiles at speeds of up to 7 km/sec was not forthcoming. By 1996 the gun was relegated to occasional test of sub-scale Mach 9 scramjet models.
Stationed at 158 deg E. Domestic communications. Launching states: Japan and France. Launch time 2248 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 158 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 157.95 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 158.03E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.
Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA 89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. Payloads: Department of Defense (DOD)1; Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); Orbital Debris Radar Calibration System (ODERACS); Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); Cloud Logic To Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS) 1A; Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Equipment (FARE); Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microencapsulation in Space (MIS)-1; Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III; Spare Tissue Loss (STL); Visual Function Tester (VFT)2.
The group was selected to provide pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights.. Qualifications: Pilots: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics. Advanced degree desirable. At least 1,000 flight-hours of pilot-in-command time. Flight test experience desirable. Excellent health. Vision minimum 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision; maximum sitting blood pressure 140/90. Height between 163 and 193 cm.
Mission Specialists: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics and minimum three years of related experience or an advanced degree. Vision minimum 20/150 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Maximum sitting blood pressure of 140/90. Height between 150 and 193 cm.. Four pilots and 15 mission specialists, nine civilians and ten military. Chosen from 2054 applicants, 87 of which screened in December 1991/January 1992. Five additional international astronauts.
Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 12 deg E. Declared purpose: 'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere. Prognoz series'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993; 24 deg W in 1994; 12 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 53.14 deg E drifting at 0.397 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 142.40E drifting at 0.029E degrees per day.
Biological research; carried monkeys Ivasha and Krosha. International study of the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of space flight. After 12 days in Earth orbit, the capsule was recovered 50 deg 46 min N, 73 deg 08 min E, about 100 kilometers north of the city of Karaganda. The Cosmos 2229 mission was also referred to as Bion 10, because it was the tenth in a series of Soviet/Russian unmanned satellites carrying biological experiments. Additional Details: here....